Inter-disciplinary Engineering Approach to Systems (IdEAS)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

Emerging technologies are science-based innovations with the potential to create, transform or obsolete entire industries. Examples range from 'small-tech' materials constructed at the atomic level through to 'large-tech' infrastructures enabled by the internet and other complex systems. Irrespective of their physical scale, emerging technologies have the potential to drive and support sustained economic growth. For some of these technologies, the projected markets for the middle of the 2020s are enormous: hundreds of billions of US dollars each for nanomaterials, smart grids, industrial biotechnology and plastic electronics. In these areas and others, the UK is in a strong position to lead technology development and commercial exploitation. In particular, small businesses which are so vital to employment and economic stability are well placed to capitalise on technological innovation because of their relative agility. However, realising these opportunities critically depends on the capacity to translate scientific advances and technological developments into product ideas that are suitable for manufacture, distribution and use.

Whilst emerging technologies can be entirely new, they most often result from new combinations of existing technologies, or are analogous to existing systems in some important way. The ability to identify and integrate knowledge, skills and processes from these other systems determines the rate at which the commercial and societal value of emerging technologies is realised. This entails design knowledge and design processes that are flexible and deployable across a broad range of rapidly changing technologies. However, because emerging technologies are potentially so disruptive, they pose a problem to traditional design methods. In particular, they present a three-part challenge of uncertainty, complexity and rapidity: uncertainty because there is no reliable foresight into what kind of technologies should be designed for; complexity because there is increasing interdependence between, and integration of, different types of systems; and rapidity because the rate at which new technologies are being introduced far outstrips the evolution of those previous technologies for which typical engineering design methods were developed.

Because designing for emerging technologies requires methods that can respond to uncertain, complex and rapid developments, there is a need for solution principles that are generally and readily applicable. Innovation could then be promoted if designers were able to review, combine and contrast these principles and apply them to specific technologies. This prompts the question: what design principles can best influence the development of engineering design methodologies for emerging technologies. The project will answer this question, by gaining an understanding of the underpinning systems that emerging technologies are made up of or built into. Multiple system types will be investigated, along with the attributes of those systems and the system behaviours that those attributes promote. Comparative analysis of industrial case studies will show how decisions are made about the trade-off of one principle against another, and will permit the development of guidance that is concrete and actionable. By doing so, the project will provide engineers with the cross-domain knowledge of systems that they require to design for newly emerging technologies and for technologies that have not yet been imagined.

Planned Impact

The IdEAS project will engage with industry, with policy makers and with media agents to ensure that the research is maximally relevant and best presented for impact.

Industry collaboration: Industrial collaborators will initially be drawn from the Cambridge area, the most important entrepreneurial hub in Europe. This area is home to a cluster of companies, that often originate in or have strong links with the University, and many are members of the Cambridge Network, an organisation that promotes collaboration and problem sharing amongst over 1500 company members. The IdEAS project will be registered as a member of the Cambridge Network, thus gaining access to direct communication channels with organisations working at every stage in the technology development process. The national and international contacts of these organisations will then be leveraged to pursue further collaborations.
- http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/

Policy workshops: The IdEAS project will work with the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy (CSaP), which links researchers directly with the policy professionals who will benefit from understanding the implications of the research. In particular, the project will run two CSaP Policy Workshops on the project theme. These workshops represent a tried and tested formula for bringing policy makers from across relevant governmental organisations together with researchers and industry, allowing highly effective knowledge exchange and network building.
- http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/programmes/policy-workshops/

Policy fellow: The IdEAS project will work with CSaP to appoint a project-related policy stakeholder or influencer to the role of Policy Fellow. Following the search, identification and recruitment of a suitable individual, CSaP will arrange a series of meetings with approximately 30 researchers as part of an "immersion week". CSaP will also support further networking activities in order to engage the Fellow over the two-year duration of the Fellowship.
- http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/programmes/policy-fellowships/

Film production: The IdEAS project will work with Living Projects (LP), a bespoke film production company. They will create broadcast quality videos tailored to educate industry, the public, the media and policy makers about the implications of designing for emerging technologies. LP will work to produce a series of high-impact films that can be distributed across multiple platforms and that exploit the power of social media. These films will be scripted and produced for effective communication with a range of specific audiences.
- http://www.living-projects.co.uk/

Infographics: The IdEAS project will work with the technological trend bureau, Envisioning Technology (ET), in communicating about the technology landscape and the implications of designing for emerging technologies. ET will construct interactive infographics for websites (with static and animated equivalents for print and video). These will communicate the research findings to the media, the public, entrepreneurs, venture capitalists and industry, encouraging their involvement with the project.
- http://envisioningtech.com/

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 1) System properties. The properties that systems exhibit such as modularity, redundancy, resilience and robustness can be difficult to understand and relate to each other. This is especially the case when considering types of system (such as biological systems or technological systems) that are seemingly very different but exhibit similar properties. By reviewing how system properties are considered and applied across different disciplines, we have collected and developed representations of system properties that distinguish and relate them. Holding workshops and conducting interview studies with various stakeholders has additionally revealed the key aspects of resilience that must be communicated and the diagrammatic tools that can assist in that. //

2) Tool requirements. Much design research seeks to develop tools for designers to use in their work (e.g. tools that provide information or inspiration). In such cases, designers are the users of tools and researchers are the developers of tools. However, there is very little work on the user requirements that designers have for the tools that researchers develop. We have collected and related the user requirements across various fields, especially human computer interaction, creativity support and analogical design. As a result, we now have a much clearer understanding of what tool users require and what trade-offs must be negotiated in meeting those requirements. This has been validated and extended with a study of professional designers and inventors, reporting on their practices, expectations and preferences. Consequently, tool developers now have a much stronger foundation upon which to build the use cases that are most relevant to their work. This should result in better tools and better outcomes from tool use. //

3) Design fixation. Knowledge of existing solutions can hinder innovation. This had previously been researched through controlled experiments that lacked a strong connection to industrial practice. By conducting qualitative research with expert designers, we have described the phenomenon of design fixation as it relates to the many factors that shape design projects (including people, organisations, processes, tools, etc.). In particular, we find that recognising fixation episodes and reflecting on them can be the means by which designers guard against such episodes in the future and thus become more creative. Furthermore, we have developed new a new experimental paradigm that permits for a much more controlled investigation of the phenomena of interest. // 3b) Fixation research methods. Researchers have traditionally studied design fixation using an experimental paradigm derived from the first studies conducted in the 1990s. Researchers set participants open-ended design problems, prime them with an example solution, and measure their performance (and the influence of the example) through a variety of subjective metrics. This approach gives rise to various problems, including limited data capture and highly subjective evaluation of design behavior. To address these problems, we have developed a computer-based task inspired by psychological paradigms used to study "mental set" (also known as the "Einstellung effect"). The task consisted of a game-like activity requiring participants to design a bridge within a specified budget. The use of a digital environment facilitated continuous data capture during the design activities. The constrained task (and direct quantitative measures) permitted a more objective analysis of design performance, including the occurrence of fixation. We have used this method to demonstrate that it is the personal costs that are sunk into a design that cause fixation (not those costs that are sunk by others). Our recent work has demonstrated that some of the advantages of computer-based tasks can be retained when using Virtual Reality platforms to study design activities, whilst flexibility and realism are enhanced (compared to simple 2D games). This work is presently under review for publication. //

4) Complex Design. Design approaches are adopted when addressing many complex problems. However, it is not always clear when the approaches applied to one complex problem might be applied to another. By studying design practices in the fields of Synthetic Biology and Swarm Robotics, a framework has been developed that allows users to identify the ways in which complexity is being characterised, the design objectives that are held and the design approaches that are employed. This helps to see beyond superficial similarities and differences in complex design problems to see where practices can be shared. To assist with this we have worked with a science communication agency to publish a freely available 'primer' on complex systems and published an short animated film to attract a wider audience. //

5) Entrepreneurial Pivoting. Technology entrepreneurs are often described as 'pivoting' when changing from one business direction to another. A series of interviews were conducted with technology entrepreneurs (founding or working with startups) and the advisors who guide them (often serial entrepreneurs themselves). The interviews focussed on how entrepreneurs set, maintain and change ('pivot') the direction of their ventures. This showed that entrepreneurs must balance an open, flexible, opportunistic approach with the need to be persistent, tenacious and committed. For entrepreneurs and their advisors, managing this tension is made more challenging by a range of individual factors (e.g. excessive confidence, avoiding information) and organisational factors (e.g. the absence of hard constraints, inflexible business offerings).
Exploitation Route 1) System properties. The representations that we have developed can be used to support communication between diverse stakeholders in a systems design/analysis project. //

2) Tool requirements. The user requirements that we have collected and related can be used by researchers to develop more effective and more readily accepted design support tools (especially for analogical design, such as biomimetics). //

3) Design fixation. The qualitative account of fixation that we have developed can be used by researchers to plan more focussed fixation studies. It can also be used by the developers of design and innovation techniques to frame their work in ways that best gain acceptance by practitioners. Our new experimental paradigm can be used by researchers to conduct more controlled creativity experiments. // 3b) Fixation research methods. Other researchers might choose to add the method we have developed into their suite of research tools when studying fixation-like behaviours. This could be design researchers (thus using a method that is more typical of psychological research) or psychologists (interested in practical examples of the effects of 'mental set'). //

4) Complex Design. The fields of Synthetic Biology and Swarm Robotics might directly use the framework developed to better understand the variations within each field and the connections between them. Other fields might also use the framework for similar purposes, with or without some modification. The primer we have published might be used by a broad range of practitioners to better understand what they and others mean by complexity. The animated film we have published could allow a broad range of educators and trainers to communicate about the subjective nature of complexity. //

5. Entrepreneurial Pivoting. Our findings suggest that the pivot can usefully be considered as a creative act, leveraging concepts of fixation to explain how opportunities to pivot might be overlooked or avoided. Other creative practices outside entrepreneurship might therefore employ the idea of pivoting as a model for promoting conceptual change. In particular, designers might be encouraged to employ pivoting strategies in their design work.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Financial Services, and Management Consultancy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport,Other

URL https://www-edc.eng.cam.ac.uk/research/designpractice/
 
Description Cambridge Commonwealth European and International Trust (travel award)
Amount £400 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Conference Grant (Clare Hall)
Amount £107 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Impact Acceleration Account (IAA) Innovation Fellowship
Amount £11,523 (GBP)
Organisation ESRC Impact Acceleration Account Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 03/2018
 
Description W G Collins Endowment Fund
Amount £666 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Title Computer-based tool for studying design fixation 
Description The term "design fixation" refers to a phenomenon where designers unknowingly limit the space within which they search for solutions. In an attempt to study this phenomenon experimentally, researchers typically set participants open-ended design problems, prime them with an example solution, and measure their performance through a variety of subjective metrics. This approach gives rise to various problems, including limited data capture and highly subjective evaluation of design behavior. To address these problems, we developed a computer-based task inspired by psychological paradigms used to study "mental set" (also known as the "Einstellung effect"). The task consists of a game-like activity requiring participants to design a bridge within a specified budget. The use of a digital environment facilitates continuous data capture during the design activities. The constrained task (and direct quantitative measures) permit a more objective analysis of design performance, including the occurrence of fixation. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Since developed, this method has subsequently been used to study the cognitive mechanisms that underlie design fixation (sunk cost effects and psychological ownership). This was not possible with the preceding methods used in the field. 
URL https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/263560
 
Title Explicit instructions in design inspiration and fixation studies 
Description Data collected from a medium-scale experiment (N = 303) conducted with undergraduate engineering students at the University of Cambridge (Engineering Department) in 2015. The data consists of participants' sketches (scans) and the assessment performed by the judges (spreadsheets). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Research findings associated with this data has been presented at at two conference (International Conference on Design Creativity and Design, Computing and Cognition). The data is embargoed until the publication of the research papers associated with the data. 
 
Title Explicit instructions in design inspiration and fixation studies - CUED participants 
Description Data collected from a medium-scale experiment (N = 303) conducted with students from the University of Cambridge (Engineering Department) in 2015. The data consists of participants ideas (scans) and the assessment done by judges (spreadsheets). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Inspiration and fixation: comparing the influences of example designs and design principles in idea generation 
Description Data collected from a small-scale experiment (N = 60) conducted with Masters students in Industrial Design Engineering at the Technical University of Delft - TUDelft, The Netherlands. The data consists of participants' skethces (scans) and the assessment performed by the judges (spreadsheets). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The data was used in research published in the Journal of Mechanical Design. 
URL https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/255005
 
Title Research data supporting "Computer-Based "Mental Set Tasks": An Alternative Approach to Studying Design Fixation". 
Description This is an excel file containing the numerical data resulting from the scoring of the videos recorded during each experimental session. The videos are not available for ethical reasons. The excel file includes several spreadsheets, whose naming corresponds to the various set of results reported in the publication (Open-ended 'mental set' tasks: An alternative approach to studying design fixation). In each spreadsheet, the column headings are self-explanatory, provided you also have the corresponding publication given above as a reference. The data was collected from July to October 2016 from 40 undergraduate and postgraduate students with an engineering background at the University of Cambridge, UK. Participants were tested individually and received £10 for your participation. They were initially told that the study aimed at investigating how people played computer games. The real aim of the study was revealed to the participants at the end of each experimental session, during the debriefing phase. Demographic data was collected from the participants and are reported in the first spreadsheet of the file. The study was approved by the local Ethical Committee and the participants signed a Consent Form before starting with the experiment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Idea representation and elaboration in design inspiration and fixation experiments" 
Description Data from three separate small-scale experiments (N = 55; 30; 58) conducted with students from the University of Cambridge (Engineering Department) and from Delft University of Technology (Industrial Design Engineering). The data consists of participants ideas (scans) and the assessment done by judges (spreadsheets). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Studying design fixation with a computer-based task" 
Description This is an excel file containing the numerical data resulting from the scoring of the videos recorded during each experimental session. The videos are not available for ethical reasons. The excel file includes several spreadsheets, whose naming corresponds to the various set of results reported in the publication (Open-ended 'mental set' tasks: An alternative approach to studying design fixation). In each spreadsheet, the column headings are self-explanatory, provided you also have the corresponding publication given above as a reference. The data was collected from July to October 2016 from 40 undergraduate and postgraduate students with an engineering background at the University of Cambridge, UK. Participants were tested individually and received £10 for your participation. They were initially told that the study aimed at investigating how people played computer games. The real aim of the study was revealed to the participants at the end of each experimental session, during the debriefing phase. Demographic data was collected from the participants and are reported in the first spreadsheet of the file. The study was approved by the local Ethical Committee and the participants signed a Consent Form before starting with the experiment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Whose ideas are most fixating, your own or other people?s? The effect of idea agency on subsequent design behaviour". 
Description This excel file contains: i) the numerical data resulting from the scoring of the videos recorded during each experimental session, ii) the participants? comments collected through the ?think aloud? method, and iii) the participants? responses to the post-experimental questions. The videos and the audio-recordings are not available for ethical reasons. The file includes several spreadsheets, whose naming corresponds to the various set of results reported in the publication (Whose ideas are most fixating, your own or other people?s? Sunk cost effects and psychological ownership in design ideation). In each spreadsheet, the column headings are self-explanatory, provided you also have the corresponding publication given above as a reference. The data was collected from January to May 2017 from 40 engineering students at the University of Cambridge, UK. Participants were tested individually and received £10 for your participation. They were initially told that the study aimed at investigating how people played computer games. The real aim of the study was revealed to the participants at the end of each experimental session, during the debriefing phase. Demographic data was collected from the participants and are reported in the first spreadsheet of the file. The study was approved by the local Ethical Committee and the participants signed a Consent Form before starting with the experiment. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Branda/4DLabs provide Access to Vancouver technology community 
Organisation Simon Fraser University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Crilly conducted a series of interviews with the Vancouver Technology Entrepreneurship community and wrote the subsequent report.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Branda of 4DLabs provided access to the Vancouver Technology Entrepreneurship community, arranged a series of research interviews, hosted the researcher during his stay. and reviewed the subsequent report.
Impact A research report was written on the interview study. This has been submitted to a journal for publication and is under review.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Design Science 
Organisation Design Science, Inc
PI Contribution The research team drafted the initial text and images for a 'primer' on the design and science of complex systems. Although not intended for a general audience, the objective was to address an audience that was broader than that which such material is normally aimed at.
Collaborator Contribution Design Science worked with the research team to translate ideas about system complexity into more accessible material. New illustrations were produced and integrated into the examples that ran through the primer.
Impact The primer was launched online in October 2016 and received 1500 webpage hits in its first week.
Start Year 2016
 
Description METU/Töre Yargin collaborates on software tool research 
Organisation Middle East Technical University
Country Turkey 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr Töre Yargin visited the project for 12 months collaborating on a research project focussed on user requirements for software tools providing design information. The research team participated in the project by offering feedback on the work in progress and co-authoring the resulting paper.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Töre Yargin was the lead researcher on the project.
Impact Dr Töre Yargin and Dr Crilly published a journal article on the results of the study (Information and interaction requirements for software tools supporting analogical design, Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing, 2015, 29(02), 203-214). Dr Töre Yargin successfully applied for an Assistant Professor role at METU after completing her time with the project.
Start Year 2013
 
Description TU Delft/Dr Carlos Cardoso 
Organisation Delft University of Technology (TU Delft)
Department Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaborated in the organisation of a research workshop to define the future of studies into design creativity. Collaborated on empirical studies into design creativity.
Collaborator Contribution Collaborated in the organisation of a research workshop to define the future of studies into design creativity. Collaborated on empirical studies into design creativity.
Impact The research workshop was highly interdisciplinary, with participants self-identifying as having expertise in the following areas: • various branches of design, including engineering design, complex design, industrial design, fashion design and architecture, with special attention to design creativity, design fixation, inspiration in design, design cognition, design reasoning, design philosophy, design methodology, design processes, design models; • various branches of psychology, including cognitive psychology, human factors psychology, health psychology and design psychology, with special attention to human mind and memory processes, problem solving, planning, expertise, habits and goals. The workshop is reported in: Crilly, N., & Cardoso, C. (2017). Where next for research on fixation, inspiration and creativity in design? Design Studies, 50, 1-38. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2017.02.001 --- The empirical studies into design creativity involved design researchers and those expert in statistical analysis. The output from the study is reported in: Vasconcelos, L. A., Cardoso, C. C., Sääksjärvi, M., Chen, C.-C., & Crilly, N. (2017). Inspiration and fixation: the influences of example designs and system properties in idea generation. Journal of Mechanical Design, 139(3), 031101. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4035540
Start Year 2016
 
Description Animation: "When is a system complex?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Worked with an animator and film production company to make a short film explaining the subjectivity of complexity. Published on the University of Cambridge YouTube channel on March 12, 2018 and attracting 2,445 views up to February 4, 2019. The video description reads: "Flocking birds, weather patterns, commercial organisations, swarming robots... Increasingly, many of the systems that we want to engineer or understand are said to be 'complex'. But what does this mean? How do these so-called 'complex systems' differ from the more easily understood systems that we are familiar with? Visit: http://complexityprimer.eng.cam.ac.uk for more on complexity and modularity."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7Hf6VfsJ0U
 
Description Blog post Synthetic Biology 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Interdisciplinary engagement, with researchers based in Engineering writing a blog post for the Cambridge Synthetic Biology website.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.synbio.cam.ac.uk/news/complex-design-practices
 
Description Blog post on complexity 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Published a blog post on Robohub, describing how swarm roboticists can contribute to and benefit from the wisdom of other disciplines. This promoted the complexity 'primer' that we had published. Robohub describe 'themselves' as "a non-profit online communication platform that brings together experts in robotics research, start-ups, business, and education from across the globe. Our mission at Robohub is to connect the robotics community to the rest of the world. Content-area specialists curate all incoming articles to make sure that reporting is truthful, fair and balanced, and in-house editors ensure that all content meets the highest editorial standards for language and clarity. Embedded comments, and an active presence on Google+, Facebook and Twitter further help to promote discussion and debate."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://robohub.org/how-can-swarm-roboticists-contribute-to-and-benefit-from-the-wisdom-of-other-disc...
 
Description Creativity talk to local company 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr Crilly and Dr Neroni gave a talk on concepts related to "Creativity and Fixation" at a local Cambridge Design, Technology and Innovation Consultancy (February 2018). Around a dozen employees were present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Fixation lecture to students at TU Delft 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Lecture delivered to 150 design students at TU Delft, The Netherlands. The topic was 'Design Fixation', introducing the students to the barriers to creativity.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Government Digital Service 'Lunch-and-Learn' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Eloise Taysom presented research on (socio-technical) system resilience at Government Digital Service's 'Lunch-and-Learn' session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://twitter.com/dgheath21/status/794543442546270208
 
Description Individual meetings with policy makers 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Regular one-to-one meetings with Policy Fellows visiting the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy. The research team working on the IdEAS projected discussed various project-related themes with Vladimir Šucha (Director-General of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission), David Wilkinson (Director of Policy Support Coordination for the Joint Research Centre, European Commission), Dr Fabrizio Sestini (Team Leader, Collective Awareness Platforms for Sustainability and Social Innovation, and Internet Science, European Commission DG Connect), Louise Owen (Deputy Head S&T Strategy - Engagement, Ministry of Defence); Alice Newton (Associate Product Manager for GOV.UK Policy and Departments, Government Digital Service), Chris Carr (Deputy Director Manufacturing, Services & Electronics, Department for Business Innovation and Skills), John Taysom (Angel Investor, and Fellow, Advanced Leadership Initiative at Harvard University), Rupert Cryer (Assistant Director at Cabinet Office), Chris Pook (Regional Director for UK Trade and Investment and the FCO Prosperity Network in South-East Asia at Foreign & Commonwealth Office (FCO)), Jeff Masters (Policy Adviser to Shadow Business Secretary, Chuka Umunna MP), Hannah Rignell (Head of Community Action, Government Innovation Group at Cabinet Office), Dr Andrea Siodmok (Head of Policy Lab at Cabinet Office), Richard Sandford (Head of Horizon Scanning at Government Office for Science).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/network/nathan-crilly/
 
Description Meeting policy fellows through the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Nathan Crilly undertook a series of one-to-one meetings with policy makers (although sometimes including other members of the research group). The meetings involve finding connections between research and government. Meetings have so far been held with: Dr Andrew Chilvers (Royal Academy of Engineering); Shaarad Sharma (Royal Academy of Engineering); Hannah Rignell (Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, BEIS); Richard Sandford (Department for International Trade); Dr Andrea Siodmok (Cabinet Office); Rupert Cryer (Cabinet Office); John Taysom (Privitar Ltd.); Alice Newton (Worldremit); Chris Carr (Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, BEIS); Professor Vladimir Sucha (European Commission, DG JRC); Louise Owen (Home Office); Dr Fabrizio Sestini (European Commission); Jeff Masters (Policy Adviser to Shadow Business Secretary, Chuka Umunna MP); Chris Pook (Foreign & Commonwealth Office, FCO).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/network/nathan-crilly/
 
Description Outreach Competition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Eloise Taysom participated in (and won) the RAEng sponsored competition called 'I'm an Engineer get me out of here'. this involved online discussions with school children about Eloise's work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://about.imanengineer.org.uk/files/2016/07/Kilogram-Zone-Report-J16.pdf
 
Description Policy Workshop on Making Systems Resilient 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A policy workshop was run with the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy on the theme of "Making Systems Resilient". The workshop was chaired by Sir John O'Reilly, Director General for Knowledge and Innovation in the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Twenty-one policy makers, academics and industry practitioners participated in the workshop. They collectively represented a diverse set of government departments and industry sectors and fields, including defence, space systems, transport, urban planning, health care, and psychology. Although from very different fields of expertise, the participants all worked on complex socio-technical systems and were concerned with how to make those systems more resilient. This permitted the exchange of information and perspectives across traditional boundaries. The participants reported gaining valuable insights from the workshop that had stimulated thinking about their own daily roles.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/news/article-csap-policy-workshop-making-systems-resilient-4-de/
 
Description Press release on research results 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A press release was issued to publicise the the research results reported in Dr Crilly's journal article (Fixation and creativity in concept development: the attitudes and practices of expert designers, Design Studies, 2015, 38, 54-91). The work was subsequently the exclusive subject of an article in the leading business magazine 'Fast Company', which was 'shared' 1200 times in the first week.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.fastcodesign.com/3044535/what-is-design-fixation-and-how-can-you-stop-it
 
Description Published a 'primer' on the design and science of complex systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engaged with science communication agency to produce a more attractive and accessible version of a research report. Added examples and illustrations and formatted for distribution. Freely available through the Cambridge University Repository
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://complexityprimer.eng.cam.ac.uk/
 
Description School talk on resilience 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Eloise Taysom presented research on the resilience of socio-technical systems at a local school (Perse School, Cambridge). Twenty students, staff and parents attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Supporting Policy Lab engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Dr Andrea Siodmok (Head of Policy Lab, Cabinet Office) was awarded a Policy Fellowship by the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy (proposed and funded by the project). This involves two visits to Cambridge (in January and March 2016), with a programme of 14 bespoke meetings between Dr Siodmok and academics held in January and a similar number to be held in March. These meetings are arranged to assist Dr Siodmok to address issues that she faces in her work and will help Dr Crilly to organise a future Policy Workshop on related themes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.csap.cam.ac.uk/network/andrea-siodmok/
 
Description Talk to technical architects 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Eloise Taysom delivered a talk on the resilience of socio-technical systems to a group of technical architects working in government.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk to the synthetic biology community 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr Chih-Chun Chen delivered a talk at the monthly meetup for the Cambridge synthetic biology community. She discussed design/engineering perspectives on the Synthetic Biology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.synbio.cam.ac.uk/events/Cafe_Synthetique_15August
 
Description Talks to policy makers on a retreat 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Nathan Crilly delivered talks on "creativity" and "communication" to twenty policy makers on a retreat to Cambridge to focus on a challenge relevant to the civil service. The retreat was organised with the Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017