Theme 1 - Analysis of the Vehicle as a Complex System

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Wolfson Sch of Mech, Elec & Manufac Eng

Abstract

The rise of the digital economy and the associated increase in demand for customised products has caused the modern premium automotive vehicle to become a complex system. Integration is expected to have increasing levels of influence on innovation for manufacturing processes. This research on the complexity of digital features concentrates on advanced manufacturing facilities for virtual integration and verification for the provision of 'Getting it right first time through good design for speed to market'. As the digital enablement of vehicles become more complex, automotive manufacturing requires a new innovative approach into modelling and simulating with improved analysis tools to successfully integrate existing technologies and processes alongside new technology to meet increasing market demand. Each of these systems requires to be successfully integrated within the vehicle to achieve a global goal. System of systems engineering (SoSE) focuses on the management and control of such complex systems, which offer more functionality and performance than the individual systems themselves. Thus, the strategic intent of the research for the Programme for Simulation Innovation is to use innovations in modelling and simulation to evolve state of the art capabilities in vehicle design and analysis for manufacturing into advanced SoSE, for the digital features of a high interaction multi-disciplinary complex vehicle.

This research addresses the challenge of how to use innovative modelling and simulation for rigorous design and analysis to rapidly and reliably introduce substantially increased levels of digitally-enabled functionality into the complex vehicle. The system of systems engineering activities include:

-System architecting to define structure and behaviour of the systems of the vehicle
-Generation of a framework to enable traceability and relationship preserving specification to aid integration of existing and new technologies
-Analysis and behaviour prediction of the vehicle to include the simulation of non-deterministic outputs within a virtual environment to reduce prototyping and time to market.
-Greater concurrence in design and verification by the facility to analyse the fully integrated complex vehicle within its simulated environment.

The research will specify and implement a Virtual Integration Design and Analysis environment (VIDAE) that integrates simulation from multiple disciplinary systems (e.g. chassis, driver, power train, etc.) within the design and analysis environment, to facilitate advanced modelling and analysis capabilities for the vehicle as a complex system. The prime objective is the improvement of current automotive manufacturing processes to reduce the time to market and thus increase the UK competitiveness with the global economy.

The research will demonstrate an innovative path to the commercialisation of academic outputs for systems and SoS engineering that will provide academics and industry with new pioneering processes. This will give the UK a competitive edge by increasing the speed to market of academic research for systems engineering. The research also leverages key international collaborations for model based systems engineering (MBSE) that will better position the UK in the current research in the relevant international organisations.

The multi-disciplinary team from Loughborough and Leeds Universities will deliver a joint research programme that addresses the challenges of SoSE for the vehicle as a complex system. New capabilities for rapid introduction of digitally enabled functionality with reduced physical prototyping will be enabled through (i) a formal framework and rigorous methods for an innovative integration of simulation and design analytics with design verification and (ii) an engineering environment for virtual design and analysis.

Planned Impact

The most direct beneficiaries of this research will be Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) and the wider UK automotive OEM industry. The new architectural approaches, Virtual Integrated Design and Analysis Environment (VIDAE) and modelling capabilities developed through this theme of the Programme for Simulation Innovation (PSI), will give JLR and other companies a range of potential benefits many of which will positively impact on other organisation as well as society and the economy. JLR have provided a letter of support for this application which details some of the impacts they expect to see realised as a result of this project. When describing the potential impact of the research, we refer to benefits to JLR though these ought to also be equally true of other OEM automotive manufacturers too.

Enabling JLR to move towards 100% design verification (i.e. cut down the number of prototype vehicles built during their new product development cycle to the minimum), should result in large cost and time savings. In addition to the direct savings from carrying out less prototyping and real-world testing, having the ability to respond more quickly to demands for new or modified products driven by market demand, legislation or other factors, will give JRL a competitive advantage in their sector. JLR's letter of support to this project specifically mentions that they anticipate being able to achieve a 20% reduction in the time taken to integrate new digital features.

A more profitable JLR will pay more tax to the UK government providing wide-spread benefit to the UK. JLR may also be able to employ more workers as demand for their products increases due to their first-to-market advantage. Even if an increase in workforce is not realised, the benefits bought by the outputs of this theme and the broader PSI outputs will certainly help to secure existing jobs across JLRs five UK production and R&D sites. Higher JLR production output will also impact on its many UK suppliers who will share in the financial benefits of increased demand and also contribute increased amounts to the UK exchequer.

As well as accelerating the design process and enabling greater responsiveness to market demand, tools from this project such as the VIDE will also allow greater optimisation of targeted design parameters. For example, it will become much easier to find the optimum trade offs in performance and CO2 emissions from vehicles which will provide environmental benefits. This is another impact specifically highlighted by JLR's letter of support where they indicate that the research being carried out in this theme will help bring about reductions of CO2 of 5% to 10% in vehicle emissions. In the future this may also be true of other requirements such as safety system performance which will provide another social benefit by improving crash worthiness of cars and reducing injuries.

There are many more potential economic beneficiaries beyond the automotive sector. Any complex system which needs to be designed could potential benefit from this research. Those best aligned to benefit are other vehicle manufacturing industries such as aerospace and railway rolling stock manufacturers. Nuclear power station, defence equipment and chemical process plant design are other potential applications although these are slightly further removed from the outputs of the research. These applications would most likely require further research work to adapt the techniques being developed to address their needs adequately.

Additional impact will come from the skills development and training which will take place as part of the project. This will include five PhD students who will benefit from extensive training as researchers and also the PDRAs involved in the project who will benefit through the career development opportunities afforded by taking part in a large multi-disciplinary research programme such as PSI and the involvement of a large multi-national company such as JLR.
 
Description A general systems methodology and mathematical framework has been implemented in matrix form to provide a rigorous basis for systems engineering. From this a rigorous novel repeatable approach has been developed for constraint-driven design for robustness. The matrix framework supports systems integration through model integration. The combination of design and integration approach has been applied to the automotive problem of reducing noxious emissions whilst maintaining or improving fuel economy. The framework and methodology has been extended to architecture optimisation for electronic vehicle architecture. A service-oriented method has been developed for continuous co-simulation, which permits re-configuration of the co-simulation without the need for recompilation.
Exploitation Route The design and integration approach using the framework has a potential for industrial development that can be applied to current automotive problems of reducing noxious emissions. The approach has further potential for design and integration problems across multiple systems of a vehicle, for example, the design or integration of advanced driver assistance systems; and in general the electronic architecture of the vehicle.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Transport

 
Description Systems engineering originated from defence and aerospace engineering where projects are mainly concerned with complex systems. Commercial sectors such as the automotive industry, where systems continue to grow more complex, can also be expected to benefit from systems engineering concepts. However, to fully utilise these concepts, a joint effort between the academic community and relevant industries is required to advance systems engineering methodologies and tools so that they can be readily applied in the commercial sectors. This research project is one of the leading efforts in taking this critical step toward a successful migration and advancement of systems engineering from its origin in defence to the commercial world. In particular, the tools and methods developed under this grant are now being used in the design and optimisation of next generation electronic architecture in the automotive domain.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Electronics,Transport
Impact Types Economic

 
Description EPSRC Impact Acceleration Account
Amount £54,233 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description EPSRC Impact Acceleration Award Proof of Concept
Amount £42,629 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Description EPSRC Impact Accelerator Award (University of Leeds): - EPSRC Impact Acceleration Award Proof of Concept
Amount £52,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Leeds 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2019
 
Description Enterprise Fellowship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EF1718\7\77 
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 02/2019
 
Title Coordinate Control System for ADAS: Simulink Models 
Description This database provides the Simulink models for the coordinated control system designed in the paper titled "Coordinated Control Architecture for Motion Management in ADAS Systems". The open access to the models aims at providing the community a reference model for coordinated control system that can be used for further research in intelligent vehicles such as advance driving assistance systems. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A paper based on the model presented in this database has been published. The database has been viewed by 425 times and downloaded 26 times (as of 9th March 2018). 
 
Description Application of Internet of Simulation for AI regulation 
Organisation IMC Business Architecture
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Research on using simulation as a framework for training and regulating AIs
Collaborator Contribution Provided datasets, case studies, and funding
Impact N/A
Start Year 2017
 
Description Georgia Institute of Technology collaboration on ROSETTA 
Organisation Georgia Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The contribution made by me and my research team has been the collaborative development of an innovative advanced framework for systems engineering refered to as ROSETTA. The output has been 2 joint conference papers, 1 journal article and 1 book with me as the lead author.
Collaborator Contribution The contribution made by my partner includes the above plus 1 journal article with Dimitri Mavris at the Georgia Institute of Technology as the lead author.
Impact The outputs of the collaboration are noted above are called out in my list of publications (co-authored with Dimitri Mavris). The collaboration is multi-disciplinary, specifically: systems engineering and aersospace engineering.
Start Year 2009
 
Description PSI Theme 1 Analysis of Vehicle as a Complex System 
Organisation Jaguar Land Rover
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution A general systems methodology and mathematical framework has been implemented in matrix form to provide a rigorous basis for systems engineering. From this a rigorous novel repeatable approach has been developed for constrained objectives design for robustness. The matrix framework supports systems integration through model integration. The combination of design and integration approach has been applied to the automotive problem of reducing noxious emissions whilst maintaining or improving fuel economy. A virtual integration service oriented environment is also being developed for functional integration of models and simulation. Advanced work flow pattern is also being developed.
Collaborator Contribution JLR contributions is in the form of funding, dedicated personnel, models and data. Company also actively work with the university to define relevant high impact case studies for the application and demonstration of the academic research.
Impact This is multi-disciplinary research concerned with digital enablement of physics functionality. The physical domains include major components of a automotive vehicle to include: engine, aftertreatment, suspension, braking and steering. See award number EP/K014226/1 for further details.
Start Year 2012
 
Description PSi Theme 3 
Organisation University of Leeds
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Integrated the portable version of the ITS driving simulator with VIDAE for demonstration.
Collaborator Contribution Provided the driving simulator software and developed an interface for it.
Impact A paper on the generalised architecture was produced: Mckee, D.; Clement, S.; Ouyang, X.; Xu, J.; Romano, R. & Davies, J. The Internet of Simulation, a Specialisation of the Internet of Things with Simulation and Workflow as a Service (SIM/WFaaS) 2017 IEEE Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 11th IEEE International Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE 2017), IEEE, 2017 Demonstration at British Motoring Museum as part of JLR Sharefair 2016
Start Year 2016
 
Description UPR: UML Profile for ROSETTA 
Organisation Airbus Group
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The research team led the writing of the UPR: UML Profile for ROSETTA and submission to the Object Management Group.
Collaborator Contribution Airbus has refactored the stereotypes introduced in the UPR and implemented them in UML.
Impact The profile has been adopted and made public by the Object Management Group (OMG).
Start Year 2017
 
Description VirtuoCity 
Organisation University of Leeds
Department St Gemma's Academic Unit of Palliative Care
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Exploring applications of VIDAE software technology for simulation and modelling of virtual cities and urban environments
Collaborator Contribution Research discussions with the core VirtuoCity team on the design of simulators and several publications on the Internet of Simulation.
Impact Publication between School of Computing on Cloud technologies and Institute for Transport Studies on simulation technologies and case studies. Mckee DW; Clement SJ; Ouyang X; Xu J; Romano R; Davies J The Internet of Simulation, a Specialisation of the Internet of Things with Simulation and Workflow as a Service (SIM/WFaaS) 2017 IEEE Symposium on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE).
Start Year 2016
 
Title Calibration system and method 
Description Aspects and embodiment of the invention provide a calibration system, a method, and a vehicle for determining calibration parameter values for a vehicle. The calibration system comprises an input arranged to receive sensor output data from a plurality of vehicle sensors, the sensor output data of each vehicle sensor relating to a measured value of an objective variable of a vehicle subsystem or component at a current value of a calibration parameter of the vehicle. The calibration system also comprises a processor arranged to determine a permissible range of values for the calibration parameter, the processor being arranged, for each objective variable, to adjust the current value of the calibration parameter until a calculated object variable value reaches an objective variable constraint value, each calculated object variable value being calculated in dependence on the received sensor output data. The calibration system also comprises an output arranged to output the permissible range of values to a control unit in order to control the vehicle subsystem or component. 
IP Reference GB1618623.1 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact Commercial exploitation discussions are currently ongoing with the industrial partner.
 
Title ROSETTA-Axiomatic Design Algorithms 
Description This software is a prototype tool for implementing algorithms for constraint-drive design and robustness optimisation. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact This led to a joint patent between Jaguar Land Rover and Loughborough University submitted in November, 2016. 
URL https://www.ipo.gov.uk/p-ipsum/Case/ApplicationNumber/GB1618623.1
 
Title VIDAE 
Description Virtual Integrated Design and Analysis Environment 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact Rapid and partially automated integration of heterogeneous simulations 
 
Title VIDAE Expansion 
Description Improved version of VIDAE to support a greater variety of models and simulations (e.g. Theme 3 driving sim and MATLAB). Expansion also included improved UI and simulation logging. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Demonstration of VIDAE at JLR Sharefair 2016, also used extensively as demonstration for university open days. 
 
Description EPSRC/CRCUK Future of Computing Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact An invited working group by EPSRC/CRCUK to discuss the future of computing and discuss future funding opportunities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description General Chair IEEE HASE 2016, 2017 (High Assurance System Engineering) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact General Chair, and Steering Committee Member
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://conf.laas.fr/HASE2016/
 
Description Joint Cloud Computing Workshop 2017 Programme Committee 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Member of organizing comittee
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://nicexlab.com/JCC2017.htm
 
Description Object Management Group Math SIG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The goal of this special interest group is to work collaboratively with existing OMG sub-group members on:
•Describing mathematical formalisms, primarily for any Model Based standards and frameworks that have been brought out in the OMG
•Reducing the complexity of system design by simplifying the complexity of model transforms using mathematical formalisms that will enable systems architects to more easily compose higher level model transforms from other more granular model transforms
•Potentially describing specific sections and types of source or target model semantics using mathematical formalisms in order to understand any conceptual gaps between models and model transformations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
URL http://maths.omg.org/
 
Description Object Management Group Quarterly Technical Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We presented research outcomes on Model-based Systems Engineering and constraint-driven design. This has led to an international collaboration involving Airbus, NIST and IBM to write a software standard.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017,2018
 
Description Proceedings Chair SOSE 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference Proceedings Chair
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://sose2016.uk/index.html
 
Description Publication Chair IEEE SOSE 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Conference Publication Chair
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://sose2015.com/
 
Description Scinece Impact Article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The purpose of this article (Leading the Way) is to make public the PSi Theme 1 Loughborough research performed under this grant over the last five years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.impact.pub/February2018digitaledition
 
Description Steering Committee Member IEEE SOSE 2015, 2016, 2017; and General co-Chair IEEE SOSE 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Conference general co-chair, and steering committee member
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015,2016,2017
URL http://sose2015.com/
 
Description Track Chair for IEEE BigDataService 2015 , The First IEEE International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This ongoing activity is involves the set-up of the Big Data Computing and Service track for IEEE BigDataService 2015 which will be held next year in March. We have successfully assigned a Technical Programme Committee with abstracts full papers due in later November 2014. In addition to this role I am also Proceedings Chair for the conference.

The hosting of the conference (and the track) is due to take place in March 2015.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.big-dataservice.net/index.html
 
Description UK Parliament: Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited to attend workshop on Research, Impact and the UK Parliament at University of Bristol
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017