Challenging the Limits of Photonics:structured light

Lead Research Organisation: University of St Andrews
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

Photonics is the science of generating, controlling and detecting light. The field is at the crossroads of several disciplines including physics, biology, materials, mathematics and chemistry. Following the rapid evolution of electronics subsequent to the invention of the transistor in the late 1940's, the coming decades will see photonics impact most areas of our lives including future internet infrastructure, advanced manufacturing, radical new approaches to Healthcare, Lighting and enabling a revolution in sensing and imaging. However, convention teaches us that focussing of light is constrained by the Abbé diffraction limit, that light penetrates tissue poorly due to Rayleigh and Mie scattering and that collimated, coherent light emission requires a laser. By challenging such established conventions with a transformative understanding of the fundamentals of light propagation, we can create a paradigm shift; while the 20th century was the century of the electron, we firmly believe that the 21st will be the century of the photon. In order to realize this vision, we need to explore the fundamental concepts of coherently shaping light in phase, amplitude and polarization - structuring light - to unveil startling advances. In particular, the structuring and shaping of light will break through perceived limits and open up the next generation of opportunities, particularly in the burgeoning areas of healthcare and biophotonics.

Four projects will run in parallel and by combining their outputs, we aim to overcome current limits in Photonics and address major Challenges such as super-resolution microscopy, nanoscopic sensing, single cell proteomics, ubiquitous laser-like sources, spatially controlled optogenetics, therapy and imaging at depth

Planned Impact

We summarize the impact of the Programme by addressing the question: who will benefit from this Research and how?

The ageing population and rising cost of healthcare is a challenge across the world. Photonics can make an important contribution because light is less invasive than most forms of diagnosis and treatment. By developing our concepts of structured light we will overcome existing limitations and open up new opportunities for areas such as the next generation of healthcare technologies and biomedical instrumentation. As an example, one of our team (IDWS) has used advanced photonics to generate novel portable sources such that when a skin cancer is treated by photodynamic therapy, the need for surgery is avoided, and a better cosmetic outcome is obtained. Furthermore, our advances in photonics aims - as in this example - to allow this treatment to be delivered in a GP clinic or at home, removing the need for a hospital visit, improving the treatment received by patients and reducing the associated cost. It is not just treatment that can benefit but also imaging and sensing which in themselves will lead to an earlier prognosis for disease and increase prospects for Quality of Life. We will identify similarly promising directions through a Biological Opportunities Panel, and in addition via our strong links to the medical school attached to our department as well as our international and UK collaborators incl. Ninewells Hospital, IMSAT and the Albert Einstein Centre for Medicine NY. We see outputs emerging on a 5-20 year timeframe and to have profound long term impact.

The proposed work is potentially ground-breaking in the field of physics of light - photonics - as well as developing advanced applications with novel light sources. The Programme will have major impact in a range of fields outside its initial remit such as biology and medicine, as the advantages of this novel science and forward looking applications can address aspects of the 21st century Healthcare agenda. We envisage our advances in challenging the limits of photonics to open up new vistas and commercial markets in the future. We envisage impact on the Public through our outreach work as the significance of our research is translated to the wider community inspiring and enthusing young people to work and contribute to this area.

Whilst we operate in a global marketplace we clearly see that UK companies (esp. in Biological and medical instrumentation) will benefit in numerous ways including wealth creation as our advances are commercialised. We shall endeavor to ensure that the impact is clearly linked to the outputs (academic and industrial) of UK Science (eg patents, know-how of our work). We will engage with a wide range of UK companies (eg Ambicare Health, Elliot Scientific, M2) by presenting at appropriate UK and international meetings. This includes meetings with strong KT components eg the Scottish Optoelectronics Association and the SUPA Knowledge Transfer mechanisms including their annual showcase events. A further measure to advance industrial engagement are the workshops to be held in years 3 and 5 of the project, to which we will invite companies as well as potential users of research such as biomedical and healthcare personnel

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description A number of new strands of work using structured light
- new shaped output beams for optical imaging that give wide field of view but allow you to keep good resolution. This work has future impact in neuroscience and developmental biology
- new forms of sensors based on structured materials, namely photonics crystals and including combining optical and electrical means
- new ways of holding and moving objects with light in liquid and vacuum. This has allow us to spin objects in vacuum at very high speeds. This could lead to new studies of quantum physics and new sensors.
- first use of slow light to increase the optical force on an object.
- new organic light sources with directional outputs
- sensors for detecting adulterated whisky
Exploitation Route New microscopes, new IP/know-how, licensed to UK SME M Squared Lasers
New procedures for optical trapping and particle synthesis will be used by other research groups
New sensors used for AMR, disease, muscle contraction
New imaging approaches used for pathology of renal disease
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Energy,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Retail

URL https://opticalmanipulationgroup.wp.st-andrews.ac.uk
 
Description Yes, IP licensing to M Squared lasers
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Education,Environment,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology,Retail
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Title 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-based Deep-blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters for Organic Light Emitting Diodes (dataset) 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title An Organic Vortex Laser (dataset) 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Code underpinning - Modal beam splitter: determination of the transversal components of an electromagnetic light field 
Description Mathematica code simulating the mode splitting using the optical eigenmode method. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Creating and probing of a perfect vortex in situ with an optically trapped particle (dataset) 
Description Scripts and software underpinning the publication 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data Underpinning "Harnessing speckle for a sub-femtometer resolved broadband wavemeter and laser stabilization" 
Description Data from Metzger, et al., Nature Communications 8, 15610 (2017), DOI: 10.1038/ncomms15610 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data Underpinning - Enhanced optical manipulation of cells using anti-reflection coated microparticles 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data Underpinning - Quantitative detection of pharmaceuticals using a combination of paper microfluidics and wavelength modulated Raman spectroscopy 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data Underpinning - Tuning the emission of cationic iridium (III) complexes towards the red through methoxy substitution of the cyclometalating ligand 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data Underpinning: "Depth-resolved multimodal imaging: Wavelength Modulated Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy with Optical Coherence Tomography" 
Description original data and figures for this paper 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data Underpinning: "Is it possible to create a perfect fractional vortex beam?" 
Description Experimental data and data treatment scripts 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data Underpinning: "Label-free optical vibrational spectroscopy to detect the metabolic state of M. tuberculosis cells at the site of disease" 
Description Original data and figures for this paper 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data set: Optical binding of two cooled micro-gyroscopes levitated in vacuum 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpining: Visualization of Podocyte Substructure with Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM): A New Approach to Nephrotic Disease 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - A compact light-sheet microscope for the study of the mammalian central nervous system 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Controlling the Emission Efficiency of Blue-Green Iridium(III) Phosphorescent Emitters and Applications in Solution-Processed Organic Light-Emitting Diodes 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Development of a graded index microlens based fiber optical trap and its characterization using principal component analysis 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Highly Luminescent Colloidal CdS Quantum Dots with Efficient Near- Infrared Electroluminescence in Light-Emitting Diodes 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Impact of Iron-site defects on Superconductivity in LiFeAs 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Is there an optimal basis to maximise optical information transfer? 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Measuring and structuring the spatial coherence length of organic light-emitting diodes 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Orbital angular momentum transfer to optically levitated microparticles in vacuum 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic stimulation of Drosophila larvae 
Description The attached data underpin the publication, "Organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic stimulation of Drosophila larvae". Data for each figure panel from the paper that displays numerical data are provided in the form of ASCII text-formatted data (.txt) or as image files (.jpg). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Rotational Dynamics and Heating of Trapped Nanovaterite Particles 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Solubilised Bright Blue-Emitting Iridium Complexes for Solution Processed OLEDs 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Solution-Processable Silicon Phthalocyanines in Electroluminescent and Photovoltaic Devices 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning - Trapping in a Material World 
Description Calculated data sets underpinning figures 1(e) and 1(f) and figure 2, as described in the figure captions. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning : Macro-optical trapping for sample confinement in light sheet microscopy 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning : Wide-field 3D optical imaging using temporal focusing for holographically trapped microparticles 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning- Multimodal discrimination of immune cells using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy 
Description Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and digital holographic microscopy for the identification of key immune cell subsets CD4+ T cells, B cells, and monocytes, providing both a chemical and morphological description of the cells. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning: Development of a handheld fluorescence imaging device to investigate the characteristics of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in healthy and diseased skin 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning: Dynamics of a levitated microparticle in vacuum trapped by a perfect vortex beam: three-dimensional motion around a complex optical potential 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning: Enhancement of image quality and imaging depth with Airy light-sheet microscopy in cleared and non-cleared neural tissue 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning: Enhancement of optical forces using slow light in a photonic crystal waveguide 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning: Light-sheet microscopy with attenuation-compensated propagation-invariant beams 
Description The data will be available soon. In the meantime, if you would like to access the dataset, please, email research-data@st-andrews.ac.uk. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Data underpinning: Rotation of two trapped microparticles in vacuum: observation of optically mediated parametric resonances 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Deep blue oxadiazole-containing thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters for organic light-emitting diodes (dataset) 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title EigenOptics v1.00 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Enhancing the photoluminescence quantum yields of blue-emitting cationic iridium(III) complexes bearing bisphosphine ligands (dataset) 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Integrated single- and two-photon light sheet microscopy using accelerating beams (dataset) 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Organic Long Persistent Luminescence from a Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Compound (dataset) 
Description Organic long persistent luminescence (OLPL) is one of the most promising methods for longlived emission applications. However, present room-temperature OLPL emitters are mainly based on a bi-molecular exciplex system which usually needs an expensive small molecule such as PPT as the acceptor. In this study, we designed a new TADF compound, CzPhAP, which also shows OLPL in many well-known hosts such as PPT, TPBi and PMMA, without any exciplex formation and its OLPL duration reached more than 1 hour at room temperature. Combining the low cost of PMMA manufacture and flexible designs of TADF molecules, pure organic, large scale, color tunable and low-cost room temperature OLPL applications become possible. Moreover, we found that the onset of the 77 K afterglow spectra from a TADF emitter doped film is not necessarily reliable for determining the lowest triplet state (T1) energy level. This is because in some TADF emitter doped films, optical excitation can generate charges (electron and holes) that can later recombine to form singlet excitons during the phosphorescence spectrum measurement. The spectrum taken in the phosphorescence time window at low temperature may consequently consist of both singlet and triplet emission 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://risweb.st-andrews.ac.uk:443/portal/en/datasets/organic-long-persistent-luminescence-from-a-t...
 
Title Turn on of Sky-Blue Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence and Circularly Polarized Luminescence (CPL) via Increased Torsion by a Bulky Carbazolophane Donor (dataset) 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Ewan Wright 
Organisation University of Arizona
Department College of Optical Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution collaborative work on numerical modelling and theory
Collaborator Contribution Code of model and physical insights into theory
Impact See papers
 
Description Royal Society of Edinburgh International Year of Light event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The United Nations has named 2015 as the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies.An event at the RSE (Monday 23 February 2015) marked the Scottish launch of the International Year by exploring how light is fundamental to the existence of life on earth, and the ways in which it plays an increasingly important role in shaping our society through medicine, communications, entertainment and culture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.royalsoced.org.uk/news/news.php?id=283