A Coordinated, Comprehensive approach to Carbon Capture and Utilisation

Lead Research Organisation: University of Sheffield
Department Name: Chemical & Biological Engineering

Abstract

There is a great deal of social angst about the future of our energy supplies and the impact of energy use on climate change. Yet, daily we discard vast amounts of energy in the form of wet wastes whose carbon content is eventually evolved to the environment. Anaerobic digestion, where wastes are consumed by bacteria in the absence of oxygen, is increasingly being used to convert the wastes into a stream of methane (i.e. natural gas). Unfortunately, the process also produces large quantities of CO2 which itself contributes to global warming and so subtracts from the environmental advantages of digestion. This project is looking at ways in which a portion of the methane can be used to convert the CO2 into fuel. The fuel that would be produced will be nearly carbon neutral in that it is made from carbon that otherwise would be released to the environment and because it displaces the use of fossil fuels. In order to demonstrate that there really are net energy benefits from taking this approach we will use whole process studies to track mass and energy flows. Moreover, we will tap into some of the latest thinking in quantitative sustainability analysis and consider simultaneously the environmental, economic and social impact of what we propose. We believe that social acceptability is a key criterion for introducing technology of this sort and we will be consulting stakeholders and incorporating their views into our analyses. We see a future in which CO2 will be sustainably captured and converted into valuable materials - Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU). Our work will ensure a comprehensive and coordinated approach to the environmental case for CCU.
Not only is development of novel and necessarily complex processes required but also there will need to be real chemical engineering advances in terms of unit operations, materials and reaction routes. We have assembled a top level team of chemical engineers, physical chemists, theoretical chemists, environmental analysts and materials scientists to tackle this problem They will work on novel ways of separating the CO2 from the methane using a recently developed class of solvent materials, Ionic Liquids, that do not evaporate and which do not therefore create atmospheric emissions. These will be used in conjunction with a recent invention, the microbubble contactor, which promises drastically to cut the energy costs of the separation. The theoretical and physical chemists will look at novel approaches to catalysis which will let the reactions occur at under "green" conditions of temperature and pressure and the chemical engineers will look at novel reactors including high temperature gas electrolysis and corona assisted CO2 reduction.

Planned Impact

Using the RCUK Typology, we see this project as having impact in five fields:
- Environmental sustainability, protection and impact
- Commercialisation and Exploitation
- Improving social welfare, social cohesion and/or national security
- Evidence based policy making and influencing public policies
- Increasing public engagement with research and related societal issues.
In fact, the social, environmental and economic importance of significant scale production of a sustainable, high energy density, economically viable, hydrocarbon fuel, derived from CO2, would be difficult to overestimate. However, the chemistry is thermodynamically adverse and feasible process routes to this objective have yet to be proven. This project will take a comprehensive and coordinated approach, pushing forward towards this far reaching objective. It will do so in a way which is both general, by working on novel ideas which are applicable across a broad range of applications of whatever scale, and specific by looking at a particular example of a local scale water industry process which provides a particularly fecund test bed for the ideas that we are developing. The beneficiaries from this work will therefore be:

Society because of:

The impact on Carbon emissions, sustainability and the environment
The lowered disruption to economic infrastructure required to achieve that environmental improvement
The opportunities for improved security of energy supply
The potential for stable and predictable energy prices
The availability of a broader range of validated energy options involving Carbon utilisation, leading to improved public engagement, a more informed public debate and better evidence based policy making

The UK Economy generally and in particular:

The water industry because of our detailed focus on the important area of water industry activity leading to validated processes for sustainable production of fuels from waste. During the project we will generate detailed information about a wide range of process options of direct relevance to the water industry. These will be of significant and immediate benefit as they fit directly in to the Industry's own development plans for the next decade. This is part of an important national trend injecting more process engineering into water treatment and engendering a greater concentration on process efficiency.

Wider industry wherever there are large scale CO2 emissions (steel, cement, oil, gas etc) or an interest in selling solutions to carbon emissions problems (see letter of support from Tata Steel). This will generate impact over the longer term because we will lead the way in developing new and validated methodologies for assessing sustainability and process efficiency in the context of applying leading edge technology.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Interactions of CO2 with ionic liquids.
Reactivity of copper oxide surfaces towards CO2 conversion
Nature of the nickel-zirconia interface
Microbubble assisted CO2 absorption and desorption
Advances in CO2 utilisation using non-thermal plasma discharge
Exploitation Route Our computational findings interpret experimental results and suggest routes towards improvement of materials properties
Sectors Energy,Environment

URL http://4cu.org.uk/
 
Description Internationally, CO2 recycling has been highlighted as a Societal Grand Challenge in a wide range of recent surveys, particularly those focusing on the Chemistry/Chemical Engineering Interface. The societal importance of a sustainable, high energy density, economically viable low carbon fuel would be hard to overestimate. This is, however, a relatively new idea so that, of necessity, our work started from a very small literature base and required the establishment of appropriate teams from scratch. After the first 2 years, the most impact from this project, therefore, lies in knowledge development and dissemination (novel techniques, scientific papers and international collaborations/dissemination of research findings) and on people (teams established, demonstrable staff progression and research awards). We continue to view the major social and economic impacts from this work as achievable in the medium and long term. More immediately: • Public engagement remains important to us and we are working closely with key stakeholders to ensure that public views on CCU are addressed, analysed and communicated effectively. • We are working with policy makers to raise profile of CCU, to support strategic research agendas and to participate in definition of funding policies. • Our research aims to support the UK strategy to meet the 2050 emissions reduction targets (80% reduction from 1990 baseline) & Energy Security. • Because of our research & expertise, we are forming industry partnerships through CO2Chem and UKTI. As an example, Mantra Energy Alternatives Ltd set up an office in the UK. • We are using outputs from our research to apply for further funding. • We are using our expertise to develop a national pilot scale facility with University of Manchester and York to translate CCU to UK industry.
First Year Of Impact 2013
Sector Energy,Environment
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description EEUK funding Community Matters
Amount £6,500 (GBP)
Organisation Enterprise educators UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 12/2015
 
Description ERS Do Fund - LabView course - Mr P Desai
Amount £250 (GBP)
Organisation University of Sheffield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2014 
End 12/2014
 
Description Energy Catalyst Round 4
Amount £299,848 (GBP)
Funding ID 81773-494638 TS/P007848/1 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description HORIZON 2020
Amount £500,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 08/2016 
End 08/2018
 
Description High Temperature Materials Division Young Faculty Travel Grant
Amount $600 (USD)
Organisation Electrochemical Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 10/2013 
End 11/2013
 
Description Horizon 2020
Amount € 4,100,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 05/2019 
End 04/2023
 
Description Industrial Biotech Catalyst
Amount £2,211,665 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N011511/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description Mathematica Workshop Director - 5 day course - Mr P Desai
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Sheffield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2014 
End 10/2014
 
Description On Campus YES! - Intern Spend - Mr P Desai
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Sheffield 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 08/2015
 
Description Researcher Links - Dr Rebecca Taylor and Dr Nathan Hollingsworth Travel Grant
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2015 
End 03/2015
 
Description Travel grant to attend the APS-DFD15 at MIT Boston USA from 21 - 24 November 2015 - Mr P Desai
Amount £500 (GBP)
Organisation Florida Physical Therapy Association 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 10/2015 
End 11/2015
 
Description Travel grant to attend the APS-DFD15 at MIT Boston USA from 21 - 24 November 2015 - Mr P Desai
Amount £300 (GBP)
Organisation Institute of Physics (IOP) 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2015 
End 11/2015
 
Description Algal biodiesel production 
Organisation Monte Cristo Engineering & Development
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We developed, based on exploratory discussions with Monte Cristo and Perlemax, a microbubble and plasma mediated method for esterification and hydrolysis, particularly applicable for biodiesel production, that exploits microbubble distillation.
Collaborator Contribution Perlemax invented the approach and with Monte Cristo, proposed the pilot plant design and campaign to develope the upscaling.
Impact A licensing and collaboration agreement is in place between Perlemax and Monte Cristo, which includes £5m in the wider partnership on the production of algal biodiesel using this approach for the demonstration plant.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Algal biodiesel production 
Organisation Perlemax
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We developed, based on exploratory discussions with Monte Cristo and Perlemax, a microbubble and plasma mediated method for esterification and hydrolysis, particularly applicable for biodiesel production, that exploits microbubble distillation.
Collaborator Contribution Perlemax invented the approach and with Monte Cristo, proposed the pilot plant design and campaign to develope the upscaling.
Impact A licensing and collaboration agreement is in place between Perlemax and Monte Cristo, which includes £5m in the wider partnership on the production of algal biodiesel using this approach for the demonstration plant.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Cleaning with plasma microbubbles and beads 
Organisation Perlemax
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Brainstormed the possibility that ozone microbubbles will defoul / regenerate catalyst active sites for cleaning on Xeros' polymer cleaning beads. Organised a feasibility study to use the prototype developed in this grant to conduct a feasibility study. The team came up with new designs for better plasma microreactors (more durable materials).
Collaborator Contribution Perlemax sponsored the doctoral studentship of Dr Tom Holmes, which included pilot scale trials of the first prototype developed in this grant in final effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Perlemax hired a consultant to plan the development work with Xeros. Xeros sponsored a feasibility study to use the ozone microbubble generator as an in situ disinfection and cleaning agent, joint with their patented polymer beads. They have subsequently filed a patent with me as co-creative inventor.
Impact The partnership is just completing a KTP funded by InnovateUK for technology transfer and development work. We expect the collaboration to continue and are currently exploring the nature and components of the next stage of development work.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Cleaning with plasma microbubbles and beads 
Organisation Xeros Technology Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Brainstormed the possibility that ozone microbubbles will defoul / regenerate catalyst active sites for cleaning on Xeros' polymer cleaning beads. Organised a feasibility study to use the prototype developed in this grant to conduct a feasibility study. The team came up with new designs for better plasma microreactors (more durable materials).
Collaborator Contribution Perlemax sponsored the doctoral studentship of Dr Tom Holmes, which included pilot scale trials of the first prototype developed in this grant in final effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Perlemax hired a consultant to plan the development work with Xeros. Xeros sponsored a feasibility study to use the ozone microbubble generator as an in situ disinfection and cleaning agent, joint with their patented polymer beads. They have subsequently filed a patent with me as co-creative inventor.
Impact The partnership is just completing a KTP funded by InnovateUK for technology transfer and development work. We expect the collaboration to continue and are currently exploring the nature and components of the next stage of development work.
Start Year 2012
 
Title Bubble Generation to Strip Components of a Liquid 
Description Major claim is the more than doubling methane production from anaerobic digesters when treated with microbubbles. 
IP Reference WO2014060740 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact EU R3Water grant for pilot and industrial scale testing on wastewater sludge digesters
 
Title Mass Transfer Processes With Limited Sensible Heat Exchange 
Description Demonstration that evaporation occurs in microbubbles rapidly, much faster than sensible heat transfer, so that vaporisation can be controlled to incur little temperature change to the volatile liquid. 
IP Reference WO2014079993 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2014
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact Arranged an industrial consortium of the bioethanol production and supply chain to promote pilot and industrial scale trialling. Licensing to a USA biodiesel engineering and development company for specific uses in intensification of biodiesel production.
 
Description 10th International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Toxas (Spain), 19-24 June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact EIS2016 was a week-long conference on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), focusing on three main applications: energy, corrosion and sensors, as well as looking at theory and experimental methods.
A Thomson gave an oral presentation entitled "Finite Element Modelling to probe the influence of porosity on Impedance Spectra of YSZ-based ceramics", describing work done adapting the in-house Finite Element Modelling (FEM) program to give output data of greater accuracy for material parameters based on YSZ. Also, the potential applications of the model were discussed, in particular to investigate microstructural effects such as porosity on materials for fuel cells.
The conference was a good opportunity to learn from what other people are doing with EIS and novel materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 16th International Congress on Catalysis (ICC 16), Beijing (China), 3-8 July 2016 [Dr Rebecca Taylor] 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Catalysis conference with section on CO2 capture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 229th ECS meeting, San Diego, 29th May-2nd June 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact All four 4CU members who attended [Christopher Tumilson, Xavi Aparicio-Angles, Abdelaziz Essadek & Ann Call] gave oral presentations on the work being carried out in SP5. Presentations entitled "Analysis of High Temperature Co-Electrolysis Cells Via Eletrochemical and Surface Spectroscopy", "Development of the Oxide Ion Conductor Na0.5Bi0.49TiO3 (NBT) for Solid Oxide Cells", "A DFT Study of CO2-H2 Co-Adsorption on Ni/YSZ(111) for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications" and "Molecular Dynamic Study of Gadolinium Doped Ceria and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Grain Boundaries", were presented by Ann, Chris, Abdou and Xavi respectively. All presentations were well received, with all talks attracting at least 50 audience members. There was also a lot of networking taking place between the members of 4CU and other attendees, both in fields familiar to 4CU, as well as unfamiliar topics, to diversify the knowledge base within the project. Specifically, Abdou and Xavi got a potential collaboration with Beatriz Molero Sanchez, from University of Calgary, to study sulphur poisoning on La0.3Sr0.7Cr0.3Fe0.7O3-d and La0.3Ca0.7Cr0.3Fe0.7O3-d respectively. Both materials are used in SOFC.

Further awareness of 4CU, combined with potential links to other groups, e.g. the various groups monitoring SOCs using in situ methods.

Greater awareness in the academic community about the work being carried out by 4CU, as well as networking with various members of the research community who specialise in various fields covered in SP5.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 4CU & High Temperature Electrochemistry by AV Call at High Temperature Electrochemistry for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Sheffield, UK (16 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An auxiliary purpose of the meeting was to bring leaders in SOC research to the University of Sheffield to show them 4CU's accomplishments and capabilities as well as the strengths of the university in CDU activities. The focus was to start new collaborations and to state that the problems which we are addressing with our research are worldwide issues. There were participants from several universities in the UK and worldwide (Denmark, Germany, USA, Australia, Korea).

Reception of the meeting has been very positive from everyone that has attended and there is interest in making this a reoccurring meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 4CU-Whole system approach for sustainable conversion of CO2 into fuel by G. Dowson at ICCDU XIII, 5-9 July 2015, Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of 4CU work, across several sub packages further raised the profile of the 4CU project and the work being done at UCL, Queen's Belfast and the University of Sheffield. The role of the University of Sheffield was especially prominent due to the announcement of the subsequent ICCDU (2016) being hosted there. Future collaborations and potential research visits were discussed with 4CU was once-again noted in being rare for having a "fully system approach" where all steps of CDU processes are investigated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 4CU: A Comprehensive, Coordinated Approach to Carbon Capture and Utilisation - Electrocatalytic co-reduction (AIChE, November 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral paper presented at AIChE 2013, San Francisco introducing the 4CU programme grant and its objectives, with more details on the sub-project 5 on electrocatalytic co-reduction of CO2 into syngas. This talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Increased awareness of the 4CU programme grant and its objectives as well as the current research undertaken in the project of co-electrolysis to an audience of scientists working in the field of carbon dioxide utilisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL https://aiche.confex.com/aiche/2013/webprogram/Paper339465.html
 
Description 4CU: A Comprehensive, Coordinated Approach to Carbon Capture and Utilisation - Spectroscopic methods for investigating electrocatalytic co-reduction (ICCDU XII, June 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral paper presented at the International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Utilization XII, Washington, 2013 on the objectives of the 4CU programme grant, summarising the different sub-projects and describing in details the current and future work on SP5 electrocatalytic reduction, especially the development of in-situ spectroscopy techniques. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

The talk informed the scientists working in the field of carbon dioxide utilisation about the work currently undertaken in the UK as part of the 4CU programme grant and more specifically about the high temperature co-electrolysis work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 5 Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for In-Situ Analysis of Co-Electrolysis by C Tumilson at 67th Irish Universities Chemistry Research Colloquium, Maynooth, Republic of Ireland (25-26 June, 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation was well received and stimulated a discussion about the low temperature CO adsorption & desorption in similar materials analysed by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 5 Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for In-Situ Analysis of Co-Electrolysis by R Taylor at The Science behind CO2 Capture and Conversion, Varadero, Cuba (24-28 June, 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A great opportunity to raise the profile of 4CU and present the work to date. Better understanding and overall view of the several SPs presented at the conference with the opportunity to develop transversal skills among the participants.
The work presented at this conference has been recognised and commented on by international leaders in the field of CO2 reduction. The work presented by Rebecca on in situ studies was received interest from both Prof Marc Robert (electrochemistry expert, Paris) and Dr Atsushi Urakawa (Catalonia) both through questions during the questions section of the talk and in discussions after the session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A DFT study of CO2 adsorption on Ni/YSZ(111): Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application by A.-A. Essadek at ICCDU XIII, 5-9 July 2015, Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of 4CU work, across several sub packages further raised the profile of the 4CU project and the work being done at UCL, Queen's Belfast and the University of Sheffield. The role of the University of Sheffield was especially prominent due to the announcement of the subsequent ICCDU (2016) being hosted there. Future collaborations and potential research visits were discussed with 4CU was once-again noted in being rare for having a "fully system approach" where all steps of CDU processes are investigated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A DFT study of H2O and CO adsorption on Ni/YSZ(111): Solid Oxide Fuel Cell application by A Cadi-Essadek at MGMS Young Modellers Forum 2014, London, UK (28 November 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The conference, being computational, led to many ideas for our computational research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description A DFT study of H2O, CO2, and CO adsorption on Ni/YSZ(111): Solid Oxide Fuel Cell application by A Cadi-Essadek at 6th International Conference on Fundamentals and Development of Fuel Cells: FDFC2015, Toulouse, France (3-5 February 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. Potential collaboration with experimentalists (Dr. Enkhtsetseg Dashjav) who use similar material (Ni/YSZ/SYT) than the one used in our modelling and experiments (Ni/YSZ). Potential collaboration with Prof. Annick Hubin who models the YDC/YDC interface using larger scale than our modelling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A Global Kinetic Model for a CO2 Plasma Discharge in a Corona Reactor (ICCDU XII, June 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral paper presented at the International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Utilization XII, Washington, June 2013 on the development of a kinetic model to understand the rate of CO2 molecules dissociation in a corona plasma reactor. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Following the talk and during the poster session, new contact was made with University of Antwerp. This was followed up by a visit by Prof Annemie Bogaerts to The University of Sheffield for a guest seminar and further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description A Study of 8YSZ/GDC Bi-layered Electrolyte: the effect of 2 mol% Fe2O3 dopant on sintering and conductivity by AS Mehranjani at ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV, Glasgow, Scotland (26-31 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The most recent work on bi-layered electrolytes was presented at a poster session and was well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ma.ecsdl.org/content/MA2015-03/1/324.abstract
 
Description Amino-acid ammonium ionic liquids: organisation and dynamic by M Mercy at CP2K UK Users Meeting, London, UK (6th February 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The lightning presentation promoted further discussions about the molecular dynamics modelling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Application of life cycle assessment to process design: Carbon capture and utilisation (LCA XIV, October 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Giving a platform presentation in such forum enabled Dr Rosa Cuellar Franca to discuss her work in 4CU with people from industry such as SABIC and BOEING, who have common interests with CCU and fuels production. Dr Cuellar Franca received very useful feedback and comments for future work.

Academic members from the Global Climate and Energy Project from Stanford University showed particular interest in the development of novel catalysts based on ionic liquids, as they are working in something similar but at a very smaller scale (they were overwhelmed with the projection of the 4CU project!)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://lcacenter.org/lcaxiv/abstracts/abstract-dynamic.php?id=987
 
Description Bio-inspired Fe3S4 Nano-catalysts for CO2 Conversion by N Hollingsworth at Electrochemical solutions for contemporary problems (ELSOL) Workshop, Sao Paulo, Brazil (9-13 March 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Networking within the electrochemical community, the opportunity to raise the profile of 4CU and present the work to date. Potential collaboration identified and education on funding opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Bio-inspired Sulphide catalysts for CO2 reduction: DFT study by A Roldan at 15th International Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Catalysis (ICTAC15), London, UK (30 June- 4 July 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The talk was well received and promoted further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CO2 Adsorption and Conversion on Copper (I) Oxide Surfaces : A First-Principles Theoretical Study (Professor CNR Rao 80th Birthday Symposium, June 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster sparked questions and discussion.

No notable impact on this occasion
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CO2 Capture and Conversion on Copper Oxides by A Kumar Mishra at CDAMOP-2015, New Delhi, India (11-14 March 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The talk was well received and promoted further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description CO2 Capture in Superbase Ionic Liquids by C. McCrellis at ICCDU XIII, 5-9 July 2015, Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of 4CU work, across several sub packages further raised the profile of the 4CU project and the work being done at UCL, Queen's Belfast and the University of Sheffield. The role of the University of Sheffield was especially prominent due to the announcement of the subsequent ICCDU (2016) being hosted there. Future collaborations and potential research visits were discussed with 4CU was once-again noted in being rare for having a "fully system approach" where all steps of CDU processes are investigated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description CO2 capture and electrochemical conversion using superbasic [P66614][124-Triz] by N. Hollingsworth at Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: Faraday Discussion, 7-9 September 2015, Sheffield, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The subsequent lengthy discussion concerned details of the electrolysis setup and the nature of the CO2 reduction in ionic liquids. A question from P. Styring concerning the cost of ionic liquids prompted a discussion about the nature, economics and real-world performance of ionic liquids as CO2 capture agents. Key questions in this area came from Geoffrey Maitland, Imperial College London and Michael Priestnall, Innovate UK. The answers given were received well and prompted further discussions about reactive capture of CO2 from dilute stream to directly generate products without a discrete capture step and the nature of desirable capture agents.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2015/fd/c5fd00091b
 
Description CO2 capture and utilisation using Ionic Liquids by C Hardacre at The Science behind CO2 Capture and Conversion, Varadero, Cuba (June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited plenary talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description CO2 capture under wet and dry conditions utilising ionic liquids composed of superbase anions (248th ACS National Meeting, August 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presenting in the gas solubility and separations session gave an opportunity to showcase the 4CU programme and in particular the work of novel sorbents sub-project in front of experts in the field of ILs and CO2 capture. The talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

Attending such conference is an opportunity to see what the rest of the field is doing. Prof. Joan Brennecke and her group are looking at the same class of ILs as our team is currently studying. Her talk gave useful information on exactly what has been studied/is currently being studied for comparison with our own results and also allows us to direct our studies better.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CO2 hydrogenation to formic acid on Cu2O(111): A DFT(D)+U Study by A. Mishra at ICCDU XII, 5-9 July 2015, Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of 4CU work, across several sub packages further raised the profile of the 4CU project and the work being done at UCL, Queen's Belfast and the University of Sheffield. The role of the University of Sheffield was especially prominent due to the announcement of the subsequent ICCDU (2016) being hosted there. Future collaborations and potential research visits were discussed with 4CU was once-again noted in being rare for having a "fully system approach" where all steps of CDU processes are investigated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Capture of CO2 by amino-ionic liquids: a DFT study at CECAM Workshop, Lausanne, Switzerland (June 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Maxime Mercy presented a poster "Molecular Modelling of Amino acid-based Ionic Liquids for CO2 capture". This allowed positive feedback from the experts in the field of ionic liquids simulation.
The talk given by Dr Orlando Acevedo on the QM/MM approach for reactions in ionic liquids was very promising in its treatment of the chemistry of ionic liquids. This highlighted the importance of developing accurate force-fields.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Carbon Capture and Storage Faraday Discussion, Sheffield, 18-20 July 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 3 talks from 4CU Programme Grant (including one invited talk) lead to interesting discussion regarding the value of CO2 as a feedstock (utilisation) rather than seeing CO2 as a waste (storage)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Are we Wasting a Valuable Resource? (RAENg Regional Lecture, March 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Royal Academy of Engineering Regional Lecture - Abstract "The increasingly certain link between global warming and Carbon Dioxide emissions now makes it necessary to change perspective and examine ways of re-using CO2 rather than simply discarding it through a stack. In the last few years, building upon doubts about the long term value of sequestration as a control option, this has led to an increasing, world-wide interest in Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) as a research area. This talk will look at the inherent difficulties involved. These include separating the CO2, making it sufficiently reactive that new products can be formed at minimal energy inputs and choosing the best techniques to use to demonstrate any environmental benefits that CDU might bring.". Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

The talk raised awareness of carbon dioxide utilisation and the work currently undergoing at the University of Sheffield and in the UK to use carbon dioxide as feedstock rather than waste
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Carbon Dioxide conversion to biofuel (biomethane) using microbubble generated by fluidic oscillation (ICCDU XII, June 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Paper presented at the International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Utilization XII, Washington, June 2013 on the separation of Methane and CO2 from anaerobic digester using Microbubble technology. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

No notable impact
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Carbon capture and utilisation: Application of life cycle thinking to process design (PSE2015/ESCAPE25, Copenhagen, Denmark, May-June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The presentation was a great opportunity to show the excellent synergy between process modelling (SP1) and sustainability assessment (SP2) for developing more sustainable novel technologies such as CCU.

The simplified methodology proposed for integrating LCA to process design had a positive response among the PSE/CAPE community. The work presented led to very interesting discussions with people from industry. For example, emphasising that a life cycle approach allows us to understand that process integration is one of the many ways (and not the only one) for improving the performance of a process; and the key role communication plays between engineers and LCA analysts for developing more sustainable systems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Carbon capture and utilisation: Environmental impacts of synthetic fuels from waste CO2 (SETAC Europe 20th LCA Case Study Symposium, Novi Sad, Serbia, November 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The presentation of the work conducted in SP2 in collaboration with SP1 gave an opportunity to spread the word about the 4CU project. The audience, which was mainly comprised by academics across Europe, welcomed the "4CU project" with a very positive response. Most questions focused on the drivers and motivations behind the 4CU project, and other very specific related to the Life cycle assessment methodology applied in SP2.

The scope of the 4CU project had a very positive impact among the conference attendees and a recurring question during my conversations with other delegates was regarding the reason why 4CU wants to convert CO2 into fuels and not chemicals, for example.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://lcanovisad.setac.eu/embed/LCANoviSad/files/programmebook_v5.pdf
 
Description Carbon dioxide utilisation for synthetic fuel production: Process analysis (ChemEngDay UK, April 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Generated interest in the comprehensive approach of the project where techno economic impact is evaluated for current and developed technologies

no notable impact at this stage of the project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Co-electrolysis of Carbon Dioxide and Steam for a Carbon Neutral Fuel Cycle (AIChE Annual Meeting, Atlanta, USA, November 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Giving a presentation in such an important chemical engineering conference enabled us to discuss our work in 4CU with academics from Princeton University and West Virginia University who have common interests with CCU and fuels production. We received very useful comments and many questions were asked by the audience, which showed interest from the CCU community.

The scope of the 4CU project had a very positive impact among the conference attendees and there was a lot of interest in the specifics of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://aiche.confex.com/aiche/2014/webprogram/Paper384814.html
 
Description Commissioning of a Pulsed Corona Discharge Reactor for CO2 Reduction by M Moss at International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Antwerp, Belgium (5-10 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Networking within the plasma physics community, the opportunity to raise the profile of 4CU and present the work to date. Potential collaborations were identified.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Cu2O surfaces reconstruction and CO2 adsorption: A DFT(D)+U Study (15th International Conference on Theoretical Aspects of Catalysis (ICTAC15), June 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

No notable impact reported
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Development of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for In-Situ Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells by DJ Cumming at Faraday Discussion: Solid Oxide Electrolysis: Fuels and Feedstocks from Water and Air, York, UK (13-15 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The theme of the meeting was of direct interest to our efforts in SP5 and the dissemination of the work done on DRIFTS was of interest to this audience in particular as a method to assess surface reactions in situ. Several groups mentioned having tried to develop DRIFTS for this type of research and were not able to make it as far as 4CU has.
Publication of "Development of a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for In Situ Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells" in Faraday Discussions (Impact factor 4.606), Volume 182.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Development of the Oxide Ion Conductor Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) for Solid Oxide Cells by C Tumilson at Supergen H2FC Researchers Conference, Birmingham, UK (15-17 December 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Promoted good discussion about the development of the oxide ion conductors for solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells. The audience was interested in the novel idea of using Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) material for solid oxide fuel cell application.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for In-Situ Analysis of Co-Electrolysis by DJ Cumming at Supergen H2FC Researchers Conference, Birmingham, UK (15-17 December 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Across the UK, most people are focused on fuel-cells rather than electrolysis applications, but there was some mention of the need for grid balancing and energy storage, for example using electrolysis, producing hydrogen. It was interesting to see how cell monitoring techniques tie into other aspects of research. There is a large scope for methods to determine cell performance. Ian Metcalfe from the University of Newcastle commented they had done similar DRIFTs work, but never published the results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) for In-Situ Analysis of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (ECS - Electrochemical Society, October 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of the results to the academic and industry-based researchers (approximately 20 people). Promoted the 4CU project to the international community.

xxxxx
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://ecs.confex.com/ecs/226/webprogram/Paper41541.html
 
Description Effect of Impurities on the Capture of CO2 using Superbase Ionic Liquids by J Jacquemin at 19th Symposium on Thermophysical properties, Boulder, Colorado, USA (June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk sparked a number of questions and discussion afterwards about the effect of impurities on the performance of the ionic liquids. An increased interest has been observed in the area of CO2 capture and release using ionic liquids.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Effect of the presence of MEA on the CO2 capture of superbase ionic liquids by C McCrellis at 67th Irish Universities Chemistry Research Colloquium, Maynooth, Republic of Ireland (25-26 June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Wider awareness within Irish universities of the work being carried out by 4CU, specifically in SP3 & SP5.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Effects of Particle Size and gas composition on discharge phenomena in a packed bed plasma reactor for reduction of CO2 by T Butterworth at International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Antwerp, Belgium (5-10 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Networking within the plasma physics community, the opportunity to raise the profile of 4CU and present the work to date. Potential collaborations were identified.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Electrochemical Conversion using Superbase Ionic Liquids by R Taylor at Electrochemical solutions for contemporary problems (ELSOL) Workshop, Sao Paulo, Brazil (9-13 March 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Networking within the electrochemical community, the opportunity to raise the profile of 4CU and present the work to date. Potential collaboration identified and education on funding opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Data from Solid Oxide Cells Undergoing Co-Electrolysis: The Influence of Rig Inductance by AR Thompson at ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV, Glasgow, Scotland (26-31 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact During the questions, AT was thanked for highlighting the importance of inductance correction and there was a discussion on various possible methods to correct for inductance. Conference proceedings published in ECS Transactions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ecst.ecsdl.org/content/68/1/3417.abstract?sid=248aaf70-f385-44f5-93f8-eb101c7b6633
 
Description High Efficiency Ionic Liquid Carbon Dioxide Capture Using Novel Contacting Methods at CO2 Forum, Lyon, France (September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of 4CU work, especially of low energy cost routes for carbon capture from dilute streams (SP3) and techno-economic assessments (SP1) further raised the profile of the 4CU project and the work being done specifically at the University of Sheffield. Future collaborations and potential research visits were discussed with the Joint Research Centre (European Commission). 4CU was noted in being rare for having a "fully system approach" where all steps of CDU processes are investigated.

One major outcome of the meeting from a policy perspective was to highlight that CDU had been overlooked as a technology for major change in CO2 emissions and that this viewpoint should be challenged.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description ICC conference 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Conference presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ICCDU XVI, 12th-15th September 2016, Sheffield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 9 talks & one Keynote (Prof P Styring)

- "Production of Liquid Fuels from Biogas through High-Temperature Co-Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide: an Environmental Assessment", Dr P Garcia-Gutierrez
- "Investigation of Co-Electrolysis Processes in Solid Oxide Cells using Electrochemical and Surface Spectroscopy Methods", Dr A Call
- "CO2 Capture and Electrochemical Conversion Utilisation in Superbase Ionic Liquids", Dr R Taylor
- "A DFT Study of the Catalytic Activity of Ni Nanoparticles on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia and Gadolinium-Doped Ceria (111) Surfaces for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications", Dr X Angles
- "Production of Synthetic Gasoline and Diesel from Carbon Dioxide/Methane Reforming: A Comprehensive Techno-economic Assessment", Dr I Dimitriou
- "Direct conversion of carbon dioxide from the gas phase under mild conditions using reactive metal cycling", Dr G Dowson
- "Towards optimisation of packed bed plasma reactors for CO2 reduction", Dr T Butterworth
- "Advances in pressure swing carbon capture using low complexity sorbents", D Reed
- "Experimental and Numerical Investigation of CO2 Splitting in a Nanosecond Pulsed Corona Discharge.", D K Yannallah

4 years into the project, 9 oral presentations were given (from SP1, SP2, SP3, SP5 and SP6) and 3 posters with flash presentations were presented (from SP3, SP5 and SP6). M Moss received prize for Best Flash Presentation and Q Parker for Best Poster.

Demonstrated using a Stirling engine the fuel produced using CO2
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description In-Situ Analysis of Co-Electrolysis Species Via Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) by C Tumilson at ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV, Glasgow, Scotland (26-31 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The most recent work on In-Situ Analysis of Co-Electrolysis Species Via Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy was presented at a poster session and received positive feedback.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ma.ecsdl.org/content/MA2015-03/1/100.abstract
 
Description In-Situ Raman Spectroscopy Probing of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (ECS - Electrochemical Society, October 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of the results to the academic and industry-based researchers (approximately 20 people). Promoted the 4CU project to the international community.

xxxxx
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL https://ecs.confex.com/ecs/226/webprogram/Paper40421.html
 
Description In-situ Monitoring of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells by DJ Cumming at Electrochemical Society Meeting, San Francisco, USA (27 October - 1 November 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In-situ Raman work on SOFC is gathering interest but remains very difficult experimentally. At least two groups making significant progress but all the focus remains on SOFC characterisation. The bilayer work at Northwestern is highly advanced. There is significant literature on the subject and Ali should be able to learn significant amounts form their work. DJC will discuss the work in detail during his visit during Jan/Feb. Several very interesting connections made for SP5 collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://ecst.ecsdl.org/content/58/2/207.abstract
 
Description In-situ Raman Spectroscopy for Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (DTU Summer School, August 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On the first day of the summer school J Manerova had given a brief introduction to the 4CU project and a more detailed explanation of the in-situ Raman spectroscopy work during her 15 minutes poster presentation.
IMAGINE summer school included a day of experimental laboratory work at DTU imaging facilities at Lyngby campus. J Manerova has chosen to carry out a 3D X-ray CT scan of oxygen permeable membrane and later used AVIZO and ImageJ imaging software to analyse the obtained data. The experimental method and data analysis were presented in groups to the summer school participants.


Prog Mogensen, one of the lead for the DTU Summer School is on the 4CU steering committee and advise on the work in co-electrolysis
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Insights on the CO2 Reduction Mechanism on Bio-inspired Iron Sulfide by A Roldan at ICCDU XIII, Singapore, Singapore (5 - 9 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The talk was well received and promoted further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Insights on the CO2 Reduction Mechanism on Bio-inspired Iron Sulphide by A Roldan at 61st International Symposium and Exhibition, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (9-14 November 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk. An opportunity to present the work to date. The talk was well received and promoted further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Integrated life cycle approaches for understanding carbon dioxide utilisation and sequestration pathways workshop (CO2Chem & UKCCSRC - Life Cycle Assessment in CO2 Utilisation, Sheffiled, UK, March 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Presentation of the results and conclusions of the review paper on carbon capture storage and utilisation (recently published in the Journal of CO2 utilisation) to members of the European CCS and CCU community.
Engaged in discussion with other members of the CCS and CCU community on the way forward in LCA and CO2 utilisation, i.e. methodology related issues.


The workshop provided an excellent platform for networking with other researchers working in CCS and CCU across European research institutions and industry.
The work presented received very good acceptance from the CCS and CCU community, as well as useful feedback for future work.
The presence of members of the 4CU project at the workshop helped to raise the profile of the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description International symposium on non-thermal/ thermal plasma pollution control technology, Florianopolis (Brazil) 1st-10th August 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plasma chemistry conference with international participants, some "big names" present. This was a fairly small conference, but helped to build some good solid international links. T Butterworth presented a broad overview of work he did on plasma catalysis. Built links with Plasmant group in Antwerp, as would make excellent future collaborators for modelling purposes. Also, TB spoke extensively with renowned plasma catalysis researcher Hyun Ha-Kim, from a Tokyo research institute. Discussed the possibility of a catalyst screening protocol in plasma catalysis. TB would like to write a publication on this in future, alongside the researchers from Plasmant.
TB also spent sometime working in the labs of Nito Debaucher, at the University of Santa Catarina. This is a great opportunity for a Newton proposal as they have very capable students that need good opportunities!
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International workshop on plasma for energy and environmental applications, Liverpool, 21-24 August 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Tom Butterworth (TB) presentation received a lot of positive feedback, and ultimately won the prize for "best presentation". Attending this conference was very good publicity, and resulted in new potential connections with leading plasma groups around the world. It was also good to know that people were paying attention to TB previous publication on "particle sizes", and the methods that he employed in that.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Introduction to the Science behind CO2 Capture and Conversion by NH de Leeuw at The Science behind CO2 Capture and Conversion, Varadero, Cuba (24-28 June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Plenary talk - Introduction to the Science behind CO2 Capture and Conversion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Ionic Liquids for Carbon Dioxide Capture at the Young Modellers Forum, London, UK (November 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The conference, being computational, led to many ideas for our computational research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Ionic Liquids with a Dual Role: Adsorbents and Catalysts for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilisation (ICCDU XII, June 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the ICCDU XII conference in USA in June 2013.

The talk informed other scientists working in similar field of the work currently undertaken at The University of Sheffield on Ionic liquids as part of the 4CU programme grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Keynote at RRB-14 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Keynote presentation at 14th International Conference on Renewable Resources and Biorefinaries, Ghent, Belgium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Kinetic and Economic Analysis of Reactive Capture of Dilute Carbon Dioxide with Grignard Reagents by G. Dowson at Carbon Dioxide Utilisation: Faraday Discussion, 7-9 September 2015, Sheffield, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk provoked lengthy debate in the subsequent discussion session of the meeting. This debate involved both praise of the innovation of the idea of reactive conversion as a form of capture and criticism, primarily of the extent and detail of the techno-economic assessment.

This meeting demonstrated the challenging and provoking impact the inclusion of technoeconomic assessment has on a publication of a novel process. Without such an assessment, the Grignard experiments would have been dismissed as unsustainable. However, it also highlighted the need for robust defence of such assessments, especially concerning any assumptions made about the process being modelled.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2015/fd/c5fd00049a
 
Description Life cycle environmental impacts of carbon capture, storage and utilisation by R Cuellar Franca at 10th European Congress of Chemical Engineering, Nice, France (Sep-Oct 2015) - Plenary 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited plenary talk at the 10th European Congress of Chemical Engineering. Promoted good discussion about the impactts of CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere and the life cycle assessment of CO2 utilisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Low Energy Carbon Dioxide Capture and Separation using Pressure Swing Adsorption by G. Dowson at ICCDU XIII, 5-9 July 2015, Singapore 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of 4CU work, across several sub packages further raised the profile of the 4CU project and the work being done at UCL, Queen's Belfast and the University of Sheffield. The role of the University of Sheffield was especially prominent due to the announcement of the subsequent ICCDU (2016) being hosted there. Future collaborations and potential research visits were discussed with 4CU was once-again noted in being rare for having a "fully system approach" where all steps of CDU processes are investigated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Metal Sulphides, Synthetic Control Through Mechanistic Insight and Bio-Inspired Fe3S4 for CO2 Conversion by N Hollingsworth at The Science behind CO2 Capture and Conversion, Varadero,Cuba (24-28 June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The talk was well received and promoted further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Metal sulphide nanoparticles: synthetic control and catalysis by N Hollingsworth, King's College London London, UK (26 January 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The talk was well received and promoted further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Methodology for Analysis of Solid Oxide Cells via Raman Spectroscopy by J Manerova at ECS Conference on Electrochemical Energy Conversion & Storage with SOFC-XIV, Glasgow, Scotland (26-31 July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk was well received amongst the public, particularly during co-electrolysis operation. Conference proceedings were published in ECS Transactions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://ecst.ecsdl.org/content/68/1/2083.abstract
 
Description Model-Based Selective CO2 Capture From Biogas Streams Using Ionic Liquids (PSE2015/ESCAPE25, Copenhagen, Denmark, May-June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The poster - CO2 capture using ionic liquids - attracted significant attention, especially among people from the CO2 capture community. People were particularly interested in the way we characterize ionic liquids using their physical properties and their liquid/gas interaction.

A couple of research groups showed great interest in our ionic liquids work as they are working on related projects. We had an interesting discussion on the way we use to predict the VLE of ionic liquids and gaseous species in biogas/flue gases. In general, people were very impressed about the project's achievements to date and about our plans to include chemically absorbing ionic liquids.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Model-Based Selective CO2 Capture from Biogas Streams Using Ionic Liquids As Physical and Chemical Absorbents (AIChE Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, USA, November 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Opportunity to discuss the work of 4CU with researchers at the Institute for Energy and Transport (European Comission), The State University of New York at Buffalo and University of Tennessee Knoxville. The comments particularly focused on the way we characterise ionic liquids using their physical properties and their liquid/gas interaction.

A couple of research groups showed great interest in our ionic liquids work as they are working on related projects. We had an interesting discussion on the methodology we use to predict the VLE of ionic liquids and gaseous species in biogas/flue gases. One of them suggested ILs/amines mixtures to be assessed in our models. In general, people were very impressed about the project's achievements to date and about our plans to include chemically absorbing ionic liquids.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www3.aiche.org/proceedings/Abstract.aspx?PaperID=428169
 
Description Modelling CO2 Electro-Reduction Reaction on Fe3S4 by A Roldan at SEADIM 10, Varadero, Cuba (30 June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk; well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Modelling YSZ/GDC Grain Boundaries with Molecular Dynamics Simulations by X Aparicio-Angles at European Congress and Exhibition on Advanced Materials and Processes -- FEMS EUROMAT 2015, Warsaw, Poland (20-24 September 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The conference, being computational, led to many ideas for our computational research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Molecular Dynamic Simulation of Gadolinium-doped Ceria and Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia interfaces for Electrolyte Applications by X Aparicio-Angles at 2nd Energy Materials Symposium, Bath, UK (17 September 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An opportunity to present the work to date. The conference, being computational, led to good discussions and many ideas for our computational research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Molecular Dynamics Simulations of CO2 absorption by [P66614][NTf2] by Q Parker at The Science behind CO2 Capture and Conversion, Varadero, Cuba (24-28 June 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Better understanding and overall view of the several SPs presented at the conference with the opportunity to develop transversal skills among the participants.The work presented at this conference has been recognised and commented on by international leaders in the field of CO2 reduction.
The ionic liquid work presented by Qamreen received interest from Prof Eveny Pidko (Eindhoven) where he had particular interest in the computational methods employed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plasma discharges in Packed Bed DBDs: Unravelling the puzzle by T Butterworth at Plasmant Meeting, Antwerp, Belgium (3 December 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Collaboration opportunity on packed bed / catalytic plasma work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Plasmolytic Reduction of CO2 to Produce Synthetic Fuels (Solvay Workshop, March 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The main outcomes were the data sets from Plasmant, and also the opportunity to network with a number of other people.

Further collaboration with the University of Antwerp research team
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Probing a Non Thermal Plasma Activated Heterogeneously Catalysed Reaction Using in situ DRIFTS-MS by C Hardacre at TOCAT-7, Kyoto, Japan (1-6 June 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The talk was well received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Process and Economic Analysis of Synthetic Fuel Production from CO2 (AIChE Annual Meeting, Atlanta, USA, November 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Giving a presentation in such an important chemical engineering conference enabled us to discuss our work in 4CU with academics from Princeton University and West Virginia University who have common interests with CCU and fuels production. We received very useful comments and many questions were asked by the audience, which showed interest from the CCU community.

The scope of the 4CU project had a very positive impact among the conference attendees and there was a lot of interest in the specifics of the project.
Academic members from Princeton University (M. M. Faruque Hasan) and West Virginia University (Debangsu Bhattacharyya) showed particular interest in the process simulation work of the CCU base case models since both institutions investigate the techno-economics of CCU. However, unlike 4CU, they examine conventional CCU systems. Future collaborations and potential research visits were discussed with both institutions. Specifically, Princeton University is a leading institution in the field of Process Systems Engineering and any future collaboration will be beneficial for SP1 and the 4CU project in general.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www3.aiche.org/proceedings/Abstract.aspx?PaperID=382078
 
Description Thermal Imaging of Solid Oxide Cells during Electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide (37th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral paper presented at the 37th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites on the use of thermal imaging to investigate the behaviour of SOC during co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2. Talk sparked questions and discussion afterwards.

After the talk, further discussion with scientists interested in the field took place for potential further research ideas
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description UKCC 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Organisation of the UK Catalysis Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
 
Description Utilising carbon dioxide: integrating environmental sustainability considerations into process design (13th Mediterranean Congress of Chemical Engineering, September 2014) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The audience, which was mainly comprised by academics across Europe, welcomed the "4CU project" with a very positive response. Most questions focused on the drivers and motivations behind the 4CU project, and other very specific related to the Life cycle assessment methodology applied in the sustainability modelling sub-project.

no noticeable impact at this stage
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.ub.edu/congmedit/sciprog/13MCCE_Azapagic.pdf