Green Heterogeneous Networks

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Abstract

The tremendous development of mobile networks has enabled ubiquitous communication that has transformed the way people connect with each other. With fast and reliable information exchange, mobile communication is becoming (if not yet) a daily necessity. However, existing mobile networks are not "green". Although much efforts has been invested in exploring energy efficient techniques for mobile phones, this is not so for base stations and mobile networks. As of 2008, mobile networks consume around 0.5% of global electricity, which is a significant amount for one particular industry. To make matters worse, this consumption is expected to rise by 200% within the next few years. With increased electricity price, this high energy consumption will increase the operation expenditure for mobile operators, which results in higher cost-per-Mbyte. This will create difficulties for mobile operators, and will also impact on pricing for consumers. On the other hand, the increased energy consumption will lead to higher CO2 emission. Given the threats of global climate change, it is highly desirable for future mobile networks to be more energy efficient and thus more environmental friendly.

Equally important, the need for higher data rate mobile communication is ever increasing. First of all, even with the extensive development of third generation (3G) mobile network, a recent study by the BBC shows that 25% of the time users will only able to access the much slower second generation (2G) network. This slow connection is a bottleneck for true ubiquitous communication. Therefore, to bridge the digital divide, there is a strong desire by the government, operator, and user to have high data rate connections everywhere. Secondly, the remarkable growth of high quality multimedia and social networks has pushed mobile data rates to the limit, and thus faster networks for the future are required. Although the 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) and 802.16j (WiMax) will ease some of these pressures, advanced network topology and techniques are needed. Research work has already been started on IMT Advanced, which is the next generation mobile network. It aims to achieve a peak data rate of 1Gbps.

The most promising approach for IMT Advanced is the Heterogeneous Network (HetNet). It is an advanced network topology that cooperates between multiple tiers of base stations, i.e., macro, micro, pico, femto and relay base stations. By intelligent interference management, HetNet exploits frequency reuse to its maximum, and provides high data rate coverage everywhere. However, existing research on HetNet has focused mostly on the high data rate aspects, but rarely on the energy efficiency aspects. In this project, both goals on high energy and spectral efficiency will be targeted jointly. In particular, we will develop innovative techniques to provide radical improvement, instead of incremental enhancement. Adaptive network topology that can optimise these factors will be devised. Smart interference management and exploitation techniques will be developed to exploit the potential of HetNet. Network MIMO, cognitive radio, and 3 dimensional beamforming techniques will also be developed to achieve a green HetNet that is suitable for the future. The goal is to develop new technologies that can reduce energy consumption while providing the required data rate increase.

Planned Impact

The world has been transformed by communication technologies. High speed and reliable communication networks enable various ways for people to connect, and with the popularity of mobile networks, ubiquitous communication is now common in many countries. Apart from conventional communication means such as voice call or email, communication networks have allowed the development of social media, which is the key platform for recent revolutions in the Arab world. The impact of ubiquitous communication networks on society has just started to show its immense potential. Moreover, ubiquitous communication also underpins the digital economy, which will drive the economy of the future. It is now becoming a crucial infrastructure similar to the electricity network and water supply. Therefore, it is important to maintain the stable development of future mobile communication network.

Future mobile networks require higher and higher data rates that enable different types of information exchange. With the current development trend, future mobile networks will consume significantly large amount of electricity, which in turn increase CO2 emission. The huge electricity consumption is not only a problem of cost for the mobile operators, but also an environmental problem. An energy efficient mobile network infrastructure that can also provide higher data rates to satisfy the future needs is essential.

This project aims to investigate this problem and develop novel techniques and schemes for future Green Heterogeneous Networks, which are both energy and spectral efficient. Successful completion of this project has the potential to have a real impact on the community. Not only will it benefit the research community and mobile operators, it will also have a positive impact on the environment. Moreover, a stable and reliable high speed network of the future is a crucial platform for future economic growth. Finally, a greener future network provides better and cheaper connections, which could bridge the digital divide in the nation and allow better social cohesion.
 
Description There are several key findings of this project.

1) New optimisation metric - Our team developed a new optimisation metric that balances both the energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE), and is called the Resource Efficiency. This metric can be used to more effectively exploit the available resource, instead of simply optimising just one metric at a time.

2) EE-SE optimisation for homogeneous and heterogeneous networks - Our team developed several optimisation approaches to balance between EE and SE in homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. In particularly, we solved these problems with multiple antennas, which has not been tackled before.

3) Sleep mode optimisation- Energy efficiency can significantly be enhanced with the use of sleep mode. With new technologies, sleep modes can be more sophisticated and adapt to the traffic load. Our team developed several sleep mode strategies for better energy efficiency, and also optimised the required base station density in a heterogeneous network.

4) Adaptive Massive MIMO - Our team developed the adaptive massive MIMO techniques to significantly improve the energy efficiency performance of massive MIMO. By intelligently adapting the transmission mode, the proposed approach can significantly reduce the energy consumption. Our approach also enabled to use of massive MIMO in scenarios that was not feasible before.

5) Unified framework for Het Net analysis - Our team developed a unified analytical framework to analyse the performance of Het Nets. There are existing works in this area but some of the practical channel scenarios, such as shadowing effect, was not included. Our generalised model provided an exact solution to quickly and effectively evaluate the performance of Het Net.

6) Load-aware HetNet operations - Our team analysed the Het Net properties, and developed a load-aware approach to optimise the network operation in order to maximise the energy efficiency.
Exploitation Route The project has benefited from the collaboration within the GreenTouch consortium, and the team has very strong links and collaborative effort with other partners. Our effort has been included as the final technologies in the consortium, which is included in the final white paper and the award-winning Green Meter work.

On the other hand, our work has been used by other researchers in the community to develop their own work. Some of our developments is the foundation stone of a new line of work that has been followed by other teams in the research community.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software)

 
Description Two directions of our work have been adopted as key technologies in the GreenTouch consortium. The first direction is the various energy efficiency-spectral efficiency optimisation algorithms. The work yields better performance than other schemes and so has been adopted. The second direction is the adaptive massive MIMO technique. The scheme significantly improves the existing approach by the partner in Bell Lab, who is led by the original inventor of massive MIMO. Our work also allowed the use of massive MIMO in rural scenario which was considered as not feasible before. Our work has received high praise from the partners and particularly the original inventor, and has been included as a key technology and in the Green Meter work.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software)
Impact Types Economic

 
Description energy-autonomous Portable Access points for INfrastructure-LESS networks (PAINLESS)
Amount € 4,167,588 (EUR)
Funding ID 812991 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Alcatel-Lucent
Department System Optimization Department
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Bell Laboratories
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation China Mobile
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Chunghwa Telecom
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Fraunhofer Society
Department Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute
Country Germany 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Huawei Technologies
Country China 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Orange France Telecom
Department Orange France Telecom Research labs
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Polytechnic University of Milan
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK)
Department IMEC - REALITY
Country Belgium 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation Technical University of Dresden
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Description GreenTouch 
Organisation University of Melbourne
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The aim of this collaboration within GreenTouch is to develop novel energy efficient techniques for future mobile networks. We developed several novel techniques in providing energy efficient operation of mobile networks in all the umbrella projects (Green Transmission Technology, Beyond Cellular Green, Large Scale Antenna System). In the GTT group, our team developed a new resource allocation approach to balance the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a mobile network. We also developed novel energy efficient techniques for heterogeneous networks. These technical contributions have all been included as key technologies for this group. Moreover, our team lead one of the sub-group on dynamic bandwidth and power allocation to enhance the energy efficiency of future mobile networks. In the LSAS group, our team developed an adaptive approach for massive MIMO, which significantly enhances the energy efficiency of the network. This enabled the use of massive MIMO in rural scenarios that was once perceived as unsuitable. Our proposed work is also included as the key technologies in this working group. In the BCG group, we developed a tight analytical model that can evaluate the energy efficiency performance of the BCG network. Without our model, it will require extensive hours of simulations to evaluate the performance. There is also other partners in the group working on analytical model and ours is much closer to theirs. In addition, the PI is also a co-author of technical reports in the mobile working group.
Collaborator Contribution The GreenTouch consortium is started by Bell Labs in 2010, and has since been joined by a number of research institutes and industries. There is a consortium membership fee and every institution contributes towards the goal of achieving a 1000 fold improvements on energy efficiency. Therefore although there is no direct contribution towards our project, there are significant efforts and contributions from each of the listed partners. The other partners in this collaboration complements our research project and often contributes to the development of our work. Hence, this can be considered as a different type of in-kind contributions. Here is a list of major contributors towards our research project: - Bell Lab (USA): contributed towards the development of our adaptive massive MIMO system - Huawei, China Mobile, Chunghwa Telecom, Fraunhofer HHI, University of Melbourne, INSA: partnered to develop different approaches to enhance energy efficiency in the transmission technologies. In particular, Huawei also provided input on the direction of our research projects. - IMEC: developed an advanced power consumption models for base stations in 2020 scenarios, and provided a simulation package that we can use to evaluate our performance. - Orange Labs: developed the traffic models based on their actual data, so that we can use to evaluate our performance. - TU Dresden: developed the spatial location models that is available to use. - Polytechnic University of Milan: developed the BCG network architecture such that we can develop our analytical models around. - Alcatel Lucent (Germany): developed all the various simulation scenarios and also contributed towards the direction of our research project.
Impact Yiqun Wu, Yan Chen, Jie Tang, Daniel K C So, Zhikun Xu, Chih-Lin I, Paul Ferrand, Jean-Marie Gorce, Chih-Hsuan Tang, Pei-Rong Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Li-Chun Wang, Kai Borner, and Lars Thiele, "Green Transmission Technologies for Balancing the Energy Efficiency and Spectrum Efficiency Tradeoff," IEEE Communication Magazine, accepted, Sept 2014 H Zhang, O Blume, T Marzetta, H Yang, U Barth, Y Chen, Y Wu, A Capone, D K C So, E Alsusa, Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc3: GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2014 Mobile Communications WG - Architecture Doc4: Energy Efficiency of GreenTouch Technical Solutions, GreenTouch, May 2015 GreenTouch Technical Solutions for Energy Efficient Mobile Networks, GreenTouch, Aug 2015 GreenTouch Final Results from Green Meter Research Study, GreenTouch, Aug 2015
Start Year 2013
 
Title Communication system and method 
Description The method describes a new radio resource management (RRM) technique for improving the downlink energy efficiency performance in soft-frequency-reuse based long term evolution (LTE) networks. In this RRM the resource is dynamically allocated in distributed and centralized manners such that spectral and energy efficiency is maximized across the whole network. To achieve this a unique interference mapping strategy is implemented to assist in deciding whether a distributed or centralized mode is applicable per basestation. When a distributed approach is granted to a basestation it can use the entire spectrum while when a centralized approach is imposed on a basestation it will only be allocated a subset of the spectrum. The proposed then utilizes the confederation concept in the sense that once the allocation approach is determined the individual basestations can take control of their allocated resource. When combined with proportional fairness scheduling, this RRM can also exploits multiuser diversity. It was shown through mathematical analysis and computer simulations that this technique offers significant improvements in terms of energy efficiency and quality of service by increasing the guaranteed data rate per user. 
IP Reference GB2013/000344 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed No
Impact The invention has attracted £90k of funding from an investment company called IP Group for further tests and developments to be carried out.