Topological superfluids under engineered nanofluidic confinement: new order parameters and exotic excitations

Lead Research Organisation: Royal Holloway, University of London
Department Name: Physics

Abstract

Experiments on liquid helium-three near the absolute zero of temperature have played a key role in the development of many central concepts in condensed matter physics. The discovery of superfluid 3He gave us the first p-wave superfluid, a model for unconventional superconductivity, in which the pairing breaks the symmetry of the parent normal metal. Since that time the international programme of materials discovery has thrown up many new unconventional superconductors. And formally the phases of superfluid 3He can be regarded as a quantum vacua, with parallels in particle physics and cosmology [see "The Universe in a Helium Droplet", G.E.Volovik].

Recently the topology (in momentum space) of condensed matter systems has been widely applied as a powerful scheme for their classification, alongside the concept of broken symmetry. The simple truths of topology (eg a sphere's surface cannot be continuously deformed into that of a torus) have a powerful impact when applied to complex interacting quantum systems, by pointing to phenomena that must be there, independent of microscopic details; robust protection is conferred by the inviolable constraints of topology. This may lead to electronic devices whose operation relies on the laws of quantum mechanics in a way immune to environmental disturbance, a vision that is supported by Microsoft's Station Q and associated programmes.

In this programme we will study the topological superfluidity of helium-three confined in regular nanofabricated geometries, as a model system to further our understanding of topological quantum matter. Our experiments will exploit the recent technical breakthroughs we have made in quantum nanofluidics, and the development of sensitive NMR techniques based on the detection of the precessing magnetic signal by SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices).

Confinement of superfluid 3He in a slab-like cavity of thickness of order the diameter of the Cooper pairs, has a profound effect on the superfluid order and is expected to stabilize new superfluid states of matter. The compressibility of 3He allows the pair diameter to be pressure-tuned, varying the effective confinement. Regular geometries can be fabricated with well-characterized surfaces, which can be tuned in situ by plating with a helium-4 film. This exquisite geometrical control and tuneability, coupled to the ideal material qualities of superfluid 3He, and highly developed microscopic models provide a rigorous theory-experiment interface.

Phases with different topologies are expected to be stable under different conditions, and we will map the effect of our new control parameter, confinement, on these phases. We will quantify the role of disorder, arising from surface roughness, and the importance of quantum size effects. These topological superfluids support novel excitations at the faces or edges of the cavity, at domain walls and vortices. The precise character of these excitations depends on whether the superfluid ground state preserves or breaks time reversal symmetry. At the surface of the B-phase they are propagating Majorana fermions, and we will search for these as part of the project.

This project has a strong international collaborative dimension, both experimental and theoretical, closely partnering with Cornell and Northwestern in the USA, and PTB (Berlin) in Germany, and exploiting our membership of the European Microkelvin Collaboration. We will connect with other programmes on topological quantum matter in the UK and internationally, enhanced by the Hubbard Theory Consortium, through its visitors programmes and workshops.

The project is expected to lead to fundamental insights into topological quantum matter and topological superfluidity/superconductivity in particular. It will drive the innovation of new instrumentation at the new frontier combining ultra-low temperatures and nanoscience, and new SQUID NMR techniques of broad applicability.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit?
This research contributes to a fundamental understanding of both topological quantum matter and the practical feasibility of topologically protected quantum computing, a key long term challenge. The understanding of thin films of p-wave superfluids ultimately benefits manufacturers of future devices of novel functionality based on new materials (eg unconventional superconductors). The development of cryogenic instrumentation and novel state-of-the-art measurement systems directly benefits the scientific instruments industry and users, including cryogenics and superconducting technologies industries, National Measurement Institutes, medical diagnostics.
Our expertise allows us to contribute advice to international funding agencies and scientific academies, and to engage with national laboratories. The embedded collaboration between the UK, mainland Europe and USA groups, and the links to Japanese groups significantly widens the communities who will benefit. The general public, including young people, is potentially excited and motivated such research.
How will they benefit?
Superfluid helium-three provides a test-bed for evolving theories of topological quantum matter. International networking with theorists, enhanced by the Hubbard Theory Consortium, ensures that ideas developed in helium physics propagate, influencing the materials discovery agenda as well as guiding the development of novel devices based in topological quantum matter and p-wave superconductors. The universality of the topological classification of condensed matter systems is new and exciting, and adds significantly to the established notions of new phases classified by their broken symmetries. Advances in fundamental understanding enter the canon of the subject, contribute to scientific progress and enhance the quality of life through unanticipated channels.
Such research acts as a magnet for the best young talent. It combines techniques at the frontiers of nanofluidics, ultralow temperature physics, measurement techniques, and addresses key theoretical concepts. Our experimental work revolves around custom design of equipment and instrumentation, the mastery of design skills and construction techniques, developing high precision measurement techniques and associated data acquisition schemes, data analysis, modelling; it involves managing the interaction with theorists. The rigorous training of highly skilled manpower, and the transfer of their expertise, enhances our economic competitiveness.
The cryogenic industry will benefit by contributions to the development of new refrigerator products with enhanced capabilities. The development of quantum nanofluidics helps open up nanoscience to the ultra-low temperature frontier. Combining nanoscience with ultralow temperature technology challenges us to develop new experimental methods. Developments in the applications of superconducting devices to NMR, made through this research, will be further advanced by collaborations with end users and will lead to novel MRI modalities, new techniques for NMR spectroscopy and biodiagnostics. The wider public, including school children, will benefit through a portfolio of outreach activities.
What will be done to ensure that they benefit?
Collaboration arrangements include: an established network with scientific instruments industry (eg Oxford Instruments Nanoscience) and standards laboratories (NPL and PTB); membership of the European MicroKelvin Collaboration, with dedicated activities for interaction and knowledge exchange. Joint workshops will be held involving the EPSRC funded TOPNES programme. Export of trained manpower; exploitation of novel instrumentation through national knowledge exchange schemes, such as HEIF, and the people pipeline. Wider communication and engagement activities will centre on outreach activities organised through our physics outreach officer; international conference and workshop participation and organisation.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description This project has opened up the study of superfluid 3He (a topological superfluid) under controlled nanoscale confinement. Two different approaches to cavity construction have been adopted. This has been combined with state-of-the-art SQUID NMR measurements, sensitive enough to allow measurements on a single cavity. The focus, to date, has been on simple slab-like cavities of different heights. The profound influence on confinement on the superfluid phase diagram, in particular the relative stability of the A and B phases has been established. We have shown that the superfluid boundary conditions can be tuned in-situ. Two distinct orientations of the B-phase order parameter have been identified. Importantly this has allowed us to determine the surface induced distortion of the B-phase order parameter. Torsional oscillator studies of the AB transition under confinement reveal very little supercooling, very different from bulk. Understanding the nucleation of the B phase from the A phase in bulk has been a long standing problem, of wider cosmological relevance (phase transitions in the early universe). Here, under confinement, we have evidence for an intrinsic mechanism, which may support the resonant tunnelling model. A search has been conducted for the predicted spatially modulated (striped) superfluid phase. Spatially modulated superconductors are widely sought in condensed matter systems and cold atoms. The NMR response provides evidence for a spatially modulated phase, but with a different morphology from stripes. Experiments have been performed in a 200 nm high cavity, to test the influence of surface scattering conditions on the suppression of superfluidity. For diffuse scattering the quasiclassical theory of Tc suppression has been precisely confirmed for the first time. By coating the surface with a superfluid 4He film we achieve close to specular scattering, for which Tc is unsuppressed. This is a key result: it means we can shrink the height of the cavity towards the two-dimensional limit
The topology of the superfluid phase stable in this limit is unknown. This impacts broadly on the field of topological quantum matter. Here topological superconductors is an important class of material: but no bulk topological superconductors have been identified in nature. Topological superfluid 3He fills that gap. We have also found that a magnetic 3He solid surface boundary layer gives rise to stronger than anticipated suppression of Tc. This has stimulated work on the theory of 3He in contact with magnetic surfaces. Research on a 100 nm cell, in its early stages, suggest that a new phase may be stabilized. Two new generation of nanofluidic cells are in design or fabrication. Some of these should solve technical problems encountered with earlier generation cells. They involve more complex cavity geometries and represent the beginning of a new direction: hybrid superfluid nanostructures. Excitations bound to interfaces and surfaces (including majorana fermions) are one object of interest. New order parameters are the other. Our work starts an entirely new field: topological mesoscopic superfluidity.
Exploitation Route Topological superconductors is an important class of material: but no bulk topological superconductors have been identified in nature. Topological superfluid 3He fills that gap. Related research is currently funded by EPSRC " Toplogical mesoscopic superfluidity of 3He". It has ten project partners, including two industrial.
Sectors Education,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other

 
Description The primary purpose of this project is fundamental research on topological superfluidity, using superfluid 3He. As a model system for topological quantum matter, particularly since no topological superconductor has been definitively identified, the anticipated intellectual impact is high. Topological quantum matter is a well-documented recent revolution in the understanding of materials, with important potential long term applications. A significant and wide impact in the shorter term derives from the recognised importance of research on matter under extreme conditions, in particular low temperatures. Developing capability in this sector, and enhancing measurement technique, metrology and instrumentation, is a key feature of this research, and we have contributed in several ways. This impact has been achieved through close collaboration with the industrial sector (primarily Oxford Instruments Nanoscience) and National Measurement Institutes, and was the subject of an Impact Case Study to REF2014. This study was highlighted in the Institute of Physics 2015 publication "Inspirational physics for a modern economy". Joint research with Oxford Instruments on cryogen-free microkelvin technology was subsequently highlighted at a special session at the APS March meeting in 2015. Progress on noise thermometry was featured at a Royal Society meeting at Chicheley Hall in May 2015, "Towards implementing the new kelvin", a project involving collaboration across National Measurement Institutes in the EU. Ongoing collaboration with Oxford Instruments is to complete a fully engineered sub-mK cryogen free ultralow temperature platform prototype at Royal Holloway. This is to be combined with an ultra-low noise environment with intended impact on solid-state quantum technology. We have also pioneered a new method to measure the thermal boundary resistance between low area metallic foils and helium, having limited residual heat leaks to sub-10fW. This can potentially lead to new heat exchangers and Oxford Instruments will support this work by a PhD studentship. A further instrument for promoting impact is our membership of the European Microkelvin Consortium, funded under the EC Infrastructures programme (FP7). Horizon 2020 funding has been awarded European Microkelvin Platform www.emplatform.eu as an Advanced Infrastructure. Engagement with a wide community of researchers and industrial partners is a key feature of this Platform, to further research on Quantum Materials and Quantum Technology. Impact through outreach/public engagement through evening lectures. John Saunders was Chair of IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) Commission C5, and a Vice-President on the IUPAP Executive Council. His term of office ended in 2017. He is a member of the executive board of the European Microkelvin Platform.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Other
Impact Types Economic

 
Description FP7 Capacities Specific Programme, Research Infrastructures
Amount € 300,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 228464 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 04/2008 
End 09/2013
 
Title Cryogen free ultralow temperature platforms 
Description A prototype platform was constructed with minimum temperature below 1 mK, extending the range available using cryogen-free dilution refrigerator technology. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This technique is being disseminated by collaboration with Oxford Instruments Nanoscience. It will extend the accessibility of ultralow temperatures to a wider community of users. 
 
Title Noise thermometry using dc SQUIDs 
Description Enables the precise measurement of absolute temperature below 1K. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The definition of measurement of temperature is central to the ever widening application of low temperature platforms. The dissemination of this technology is via published research and collaboration with Oxford Instruments Nanoscience, and National Measurement Institutes. 
 
Title SQUID NMR 
Description The use of SQUIDS (superconducting quantum interference devices) as detectors of NMR has two distinct realizations: broadband and tuned. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2011 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact These methods extend the capability of the NMR technique in several different ways: enhanced sensitivity; to ultralow low measurement fields; enabling pulsed NMR at ultralow temperatures. Applications in fundamental science, and potential applications in medical and chemical diagnostics. This impact has been realized by: membership of European Microkelvin Platform; skills transfer by movement of trained personnel. 
 
Description Cornell University 
Organisation Cornell University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborative research on superfluid helium-3.
Collaborator Contribution Fabrication of nanofluidic sample chambers.
Impact Joint publications.
 
Description Northwestern_Theory 
Organisation Northwestern University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Experimental research and discussions on theory. Travel support.
Collaborator Contribution Theoretical collaboration. Facilitating engagement with a wider community of theorists.
Impact Collaboration is ongoing.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Oxford Instruments Nanoscience 
Organisation Oxford Instruments
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution RHUL Low temperature laboratory group have collaborated with OIN on designs of cryogenic platforms. Our cryostat ND2 was the first example of what has become the Kelvinox 400 HA, where the design was influenced by our requirements for nuclear demagnetisation. RHUL/OIN jointly built a prototype of a combined nuclear demagnetisation cryogen free cryostat, the RHUL team demonstrated sub mK performance of a cryogen-free cryostat for the first time. OIN are world leaders in manufacturer of cryostats and we are working with them to replace nuclear orientation thermometers with our current sensing noise thermometer. Through a Memorandum of Understanding the RHUL provide consultation services for the design engineers at OI.
Collaborator Contribution Consultation on specialist magnet designs, Provision of engineered components, Discounts on new cryogenic platforms OIN provided £20,000 of sponsorship for ULT 2008: Frontiers of Low Temperature Physics
Impact RHUL: REF 2014 Impact Case Study London Low Temperature Laboratory http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/15/11/113034 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10909-014-1147-z
 
Description PTB_SQUIDs 
Organisation Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
Country Germany 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of application of SQUIDs in high precision instrumentation.
Collaborator Contribution Design and fabrication of SQUIDs.
Impact Joint publications. New instrumentation for NMR and noise thermometry.
 
Description 2011 Big Bang Fair 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Big Bang UK Young Scientists & Engineers Fair is the largest celebration of science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) for young people in the UK. In 2011 the event was held at the Excell Centre in London, Dr. Andrew Casey and Dr. Jan Nyeki ran a series of demonstration for low temperature physics as part of a stand organised by the Institute of Physics.

The event ran over three days and was attended by around 25,000 people each day.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011
URL https://www.thebigbangfair.co.uk/
 
Description 2014 BBC Stargazing Live, lecture at Royal Holloway 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In 2014 Royal Holloway was a host institution for the BBC television program StarGazing Live. Elements of the program were broadcast live from Royal Holloway and the event attracted around 7000 visitors to RHUL, the television program attracted nearly 3 million viewers to a prime 8 pm BBC 2 slot. During the event Dr. Andrew Casey ran a series of lectures and demonstration about temperatures in the Universe and how experimental physicists can reach even lower temperatures in the laboratory. The talk was repeated 6 times throughout the event to audiences of around 200 people each time, reaching over a thousand people.

Surveys of the audience showed an increased understanding in what was possible in low temperature physics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/science/bbcstargazinglive2014/bbcstargazingliveatroyalholloway2014.a...
 
Description 2014 IOP Capital Physics 1st Annual Conference, Invited talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Capital Physics is a project funded by the London Schools Excellence Fund, and managed by the Institute of Physics. Capital Physics it is a support network design to improve the provision and uptake of physics A-levels within schools in London. Dr. Andrew Casey was invited to give a inspirational talk at the launch event of the network.

There were 50+ teachers at the event who were informed and motivated to discuss frontier level research to inspire the thousands of students that they teach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.iop.org/education/teacher/support/capital_physics/page_63685.html
 
Description 2015 Stimulating Physics Network, Guest Lecture at Summer School; Colder=Quantum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Institute of Physics and the Science Learning Network work in partnership to run a support network for teachers and pupils of physics called the Stimulating Physics Network. The SPN aims to improve the uptake of Physics at A-level, address the gender imbalance and support teachers in delivering physics courses. They are currently partnered with 420 Schools in which: the increase in the number of pupils progressing from Key Stage 4 to AS-level physics has happened at more than double the national rate; the participation of girls in post-16 physics has doubled compared to the national average. Following on from SPN workshops over 92% of teachers report increased confidence in physics teaching and over 97% of teachers report a positive impact on classroom practice.
Dr. Andrew Casey was invited to provide a evening guest lecture at one of their summer schools for A-Level physics teachers in Cambridge. The talk was designed to be inspirational and convey some of the excitement that exists in frontier research level physics, focusing on the quantum nature of our experiments at ultra-low temperatures.
The 50+ teachers present will all go one to teach hundred's of students each, so the aim is that this excitement can be conveyed to thousands of students across the network.

Feedback from the event organisers/participants was that the lecture scored 3.8/4 (one of the highest rated events during the summer school).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.stimulatingphysics.org/index.htm
 
Description Girls into Physics Residential Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact In collaboration with the Smallpiece Trust, we ran a three-day residential course aimed at addressing the underrepresentation of women in physics by providing a mixture of physics activities for year 10/12 female school children from a range of schools. As part of this activity, Dr. Andrew Casey provided a lecture and demonstration about some of the exciting discoveries in low temperature physics. In 2020 this event was delivered online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019,2020
URL https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/physics/events/eventsarchive/girls-into-physics-residential.aspx
 
Description Institute of Physics Low Temperature Techniques Course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The purpose of the meeting is to disseminate best practice and raise awareness of new innovations in low-temperature techniques and thermometry to each new national cohort of PhD students and postdoctoral researchers embarking on a research career at low temperatures. In addition, we raise the awareness of how those skills can be employed in an industrial environment. Each year the event is attended by around 50 delegates (mainly 1st year PhD students, occasionally international), the students report a raised awareness and begin to create a support network with each other and the speakers at the event that will help them during their career.
The event is organised and chaired by: Dr. Andrew Casey (with support from the IOP)
Dr. Andrew Casey and Dr. Jan Nyeki both give presentations at the event.
The event is supported by an annual grant from the IOP Low Temperature group of £1000, which is used to reduce the cost of attendance.
The event is publicised by the IOP through it's website and newsletters.
An e-version of the material presented is distributed to all of the delegates.
The 2020 event was online only.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
URL https://www.iopconferences.org/iop/frontend/reg/thome.csp?pageID=407153&eventID=818&eventID=818&CSPC...
 
Description Royal Holloway, Physics Taster Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Royal Holloway Physics Taster Days are one day events held in the Physics department at Royal Holloway where we invite A-level physics students from schools within our region to experience university level physics. Typically each event is attended by between 50-100 students. In some years the event has been targeted at widening participation by inviting schools that do not have a strong track record in physics provision. Dr. Andrew Casey has given a lecture every year at these events.
Surveys of the students before and after the event suggest that students are more to choose physics at degree level after attending the event. In 2020 the event was online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020
URL https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/physics/outreach/a-level/tasteofphysics.aspx
 
Description Royal Holloway, Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our annual science festival is designed to inspire and inform the general public about the research at Royal Holloway. Each year the event is attended by around 5000 members of the general public. Dr. Andrew Casey and Dr. Jan Nyeki provide lectures and demonstrations throughout the event each year. Dr. Andrew Casey runs the low temperature zone, comparing the low temperatures achieved in the Universe with those that can be achieved in the laboratory, and highlights the physics that can be performed at these low temperatures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/science/sciencefestival/home.aspx
 
Description Talk. Ultracold: The Quantum World near Absolute Zero 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Schools talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The coldest place in the universe 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Abstract: What is the coldest place in the Universe? Is it somewhere in deep space, in a Galaxy far away? Could it be in Neptune, 4.5 billion km away from the sun? Could it be in our own moon, in a crater so deep that light can never reach?

Or is it in physics labs, right here, on planet Earth? One of them is actually in a walking distance from the venue of our Christmas evening lecture! Find out about exotic phenomena like super conductivity and super fluidity, discuss Nobel Prize 2016 and participate in a lecture on the coolest topic ever literally. Join Dr. Andrew Casey, Royal Holloway Physicist, as he explains the amazing, large-scale quantum phenomena that take place in very low temperatures, on the 8th of December.

The main outcome of this talk was to demonstrate the potentials for discovery that exist at the ultra low temperature frontier.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/physics/outreach/eveninglectures/eveninglectures.aspx
 
Description United Classroom (Distant Learning Physics A-Level) Physics Masterclass: Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact United Classroom is the United Learning group's distance learning environment. It allows courses which some schools do not offer to be delivered virtually and studied by students in any school. The project's aim is to increase access to excellent subject-specialist teaching at A-level, so that students have more choice. Dr. Andrew Casey gave a Physics Masterclass as part of the Physics A-level United Classroom provision. The lecture was about how by cooling to ultra-low temperatures we can observe the quantum nature of materials of interest, focusing on the work at RHUL on superfluids and NEMs devices.
The lecture was delivered using Google Hangouts and was live streamed to a youtube channel that could be accessed by anyone. The lecture and Q&A session was recorded and will be made available as a youtube video.
The initial contact was with about 100 students, but united classrooms has the capability to access up to 20,000 students and will be monitoring the impact of the class.

Our involvement is to promote the area of condensed matter physics and to attempt to widen the participation in physics by reaching an audience through the channels of new media.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://unitedclassroom.org/
 
Description Widening Participation for University Physics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Talk about, University Physics, and what exciting things are happening in physics today, including demos on low temperature phenomena to a set of students from colleges that do not have a good track record of sending students to University. As part of a widening participation in STEM subjects event, to 60 year 10 students from 5 schools
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018