Evolutionary Computation for Dynamic Optimisation in Network Environments

Lead Research Organisation: De Montfort University
Department Name: Informatics

Abstract

The research on optimisation problems in network environments has a long history but it generally fails to capture real-world scenarios as it usually assumes that both the network environments (such as network topologies, node processing capabilities, interference, etc) and the optimisation problems (such as the user requirements) are known in advance and remain unchanged in the problem-solving procedure. However, most real-world network optimisation problems (NOPs) are highly dynamic, where the network topologies, availability of resources, interference factors, user requirements, etc., are unpredictable, change with time, and/or are unknown a priori. This poses many difficulties for decision makers, generating significant optimisation challenges. This research aims to investigate Dynamic NOPs (DNOPs) in various network environments. The dynamics in both network environments and problems will be studied in depth. DNOPs occur across a wide range of application areas, such as communication networks, transport network, social networks, and financial networks. Our theoretical study in this project will seek fundamental insight that is applicable to multiple application areas, while our applied research will focus on railway networks and telecommunications networks.

Evolutionary Computation (EC) encompasses many research areas, which applies ideas from nature (especially from biology) to solve optimisation and search problems. EC has been successfully applied to many real world scenarios, especially for difficult and challenging problems and those problems that are difficult to define precisely. This project aims to investigate EC methods for solving DNOPs. We aim to gain insight and further our understanding of how different EC methods can be applied to DNOPs via empirical and theoretical studies. It is important to carry out this research at both theoretical and empirical levels, as one can feed into the other. We will work with industrial partners (e.g., Rail Safety and Standards Board, and Network Rail) who will validate our research and participate in our project. We can utilise their skills and expertise in producing the underlying theoretical models, which can then be validated on real-world data supplied by them. This project has great potentials to fundamentally change the way in which DNOPs are treated, both from a real-world point of view and from the point of view of advancing our theoretical understanding. We plan to develop a prototype system, in collaboration with our industrial partners, for our industrial partners.

In order to test and evaluate our newly developed algorithms for DNOPs, we will develop a set of common DNOP models that capture the real-world complexities, and develop advanced EC methods to solve these DNOP models. This will benefit wider research communities due to the ubiquity of DNOPs in so many different fields from communication networks to transport networks to social networks to financial networks. The research results of this project will also be of significant benefit to many industries that involve DNOPs and will provide significant savings both from a cost point of view as well as from an environmental perspective.

Planned Impact

This project will provide significant economic and social benefits in the generation and analysis of evolutionary computation (EC) methods for dynamic network optimisation problems (DNOPs). The main beneficiaries, how they will benefit from this research, and relevant activities are summarized as follows.

1. The academic community: DNOPs have not been well understood in research. The DNOP models and advanced EC methods that we will develop in this project will be very useful for researchers in DNOPs and EC to pursue their research and hence benefit them directly. This project will also open new frontiers for computer scientists and mathematicians to analyse EC methods for DNOPs. We will publish in highly rated journals and conferences, put project materials online, and interact with the research communities (through conferences, seminars and visits) to disseminate our research results to the academic community.

2. Benefits to the UK: The potential economic benefits to the UK are significant, including more effective and efficient dynamic optimisation software and decision making processes for many industries in communication, transport, social, and financial networks, etc. For example, the DNOP models and EC methods developed will help to manage the traffic in UK railway networks more efficiently, which will lead to increased capacity and customer satisfaction and reduced costs and carbon emissions. Utilising the EC methods to be developed in this project will also enable UK researchers and practitioners to improve their processes to maximise the usage of resources (staff, computers, vehicles etc). More effective DNOP algorithms will increase the competitiveness of UK network industries internationally.

3. Industry partners: The close collaboration with industrial partners via PDRA secondments, industry-focussed workshops, regular project meetings and additional email/phone communications, ensures the development of effective and efficient algorithms for dealing with real-world DNOPs, and thus benefit the industry directly. The prototype software that we will develop for railway networks will enable Network Rail to test and evaluate our system themselves in a realistic environment. Even a small improvement in Network Rail's operations by using our system could mean millions of pounds of real savings. The success with one industrial partner, such Network Rail, can set a good example and inspire other companies to also exploit the knowledge and technologies developed from this project.

4. Education and skill training: PDRAs on this project will gain significant expertise in EC and its innovative applications to DNOPs. They will be armed with skills and knowledge in both theoretical analysis and applied research. If they move into industry after the project, they will have significant impact on industrial research and development because their theoretical insight gained from the project will help them to understand the real world problems better and hence provide more better solutions. If they move into academia, their experience in working with industrial partners and real world problems will help them in formulating new research problems that model the real world better and in focusing their research effort on the most pressing needs of the industry. Furthermore, the knowledge gained in this project can also be incorporated into relevant BSc and MSc modules at Brunel and Birmingham. Both universities have several modules that are relevant to EC and optimisation.

5. The general public: This project is likely to produce interest amongst the media and general public since railway transport touches the life of millions in the UK. Our carefully designed public engagement activities will use railway networks as an example to illustrate the importance of scientific research and the potential benefits of scientific research to our economy and society in general.
 
Description There are a number of significant new results that have been obtained from this project so far.

1. We have studied/modelled dynamic travelling salesman problems (DTSPs) and dynamic vehicle routing problems (DVRPs) of different variations, including considering traffic factors and asymmetric problems. These variations become more challenging and closer to real-world scenarios.

2. We have extensively studied Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithms with different strategies (e.g., immigrants schemes, adaptive pheromone evaporation rate, multiple colonies, memetic framework) to solve the above DTSPs and DVRPs. Our extensive experimental results showed that our new ACO algorithms outperform other state-of-the-art algorithms in the literature on such problems.

3. We have developed a dynamic railway junction rescheduling simulator. Based on the simulator, we have modelled the dynamic railway junction rescheduling problem (DRJRP) with multiple delays and the dynamic multi-objective railway junction rescheduling problem (DM-RJRP). The above simulator has been extended to railway station train scheduling simulator based on the Leicester railway station using real-world train timetables that are made publicly available by Network Rail.

4. We have developed different dynamic ACO algorithms to solve the above DRJRP with multiple delays and DM-RJRP. Our experimental results showed the efficiency of using ACO algorithms for solving such problems.

5. We have extensively studied evolutionary algorithms (EAs) for solving multi-objective optimisation problems (MOPs). We have developed several multi-objective optimisation evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) for solving challenging MOPs, including many-objective optimisation problems (MaOPs), i.e., MOPs with four or more objectives. For example, we have proposed two innovative frameworks based on shift-based density estimation and bi-goal evolution respectively, which significantly improve the performance of MOEAs for solving MOPs. We have developed an improved MOEA based on decomposition for solving MOPs with complex Pareto fronts. We have developed a grid-based evolutionary algorithm (GrEA) for solving MaOPs, which has become a state-of-the-art algorithm for solving MaOPs. We have proposed a diversity comparison indicator that greatly improves the efficiency of comparing the diversity performance of MOEAs for MaOPs. We have addressed an open issue of visual investigation of many-objective search by introducing a rectangle test problem that helps visually understand the behavior of MOEAs for solving MaOPs regarding both convergence and diversity of solutions.

6. We have applied EAs for solving real-world MOPs in several fields. For example, we have modelled the production process of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as an multi-objective optimisation problem and adapted/applied several MOEAs to solve the problem. We have also studied the load scheduling problem of multi-furnaces in electric smelting plants as an MOP and developed a multi-objective particle swarm optimisation algorithm to solve the problem with promising results.

7. We have further studied EAs for solving general dynamic optimisation problems (DOPs) with promising research outcomes. For example, we have developed an adaptive multi-population framework for designing EAs for locating and tracking multiple optima over time for continuous DOPs.

8. We have carried out some promising research on EAs for solving dynamic multi-objective optimisation problems (DMOPs). For example, we have developed a suit of benchmark DMOPs, which have different tunable dynamic features and hence facilitate the performance comparison of different EAs for solving DMOPs. We have also developed several efficient EAs, including a steady-state and generational EA (SGEA) and some prediction-based EAs, for solving DMOPs.

In total, the findings of the project have led to over 30 journal publications and over 30 conference publications so far.
Exploitation Route 1. The findings have been published in major journals and conferences in the domains of evolutionary computation in general and evolutionary computation in dynamic environments in particular.

2. Source codes of test dynamic network optimisation problems (DNOPs) and dynamic multi-objective optimisation problems (DMOPs) and developed evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to solve these problems have been made available online, which are being used by domain researchers.

3. Our research outcomes (especially the railway station train rescheduling simulator) have inspired interests from academia and industry. We are planning new research and application projects in the domain in cooperation with industries.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/publications.html
 
Description DMU Research Student Full-Bursary Scholarships 2012-13 (for an overseas student)
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description DMU Research Student Full-Bursary Scholarships 2014-15
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2013 
End 09/2016
 
Description De Montfort University Fee Waiver PhD Scholarships 2016-17
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 09/2019
 
Description De Montfort University Full-Bursary PhD Scholarships 2017-18
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description De Montfort University Research Student Full-Bursary Scholarships 2015-16
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation De Montfort University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 09/2018
 
Description Evolutionary Computation for Optimised Rail Travel (EsCORT)
Amount £62,134 (GBP)
Organisation Transport iNet 
Sector Public
Country Unknown
Start 11/2013 
End 02/2017
 
Description Horizon 2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowships
Amount € 195,455 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2015 
End 08/2017
 
Description Transport iNet
Amount £62,134 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Department European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 11/2013 
End 02/2015
 
Description Collaboration with Beijing University of Technology, China 
Organisation Beijing University of Technology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Through this project, we have built up research collaboration with the School of Automation, Beijing University of Technology, China, via research visits, giving seminars, co-supervising PhD, as a Visiting Professor.
Collaborator Contribution This collaboration has led to one joint paper accepted to a journal relevant to the EPSRC project.
Impact 1. K. Wang, X. Li, C. Jia, S. Yang, M. Li, and Y. Li. Multiobjective optimization of the production process for ground granulated blast furnace slags. Soft Computing, published online first: 04 August 2017 (DOI: 10.1007/s00500-017-2761-x).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China 
Organisation Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST)
Department School of Electronic and Information Engineering
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Through this project, I built up research collaboration with the College of Math and Physics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST), China, via several research visits, giving seminars, training young staff in the college, as a Visiting Professor to the college.
Collaborator Contribution This collaboration led to two journal papers relevant to the EPSRC project.
Impact 1. S. Yang, Y. Jiang, and T. T. Nguyen. Metaheuristics for dynamic combinatorial optimization problems. IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 24(4): 451-480, October 2013. 2. Y. Zhang, M. Peng and S. Yang. A clique-based online algorithm for constructing optical orthogonal codes. Applied Soft Computing, 47: 21-32, October 2016 (DOI: 10.1016/j.asoc.2016.05.024). 3. S. Yang, S. Jiang, and Y. Jiang. Improving the multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition with new penalty schemes. Soft Computing, 21(16): 4677-4691, August 2017 (DOI: 10.1007/s00500-016-2076-3).
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Northeastern University, China 
Organisation Northeastern University (China)
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Through this project, I enhanced the strong research collaboration with Prof. Tianyou Chai, Prof. Jinliang Ding, Prof. Xingwei Wang and Prof. Min Huang from Key Laboratory of Integrated Automation of Process Industry (Northeastern University), Ministry of Education, China, via several research visits, giving seminars, and co-supervising PhD students.
Collaborator Contribution This collaboration led to several journal and conference papers relevant to the EPSRC project.
Impact Journal Papers: 1. X. Wang, J. Zhang, M. Huang, and S. Yang. A green intelligent routing algorithm supporting flexible QoS for many-to-many multicast. Computer Networks, 126: 229-245, October 2017 (DOI: 10.1016/j.comnet.2017.07.010). 2. W. Kong, T. Chai, J. Ding, and S. Yang. Multifurnace optimization in electric smelting plants by load scheduling and control. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 11(3): 850-862, July 2014. 3. Y. Cui, M. Huang, S. Yang, L. H. Lee, and X. Wang. Fourth party logistics routing problem model with fuzzy duration time and cost discount. Knowledge-Based Systems, 50: 14-24, September 2013. 4. M. Huang, Y. Cui, S. Yang, and X. Wang. Fourth party logistics routing problem with fuzzy duration time. International Journal of Production Economics, 145(1): 107-116, September 2013. 5. W. Kong, T. Chai, S. Yang, and J. Ding. A hybrid evolutionary multiobjective optimization strategy for the dynamic power supply problem in magnesia grain manufacturing. Applied Soft Computing, 13(5): 2960-2969, March 2013. Conference Papers: 6. R. Hu, S. Yang, and X. Luo. Ant colony optimization for scheduling walking beam reheating furnaces. Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, pp. 621-626, 2014. 7. W. Kong, T. Chai, J. Ding, S. Yang, and X. Zheng. A multiobjective particle swarm optimization for load scheduling in electric smelting furnaces. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Engineering Solutions, pp. 188-195, 2013.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Collaboration with Xiangtan University, China 
Organisation Xiangtan University
PI Contribution Through this project, we have built up research collaboration with the College of Information Engineering, Xiangtan University, China, via research visits, giving seminars, co-supervising students, as a Visiting Professor.
Collaborator Contribution This collaboration has led to three joint journal papers and one conference paper published relevant to the EPSRC project.
Impact 1. J. Zou, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, Y. Liu, and J. Zheng. Adaptive neighborhood selection for many-objective optimization problems. Applied Soft Computing, 64: 186-198, March 2018 (DOI: 10.1016/j.asoc.2017.11.041). 2. J. Zou, Q. Li, S. Yang, H. Bai, and J. Zheng. A prediction strategy based on center points and knee points for evolutionary dynamic multi-objective optimization. Applied Soft Computing, 61: 806-818, December 2017 (DOI: 10.1016/j.asoc.2017.08.004). 3. G. Ruan, G. Yu, J. Zheng, J. Zou, and S. Yang. The effect of diversity maintenance on prediction in dynamic multi-objective optimization. Applied Soft Computing, 58: 631-647, September 2017 (DOI: 10.1016/j.asoc.2017.05.008). 4. L. Fu, J. Zou, S. Yang, G. Ruan, J. Zheng and Z. Ma. A proportion-based selection scheme for multi-objective optimization. Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence, pp. 2387-2393, 2017 (DOI: 10.1109/SSCI.2017.8285266).
Start Year 2016
 
Title C source code for diversity comparison of Pareto front approximations in many-objective optimization 
Description The source code in C is the implementation of a diversity comparison indicator (DCI) for comparing the diversity of Pareto front approximations in many-objective optimization, which was developed in the following paper: M. Li, S. Yang, and X. Liu. Diversity comparison of Pareto front approximations in many-objective optimization. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 44(12): 2568-2584, December 2014. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source code has been used by other researchers to compare the diversity of Pareto front approximations in many-objective optimization. The paper has been cited for 56 times according to Google Scholar on 10 March, 2018. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/DCI.rar
 
Title C source code for the multi-line distance minimization problem, a visualized many-objective test problem suite 
Description The C source code is the implementation of the multi-line distance minimization problem, which is a visualized many-objective optimisation test problem suite, developed in the following paper: M. Li, C. Grosan, S. Yang, X. Liu, and X. Yao. Multi-line distance minimization: A visualized many-objective test problem suite. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 22(1): 61-78, February 2018. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source code is recently released. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/ML-DMP.rar
 
Title C source code of an improved multi-objective optimization evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition 
Description The C source code is an implementation of an improved multi-objective optimization evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D) for solving multi-objective optimization problems with complex Pareto fronts, which was developed in the following paper: S. Jiang and S. Yang. An improved multi-objective optimization evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition for complex Pareto fronts. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 46(2): 421-437, February 2016. IEEE Press (DOI: 10.1109/TCYB.2015.2403131). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source code has been used by other researchers to compare their optimisation algorithms for solving multi-objective optimization problems with complex Pareto fronts. The paper has been cited for 42 times according to Google Scholar on 10 March, 2018. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/MOEAD-TPN.tar.gz
 
Title C source codes for a Euclidean minimum spanning tree-based evolutionary algorithm for multiobjective optimization problems 
Description The source codes in C are the implementation of a Euclidean minimum spanning tree-based evolutionary algorithm (ETEA) for solving multiobjective optimization problems, which was developed in the following paper: M. Li, S. Yang, J. Zheng, and X. Liu. ETEA: A Euclidean minimum spanning tree-based evolutionary algorithm for multiobjective optimization. Evolutionary Computation, 22(2): 189-230, Summer 2014. The MIT Press (DOI: 10.1162/EVCO_a_00106). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source codes have been used by some researchers to compare their optimisation algorithms for solving multiobjective optimization problems. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/ETEA.rar
 
Title C source codes for a strength pareto evolutionary algorithm based on reference direction for multi-objective optimization 
Description The C source code is an implementation for a strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm based on reference direction for multi-objective and many-objective optimization problems, which was developed in the following paper: S. Jiang and S. Yang. A strength pareto evolutionary algorithm based on reference direction for multi-objective and many-objective optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 21(3): 329-346, June 2017. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source codes have been used by some researchers to compare their optimisation algorithms for solving multi-objective optimization problems. Although recently released, the paper has been cited for 15 times according to Google Scholar on 09 March, 2018. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/SPEAR.tar.gz
 
Title C source codes for the grid-based evolutionary algorithm for many-objective optimization 
Description The source codes in C are the implementation of a grid-based evolutionary algorithm for solving many-objective optimization problems, developed in the following paper: S. Yang, M. Li, X. Liu, and J. Zheng. A grid-based evolutionary algorithm for many-objective optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 17(5): 721-736, October 2013. IEEE Press (DOI: 10.1109/TEVC.2012.2227145). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2013 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source codes have been widely used by many researchers to compare their optimisation algorithms for solving many-objective optimization problems. The relevant paper has been cited 200 times according to Google Scholar on 10 March, 2018. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/GrEA.tar.gz
 
Title C source codes for the shift-based density estimation scheme for Pareto-based algorithms in many-objective optimization 
Description The source codes in C are the implementation of the shift-based density estimation (SDE) strategy in order to make Pareto-based algorithms suitable for many-objective optimization problems, which was developed in the following paper: M. Li, S. Yang, and X. Liu. Shift-based density estimation for Pareto-based algorithms in many-objective optimization. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 18(3): 348-365, June 2014. IEEE Press (DOI: 10.1109/TEVC.2013.2262178). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source codes have been used by some researchers to compare their optimisation algorithms for solving many-objective optimization problems. The relevant paper has been cited 122 times according to Google Scholar on 10 March, 2018. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/SPEA2+SDE.rar
 
Title C++ source code for a DOP benchmark generator for analysis of fitness landscape modifications in evolutionary dynamic optimization 
Description Source Code in C++ for the implemented DOP benchmark generator proposed in the following paper: R. Tinos, and S. Yang. Analysis of fitness landscape modifications in evolutionary dynamic optimization. Information Sciences, 282: 214-236, October 2014. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2014 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source code has been used by some researchers to analyse optimisation algorithms for solving dynamic optimisation problems. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/dop_benchmark.zip
 
Title C++ source codes for a weighted biobjective transformation technique for locating multiple optimal solutions of nonlinear equation systems 
Description The C++ source code is an implementation for a weighted biobjective transformation technique for locating multiple optimal solutions of nonlinear equation systems, which was developed in the following paper: W. Gong, Y. Wang, Z. Cai, and S. Yang. A weighted biobjective transformation technique for locating multiple optimal solutions of nonlinear equation systems. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 21(5): 697-713, October 2017. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Recently released. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/WeB-NES.rar
 
Title C++ source codes of ant colony optimization algorithms for solving dynamic travelling salesman problems 
Description The source codes in C++ are the implementation of several ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms for solving dynamic travelling salesman problem with traffic factors, including the ACO algorithms with immigrants schemes developed in the following paper: M. Mavrovouniotis and S. Yang. Ant colony optimization with immigrants schemes for the dynamic travelling salesman problem with traffic factors. Applied Soft Computing, 13(10): 4023-4037, October 2013. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2013 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The source codes have been used by some researchers to compare their optimisation algorithms for solving dynamic travelling salesman problems. The paper has been cited for 91 times according to Google Scholar on 10 March 2018. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/ACODTSP.zip
 
Title C++ source codes of ant colony optimization algorithms for solving dynamic vehicle routing problems 
Description The source codes in C++ are the implementation of several ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithms for solving dynamic vehicle routing problems, including the ACO algorithms with immigrants schemes developed in the following paper: M. Mavrovouniotis and S. Yang. Ant algorithms with immigrants schemes for the dynamic vehicle routing problem. Information Sciences, 294: 456-477, February 2015. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact The paper has been cited for 39 times according to Google Scholar on 09 March, 2018. 
URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2014.10.002
 
Title C++ source codes of ant colony optimization with local search for solving dynamic travelling salesman problems 
Description The source codes in C++ are the implementation of an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm with local search for solving dynamic travelling salesman problems, which was developed in the following paper: M. Mavrovouniotis, F. M. Muller, and S. Yang. Ant colony optimization with local search for dynamic travelling salesman problems. IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics, 47(7): 1743-1756, July 2017. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact The source codes have been used by some researchers to compare their optimisation algorithms for solving dynamic travelling salesman problems. 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/MMAS_US.zip
 
Title Matlab source code for a two-phase differential evolution for uniform designs in constrained experimental domains 
Description The Matlab source code is an implementation for a two-phase differential evolution for uniform designs in constrained experimental domains, which was developed in the following paper: Y. Wang, B. Xu, G. Sun, and S. Yang. A two-phase differential evolution for uniform designs in constrained experimental domains. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 21(5): 665-680, October 2017. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2017 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Recently released 
URL http://www.tech.dmu.ac.uk/~syang/Codes/ToPDE.rar
 
Description Seminar talk, University of Portsmouth, UK, 27th November, 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Creative Technologies, University of Portsmouth, UK on 27th November, 2013. The talk sparkled questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Co-organised the 2016 EPSRC Workshop on Network Optimisation, held at University of Birmingham, 09/03/2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Around 20 people from both academia and industry attended the Workshop and exchanged ideas via invited presentations and discussion sessions in the area of network optimisation and evolutionary computation. Attendants actively discussed real-world challenges and research challenges. New potential cooperation between academic and industry has been discussed, which may lead to further projects in the domain of evolutionary computation for network optimisation problems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar talk, Anhui University, China, 10 August, 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Computer Science and Technology, Anhui University, China on 10 August, 2015. The talk sparkled questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Seminar talk, Aston University, UK, 20 May, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, UK, 20 May, 2016. The talk sparkled questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar talk, Beijing University of Technology, China, 05 April, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the Faculty of Information Technology, Beijing University of Technology, China, 05 April, 2017. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar talk, Beijing University of Technology, China, 06 April, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, China on 06 April, 2016. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards and helped establish our research cooperation with the College of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar talk, Central South University, China, 24 August, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, China, 24 August, 2017. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar talk, Central South University, China, 24 June, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, China, 24 June, 2016. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards and helped establish our research cooperation with the School.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://sise.csu.edu.cn/info/1005/1833.htm
 
Description Seminar talk, Central South University, China, 7 April, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Information Science and Engineering, Central South University, China, 7 April, 2017. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://sise.csu.edu.cn/info/1005/4650.htm
 
Description Seminar talk, China University of Geosciences, China, 11 April, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Automation, China University of Geosciences, China, 11 April, 2017. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://au.cug.edu.cn/info/1053/1117.htm
 
Description Seminar talk, Dalian University of Technology, China, 23 July, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Control Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, China, 23 July, 2014. The talk sparkled questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar talk, Hengyang Normal University, China, 31 March, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the College of Computer Science and Technology, Hengyang Normal University, China, 31 March, 2016, to over 200 students and staff members. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar talk, Hunan University, China, 10 April, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, China, 10 April, 2017. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar talk, Jiangnan University, China, 22 July, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Internet of Things Engineering, Jiangnan University, China, 22 July, 2014. The talk sparkled questions and discussions and led to future research cooperation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar talk, Liaocheng University, China, 27 June, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the School of Computer Science, Liaocheng University, China, 27 June, 2016. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Seminar talk, Loughborough University, UK, 4th December, 2013. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the Department of Computer Science, Loughborough University, UK on 4th December, 2013. The talk sparkled questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Seminar talk, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China, 21 July, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the College of Science, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China on 21 July, 2014. The talk sparkled questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar talk, Nanjing University, China, 31 August, 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the Department of Computer Science and Technology, Nanjing University, China, 31 August, 2017. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://keysoftlab.nju.edu.cn/5c/24/c1578a220196/page.htm
 
Description Seminar talk, Northeastern University, China, 14 July, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China, 14 July, 2014. The talk sparkled questions and discussions and further enhanced our research cooperation with the College of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Seminar talk, University of Exeter, UK, 28 September, 2017. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, UK, 28 September, 2017. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://emps.exeter.ac.uk/news-events/events-colloquia/event/?semID=2044&dateID=4650
 
Description Seminar talk, University of Warwick, UK, 23rd May, 2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, UK on 23rd May, 2013. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Seminar talk, Xiangtan University, China, 29 March, 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I was invited to give a seminar talk at the College of Information Engineering, Xiangtan University, China, 29 March, 2016, to over 200 BSc, MSc and PhD students and staff members. The talk sparkled questions and discussions afterwards and enhanced our research cooperation with the College.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016