Multidisciplinary extreme magnetometry: State of the art magnetometry for physical, chemical, biological and engineering applications.

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Physics and Astronomy

Abstract

There is a very strong research activity on magnetism, magnetoelectronics, and magnetic materials at Leeds. This research is divided between the School of Physics (spintronics, biophysics and biotechnology), the School of Chemistry (biosensing, organic magnets and spin-crossover molecules) and the Faculty of Engineering (multiferroics and nano-materials). The work groups eighteen academics, about forty PhD students and postdocs, and represents several million pounds in research income per year. This intensive activity extends to other world-class magnetism groups in the Yorkshire (York, Sheffield) and northern Britain (Nottingham, Durham, Edinburgh, Glasgow).
This proposal aims to strengthen this endeavour by providing funds for a new, state of the art SQUID-VSM magnetometer. This instrument will underpin the current research effort, while also broadening the research links between groups. The SQUID-VSM will be an open access facility. At Leeds, it will be used to carry out cutting edge studies in nanoscale and/or extreme magnetism in four research paths:
i) Novel devices. Here, we will develop novel devices that can outperform current semiconductor technologies, eco-friendly electronics and imaging tools.
ii) Frustrated, compensated and novel magnetism. The aim is to understand the magnetism of geological, nanocrystaline and other novel structures with technological or environmental relevance and complex properties.
iii) Multi-functional materials. These materials show simultaneous properties that allow for many technological applications. We will measure, amongst others, magneto-caloric epilayers, multiferroics for memory storage and spin-crossover molecules for electroluminescent displays.
iv) Health and biological applications. Novel applications of magnetic nanoparticles include water filtering, bio-imaging and cancer therapy, recently transforming technologies such as tumor marking
This is a multidisciplinary enterprise aligned with the greatest opportunities in the scientific landscape:
.-Tackling some of Physics Grand Challenges, including Physics far from Equilibrium and Quantum Technologies.
.-Developing projects with high future and socio-economic benefits, e.g. complexity science and synthetic biology.
.-Performing research in leading topics, with studies on medical engineering, physical chemistry and human health.
.-Opening new paths in areas with the highest creativity, such as basic technology and instrumentation.
.-Taking advantage of our world-class experience in potentially disruptive technologies, such as spintronics.
To be able to fulfil these objectives, we need a highly sensitive and versatile magnetometer. There are no Universities in the UK with a SQUID-VSM, and the only two of these state of the art magnetometry tools are in south England (Royal Institute of Britain and Diamond Light Source). Furthermore, there is a glaring lack of SQUID magnetometers in the list of EPSRC facilities. The progress of magnetism and multidisciplinary groups and early career researchers in the north is therefore partly hampered by a lack of access to adequate equipment. The instrument in this grant will be included in the list of EPSRC open facilities, strengthening links and research activity in the region.
Within this research context, we will also work in collaboration with the instrument manufacturers to develop world-exclusive capabilities such as magneto-electric and magneto-optic measurements. The applications of the instrument are not limited to in-house projects, but extend to the establishment of new collaborative projects and the progression in multidisciplinary applications of magnetic materials. For the duration of this grant, the instrument will be free of charge, and a small percentage of the budget will be used to bring and train early career scientists from other UK Universities.

Planned Impact

The research in this proposal includes topics with the highest creativity, future potential and socio-economic benefits as documented by EPSRC. It covers molecular spintronics, magnetic nanoparticles for health applications, biosynthesis, complexity science, basic technology research and instrumentation. The influence of this project into scientific research and our society in general will be developed via four paths: i) impact on scientific progress, ii) impact on collaborative research, iii) impact on economic development and quality of life, and iv) impact on persons and careers.
i) The proposal will underpin the work of eighteen academics at Leeds University, currently limited by lack of an advanced magnetometer. This work includes the most exciting topics in magnetism and magnetic materials, such as single spin Coulomb blockade transistors, phonon-operated molecular spintronics, biosynthesis, nanoparticles for biomedical applications, multifunctional spin-crossover molecules, and spin ice thermodynamics amongst others. In addition, this grant will develop a tool for the measurement of magneto-electric and magneto-optic properties with sensitivity below 10^-8 emu, at frequencies from DC to 1 kHz and temperatures from 2-1000 K.
ii) The SQUID-VSM funded by this grant will be added to the list of EPSRC open facilities. By doing so, not only other academics in the UK will be able to access a world-class instrument, but also new collaborations can be established between these researchers and groups within Leeds with experience in material synthesis, biophysics, spintronics, molecular magnets, or multifunctional materials. The flow of samples and expertise will be mutually beneficial, in particular for multidisciplinary applications (see next point). Finally, as a result of: a) the large number of collaborators involved in the research presented in the grant application, b) the limited number of these instruments, and c) the additional capabilities unique in the world to be developed in collaboration with Quantum Design, international and industrial links will be started by the measurement of challenging samples and/or under extreme conditions.
iii) On top of their original applications, the current main use of magnetic materials is data storage and sensing. These are the object of large investments and research from companies such as Seagate, Siemens, Hitachi and others. On the other hand, novel applications developed across sciences and mostly based on magnetic micro and nanoparticles, such as water filtering, bio imaging and cancer therapy via hyperthermia have quickly progressed in the last decade or so. This has greatly increased the economic output of nanoscaled magnetic materials, while giving also rise to health applications with transformative potential. This grant will establish new multidisciplinary collaborations to investigate novel research in these topics.
iv) Apart from academics, over forty early career researchers and students from Leeds, and over a dozen from other institutions will use the SQUID-VSM for the duration of this grant. In addition to trained users, there will be researchers that will send samples to be measured. To maximise this human potential, we have included a small percentage of the grant budget to allow early career scientists from other institutions to come to Leeds and be trained on the facility. Since the instrument is the state of the art tool for magnetometry, the expertise acquired by these young researchers will prove very valuable when the equipment becomes more common place. This exclusiveness, together with our completely original modifications will also attract the collaboration of world-class research groups and companies interested in magnetic materials, further increasing the employability and experience of these early career researchers.

Publications

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Al Ma'Mari F (2017) Emergent magnetism at transition-metal-nanocarbon interfaces. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Al Ma'Mari F (2017) Emergent magnetism at transition-metal-nanocarbon interfaces. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

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Barczak S (2015) Thermoelectric properties of Fe and Al double substituted MnSi ? ( ? ~1.73) in Journal of Solid State Chemistry

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Burrows KE (2017) Spin States of Homochiral and Heterochiral Isomers of [Fe(PyBox) ] Derivatives. in Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

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Capel Berdiell I (2018) An Incomplete Spin Transition Associated with a Z'=1?Z'=24 Crystallographic Symmetry Breaking. in Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)

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CepriĆ” G (2016) Physical and chemical characterization of cerium(IV) oxide nanoparticles. in Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry

 
Description Thanks to this grant we have found that:
1.- Interfaces of non-magnetic metallic films (e.g. Cu, Mn) with molecular films (C60) result in magnetic ordering (leading to a publication in Nature -a breakthrough reported as well by several media sites and magazines such as Cosmos Magazine, Physics World, Chemistry World, Physics Today and others ). The result has been presented as an invited talk in international workshops and conferences (Intermag). We have also received an invitation from Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (USA) to submit a follow up work.
2.- A frustrated, spin glass magnetic state may form in molecular layers (two accepted publications in Phys. Rev. B and App. Phys. Lett., with two more in preparation).
3.- We have characterised skyrmion materials grown by sputtering and MBE (leading to an accepted publication and another in preparation).
4.- We have characterised spin-cross over molecules synthesized in the School of Chemistry in Leeds (leading to four accepted publications in Inorganic Chemistry and Chemistry - A European Journal, with more in preparation).
5.- We have measured ceria and iron oxide nanoparticles for environmental and biomedical applications from collaborators in Leeds and overseas (leading to a publication under preparation).
6.- We have characterised NiOx and Fe3O4 films from collaborators at York and Durham (leading to an accepted publication in Physical Review and another under review).
7.- We have measured double perovskite and other materials synthesized by collaborators from Heriot-Watt (leading to a publication in Dalton Transactions
8.- We have measured bio-synthesised particles for groups in Physics and Chemistry at Leeds, and also in collaboration with the University of Sheffield.
9.- Measured multiferroic materials for collaborations at EEE in Leeds (one publication under review).
Exploitation Route Push forward the limits of ultra-high sensitive magnetometry at extreme conditions (temperature, electric/magnetic fields etc.) in novel materials (skyrmions, magneto-molecular superlattices, spin-crossover molecules, etc.).
Sectors Chemicals,Electronics,Environment

URL http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v524/n7563/full/nature14621.html
 
Description This grant has been used to establish and run a world-class magnetometry facility with access based on scientific merit. We have had users from several groups at Leeds (Chemistry, Earth Sciences), the UK (Durham, Sheffield) and overseas (Zaragoza, Spain). We are currently working towards our first consultancy work for a company that fabricates magnetic resonance imaging instruments, and in collaboration with National Laboratories.
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Electronics,Energy,Environment
 
Title Optoelectronic Magnetometry 
Description New methods to perform high sensitivity magnetic characterisation with electrical and/or optical irradiation. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact When fully developed, this technique can be used to characterise a very broad range of multi-functional materials, such as multiferroics, spin-crossover molecules, perovskites and many others. There is a recent publication arising from this methodology in Advanced Functional Materials (L. Henrichs et al. In press). 
 
Description Muon spectroscopy in hybrid magneto-molecular systems. 
Organisation Paul Scherrer Institute
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Leeds fabricated C60-CoGd and C60-Cu multilayers with a lateral size of 2.5 cm and uniformity of ~ 1nm.
Collaborator Contribution Low energy muon spectroscopy of the samples grown at Leeds was performed in two cycles (Oct. 2013 and July 2014) in PSI. St Andrews contributed to the measurement and data analysis.
Impact Papers in preparation.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Muon spectroscopy in hybrid magneto-molecular systems. 
Organisation University of St Andrews
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leeds fabricated C60-CoGd and C60-Cu multilayers with a lateral size of 2.5 cm and uniformity of ~ 1nm.
Collaborator Contribution Low energy muon spectroscopy of the samples grown at Leeds was performed in two cycles (Oct. 2013 and July 2014) in PSI. St Andrews contributed to the measurement and data analysis.
Impact Papers in preparation.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Polarised neutron reflectivity in magneto-C60 multilayers 
Organisation CIC nanoGUNE Consolidor
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Leeds fabricated and characterised (magnetometry, Xrays, AFM) Co-C60 and CoGd-C60 multilayers grown via sputtering and thermal evaporation.
Collaborator Contribution NanoGUNE fabricated and characterised samples via e-gun and thermal evaporation plus contributed to neutron measurements + analysis. Polarised neutron reflectivity was carried out at ISIS. Transmission electron microscopy was performed at the University of York.
Impact Papers listed plus others in preparation.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Polarised neutron reflectivity in magneto-C60 multilayers 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)
Department ISIS Neutron and Muon Source
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Leeds fabricated and characterised (magnetometry, Xrays, AFM) Co-C60 and CoGd-C60 multilayers grown via sputtering and thermal evaporation.
Collaborator Contribution NanoGUNE fabricated and characterised samples via e-gun and thermal evaporation plus contributed to neutron measurements + analysis. Polarised neutron reflectivity was carried out at ISIS. Transmission electron microscopy was performed at the University of York.
Impact Papers listed plus others in preparation.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Polarised neutron reflectivity in magneto-C60 multilayers 
Organisation University of York
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leeds fabricated and characterised (magnetometry, Xrays, AFM) Co-C60 and CoGd-C60 multilayers grown via sputtering and thermal evaporation.
Collaborator Contribution NanoGUNE fabricated and characterised samples via e-gun and thermal evaporation plus contributed to neutron measurements + analysis. Polarised neutron reflectivity was carried out at ISIS. Transmission electron microscopy was performed at the University of York.
Impact Papers listed plus others in preparation.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Spin doping at metallo-molecular interfaces 
Organisation University of Liverpool
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Experiments of magnetisation in ferromagnet and normal metal - C60 interfaces.
Collaborator Contribution Liverpool contributed with DFT simulations.
Impact Publications as listed.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Structural characterisation of molecular and topological - magnetic interfaces 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Leeds deposited superlattices and multilayers of fullerene/magnetic transition metals and topological insulators.
Collaborator Contribution Glasgow performed transmission electron microscopy and analysis.
Impact Papers in preparation.
Start Year 2013
 
Title SQUID-VSM open access at Leeds now operational 
Description The SQUID-VSM (£375k FEC) has now been installed, callibrated and tested. State of the art results are already being produced, with new modules (magneto - electric/optic measurements) being discussed with the manufacturer in order to obtain or develop UK-exclusive (or even world-exclusive) capabilities. Potential users from other institutions and industry will be contacted to make use of the facility. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
 
Description Article in The Conversation: Low-carbon computing is needed to avoid a technological collapse 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article to disseminate the impacts that the internet and related technologies have in the environment and how current research contributes to minimise them -while continuing technological progress. Several comments and emails about this activity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://theconversation.com/low-carbon-computing-is-needed-to-avoid-a-technological-collapse-93381
 
Description Invited Talk at ECMolS 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Gave invited presentation at the ECMolS conference 2018 in Peniscola (Spain) about spin physics at C60 interfaces.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://icmol.es/ecmols2018/
 
Description Media Communications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact We communicated our breakthrough in emergent magnetism at molecular interfaces to the general media. The news was reported by IFLScience (with 25 million followers, our story was 'liked' by over 12 thousand people) and was printed in Cosmos Magazine. The result was also reported by some of the most important Scientific Media sites, such as Physics World, Chemistry World, Physics Today, Science News, Discovery Magazine and Nature Magazine itself run a News article written by one of their freelance journalists (in addition to a News&Views article from researchers in the field).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v524/n7563/nature14621/metrics
 
Description Podcast for "The Conversation": Anthill 23: Bursting the Bitcoin bubble . about Bitcoins, cryptocurrency and physics research contributions to novel technologies with wider reach. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Podcast to discuss cryptocurrencies, online banking and how new technologies impact our society. My contribution centred around information storage and research in magnetism applied to these technologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://theconversation.com/anthill-23-bursting-the-bitcoin-bubble-93337
 
Description Talk at Pint of Science - Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Gave a presentation to a general audience about magnetic materials and how our research may be used to reduce some environmental impacts of technological progress - such as mining of rare earths and power consumption.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/