Intelligent embedded components for enhanced supply chain observability and traceability: INTELLICO

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Sch of Mechanical and Manufacturing Eng

Abstract

This project will develop highly innovative ambient intelligence (AmI) software components to increase significantly the
observability and traceability of systems, human operators (HO's) and environments within the automotive and electronics
manufacturing supply chains, thereby leading to more effective control and monitoring throughout the product supply chain
and operational lifecycle based upon higher levels of intelligence. This knowledge generation capability requires the
deployment of a network of integrated, embedded (within the product and processes) Radio Frequency components and
systems with robust, reliable sensors, autonomous operation, proactive reasoning, learning and social abilities (e.g.
communication, co-operation, conflict resolution and negotiation). The objective of INTELLICO is to demonstrate a
prototype generic network at automotive and electronics manufacturing end users.

Planned Impact

(i) Economic:
The consortium aim to make significant reductions in manufacturing, maintenance and End of Life costs for automotive and
high value electronics products. For example, the consortium will aim to achieve (i) a reduction of 95% of engine mis-builds
due to incorrect parts (a greater than £200M p.a. issue for rework, warranty) (ii) a 95% reduction in losses ( a greater than
£10M p.a. issue for misplaced items) (iii) a 100% improvement on quality (e.g. from cleaning, shocks, temperature) (iv) an
80% improvement on traceability (currently batch level in 10,000's) (v) an 80% reduction in time to solve field issues and,
(vi) an 80% improvement on End-of-Life processing. For industrial adoption, dramatic reductions in lifecycle costs and
business risks are required, allied to significant improvements in reliability and component parts traceability. Additionally the
project will create new business models based upon embedded product service models.

(ii) Social:
The new business models created by the generation of these embedded product service architectures will see job creation in services development, education and up-skilling of human operators (e.g. IMechE Imagineering scheme) and augmented health and safety training for staff. The market opportunities in high value production are also expected to see improved competitiveness in UK manufacturing and provision of a technical lead to exploit further market opportunities that
shall maintain and potentially grow employment opportunities in high value manufacturing industries.

(iii) Environmental
The INTELLICO technologies and services are particularly targeted at delivering significant reductions in rework, waste generation, resource usage (e.g. materials, energy) and throughout life maintenance of products and production resources.
Embedding product knowledge and life-history shall also see significant improvement in the complex decisions regarding recycling vs. reuse vs. remanufacturing actities. Such improvements offered by INTELLICO will enable better informed decisions regarding these decision points, thereby increasing materials and product reclamation and re-use and improving the operating efficiencies of the end of life management businesses. The services provided shall also better integrate OEM and supply chain entities with the manufacturing with end-of-life companies, thereby explicitly extending and closing the
loop on product supply chains.
 
Description Antennae design: Novel encapsulated antennae design for embedded RFID applications with directional control and reduced interference
Use of EI to enhance recycling efficiency: Use of EI technology incorporated into electronics by OEM customers will enable S2S to make more informed choices at end of life about the best options for refurbishment, recycling or reuse and this will enable S2S to generate more revenue for itself and its customers.
Transfer of data with product: The innovative element of this result is that the data; process history, batch numbers, materials dates etc. is retained and added to through the value chain and is readily available at each step.
Encryptable EI - Sept 2011: a printed circuit board with an encryptable EI embedded within it to record full product details, process results & test results ensuring product quality. Also provided the platform to develop through life controls for recycling.
Commercialisation of EI in Board: Incorporation of EI functionality as a solid state device is novel and therefore more reliable and safer than alternative options.
Antenna structure in component keep out area of the board.
4 pad layout for chip interconnections (improved stability)
Usage of adhesive for interconnection (possible attachment before or after alternative oxide process possible)
Usage of under-fill for mechanical stabilisation of the chip on the inner layer.
Test and programming of the chip with a probe for defined communication with a specific tag
Data structure/organisation with RFID memories.
Layered multi-layer structure with recess holes in both pre-pregs/determination of pre-preg layer thickness.
Visualisation software to a)read/write to tag b)to track products c)to link additional information (e.g. databases)
Exploitation Route Improved end of life decisions for electronics refurbishment, recycle and reuse leading to improved UK revenue.
Encrypted embedded intelligence in products allowing development of through life controls, leading better decisions for end of life. Commercialisation of EI in board provides safer and more reliable functionality.
Improved product tracking and tracing will allow manufacturers to reduce loss and increase productivity and record more information about their products and processes.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy

 
Description Antennae design: Novel encapsulated antennae design for embedded RFID applications with directional control and reduced interference Use of EI to enhance recycling efficiency: Use of EI technology incorporated into electronics by OEM customers will enable S2S to make more informed choices at end of life about the best options for refurbishment, recycling or reuse and this will enable S2S to generate more revenue for itself and its customers. Transfer of data with product: The innovative element of this result is that the data; process history, batch numbers, materials dates etc. is retained and added to through the value chain and is readily available at each step. Encryptable EI - Sept 2011: a printed circuit board with an encryptable EI embedded within it to record full product details, process results & test results ensuring product quality. Also provided the platform to develop through life controls for recycling. Commercialisation of EI in Board: Incorporation of EI functionality as a solid state device is novel and therefore more reliable and safer than alternative options. Antenna structure in component keep out area of the board. 4 pad layout for chip interconnections (improved stability) Usage of adhesive for interconnection (possible attachment before or after alternative oxide process possible) Usage of under-fill for mechanical stabilisation of the chip on the inner layer. Test and programming of the chip with a probe for defined communication with a specific tag Data structure/organisation with RFID memories. Layered multi-layer structure with recess holes in both pre-pregs/determination of pre-preg layer thickness. Visualisation software to a)read/write to tag b)to track products c)to link additional information (e.g. databases)
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy
Impact Types Economic

 
Description End of Life Product Monitoring
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation S2S Limited 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Description Ford Motor Company Global Innovation Award
Amount $150,000 (USD)
Organisation Ford Motor Company 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2020
 
Description Loughborough University Enterprise Project
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation Loughborough University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 01/2017
 
Description Optimisation of Manufacturing Processes by Gamification
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation HSSMI 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Description Platform Grant
Amount £1,600,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2022
 
Description Encryptable EI - Sept 2011 
Organisation Invotec Group Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution To produce a printed circuit board with an encryptable EI embedded within it to record full product details, process results & test results ensuring product quality. Also to provide the platform to develop through life controls for recycling.
Collaborator Contribution access to facilities
Impact Increased product reliability and control through to end of life.
Start Year 2011
 
Description Transfer of data with product 
Organisation Ford Motor Company
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The innovative element of this result is that the data; process history, batch numbers, materials dates etc. is retained and added to through the value chain and is readily available at each step.
Collaborator Contribution access to facilities, data and warehouse.
Impact tracking system in Ford for engine components
Start Year 2012
 
Description Use of EI to enhance recycling efficiency 
Organisation Sound to Sense (S2S)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Use of EI technology incorporated into electronics by OEM customers will enable S2S to make more informed choices at end of life about the best options for refurbishment, recycling or reuse and this will enable S2S to generate more revenue for itself and its customers.
Collaborator Contribution access to knowledge, warehouse and facility, information on their internal processes and data gathering.
Impact installation of EI system to improve processing efficiency and tracking of products and record of processes at S2S providing More sustainable approaches to end of life electronics reduced costs and enhanced environmental credentials. Better and more efficient handling of end of life electronics that will enable better choices to be made in terms of materials recovery and individual unit recovery and refurbishment.
Start Year 2012
 
Title 3-Dimensional Visualisation 
Description Unity game engine development of the visualisation for tracking RTIs. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Unity game engine development of the visualisation for tracking RTIs. 
URL http://eiis.co.uk/3c/3D.html
 
Title 3Cs Simulation 
Description Modelling software respresenting product flow in an automotive manufacturing environment 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Modelling software respresenting product flow in an automotive manufacturing environment 
 
Title A Novel Metal Mountable UHF RFID Tag 
Description Design of a novel RFID tag using a high permittivity flexible substrate which operates efficiently on radio-interfering metal objects.The proposed tag is readable up to 8m from the reader antenna when applied to various automotive assets such as stillages and crankshaft separators used in engine assembly plants, and through the supply chain. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact A cost-effective metal-mountable RFID tag which will meet the end-user's requirement in a radio-interfering or harsh environment. 
 
Title Data Logging Service 
Description Code to log and distribute error information for maintenance and administration purposes 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Code to log and distribute error information for maintenance and administration purposes 
 
Title Electronics Manufacturing 
Description Software which runs autonomously on a SMT manufacturing data capturing information unique to each product 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact Novel system which autonomously collects information unique to the manufacture of the product. The granularity of information collected is much higher than currently available in this domain 
 
Title Electronics Recycling Traceability 
Description Software for the collection of re-manufacturing data via RFID enabled workstations. Integrated into this are layers of rules which can be easily adapted to changes in product and process 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Information previously un-captured is now being collected to aid process optimisation as well as conformance to newly introduced industry standards. 
 
Title Electronics Recycling Traceability - Web Interface 
Description Web interface to represent data, collected real time and visualised in a way which is of most impact to end user 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Web interface displays information, real-time to end user. This information was previously very limited as well as having a high lag. It has also allowed compliance to new industry standards 
 
Title Maintenance Software 
Description Software for the detailed interrogation of portal hardware in order to diagnose and fix issues 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Software for the detailed interrogation of portal hardware in order to diagnose and fix issues 
 
Title Performance Improvement of a Label UHF RFID Tag 
Description Enhanced Performance of RFID tag using flexible substrate, different printing ink and printing methods. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2013 
Impact A cost-effective solution for the manufacturing applications in the automotive and electronics domain using a novel RFID tag antenna substrate, printing ink and printing method. The tag is mountable on various automotive assets such as engine block and crankshaft separators used in engine assembly plants, and through the supply chain. 
 
Title Personalised Logo RFID Tag :On/Off Metal Mountable 
Description Design of an efficient EIIS logo RFID tag with a novel substrate and printing ink. The tag performs efficiently on various automotive assets such as engine part separators (off-metal) and stillages (on-metal) used in engine assembly plants, and through the supply chain. The proposed tag can be read efficiently up to a distance of 8m from the reader antenna. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact A novel personalised logo RFID tag on/off metal mountable which can perform efficiently in radio-interfering harsh manufacturing environment. 
 
Title RFID Data Collection Service 
Description Web service for the collection of RFID data from portals. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact Web service for the collection of RFID data from portals. 
 
Title RFID PLC Code 
Description RFID software API for use in Programmable Logic Controllers for the detection of RFID tags 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact RFID PLC Code 
 
Title RFID Tag Design and Positioning : 3D Modelling and Simulation 
Description Use of 3D modelling and simulation software to determine where and how to attach RFID tags to a range of Stillages and component Separator trays for the use of tracking the items within the automotive domain. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact To meet the end-user's application requirements, the RFID tag can be virtually placed on the CAD of a product to be tagged and the tag parameters e.g. radiation efficiency and directivity can be optimised. 
 
Title User Interface for the representation of RFID traceability 
Description User Interface for the representation of RFID traceability 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Impact User Interface for the representation of RFID traceability 
URL http://eiis.co.uk/3c/
 
Title smaRTI Software Services 
Description A set of software services that wrap the smaRTI device to provide realtime data capture, visualisation and analytics. This includes the supporting software architecture, such as MQTT, Websockets and Node-Red. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact - Supports the development of Cyber-Physical Returnable Transit Items, for improved logistical process monitoring and control. 
 
Company Name E.I.I.S. LIMITED 
Description We are a micro SME Business is R&D in manufacturing ICT 
Year Established 2013 
Impact R&D in manufacturing ICT
Website http://eiis.co.uk/
 
Description Exhibition in Productronica, Munich 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Showcasing the innovative solutions for tracking future of electronics products and production systems.


Industrial contacts were made that resulted in further academic collaboration e.g. atg Luther & Maelzer GmbH - Company and Haecker - automation in Schwarzhausen, Germany
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.productronica.com/
 
Description Presenation at the RSA: The Great Recovery, Tracking and Tracing Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of research within the recycling and refurbishment of end of life IT assets.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.greatrecovery.org.uk/
 
Description Royal Academy of Engineering Summer Soiree June 2014. Exhibition - 'Manufacturing at the Heart of the Nation'. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Enterprise Hub Showcase

Showcasing innovations in embedded RFID for electronics products implemented in the PCA manufacturing line at the MTC
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2011,2013