Graphene three-dimensional networks

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Materials

Abstract

Graphene and its derivatives exhibit unprecedented combinations of properties: tuneable electrical and optical response, high intrinsic mechanical response, chemical versatility, tuneable permeability, extremely high surface area >3000m2/g... The incorporation of graphene in practical devices will open new technological opportunities in a wide number of technologies such as catalysis, supercapacitors, membranes and multifunctional polymer and ceramic composites. In order to combine optimum functional and mechanical properties, these devices will often have complex structures with characteristic features at multiple lengths scales from the nano to the macro level. For example, foams with open micro-scale porosity to allow gas access and nano-scale pores to enhance surface area, membranes that will combine ceramic supports with graphene layers of controlled permeability or multilayer structures with layer thickness ranging from micro to nanolevels. The scientific and engineering challenge is the development of manufacturing approaches to build these devices in a reliable and cost-effective manner.
Wet-processing techniques based on the use of liquid particulate suspensions, or solutions have made very significant advances in the last years. They are reliable, robust, and efficient. Now they are using to build materials with increasing degrees of precision, down to nano-levels and are having an increasing impact in a wide range of technologies. With the advent of solution processable graphene, we strongly believe that there is an often overlooked opportunity to develop wet processing technologies to build graphene-based devices. However, the development of these techniques will depend on two key issues: establishing a reliable path for the large scale synthesis of powders with controlled size and chemistry and understanding the basic physicochemical parameters that determine the response of graphene suspensions.
This project puts together a multidiscilplinary team with the objective to develop new wet-processing manufacturing approaches to build graphene-based 3D structures for selected technological applications. The project will cover basic scientific and engineering aspects such as powder synthesis and the basic analysis of the physicochemical parameters that control the response of colloidal suspensions of two dimensional materials. We plan to use a coordinated approach that by simultaneously developing a suite of processing approaches (from emulsification, 3D printing, layer-by-layer deposition, aerogels...) will be able to define and address the many common scientific and engineering issues and generate a synergistic effect that will push technological development. An essential part of our approach is the emphasis on specific technological applications (supercapacitors, membranes, electrochemical devices...). This emphasis will serve to focus the development of our manufacturing approaches towards specific goals, providing clear directions for structural manipulation and enhancing tremendously the technological impact of this project. By systematically analyzing the performance of our structures in these applications we will also define the key principles that should guide the design of graphene-based devices in order to optimize their functional and mechanical response.
This project will break new ground and uncover new scientific principles and technologies that will have a lasting impact not only on the implementation of graphene but also for a whole new family of emergent two dimensional materials whose unique properties are poised to change the way we design and build devices for a wide range of fields in the upcoming years.

Planned Impact

The need for new, clean and economic sources of energy is paramount. World energy consumption is projected to increase by 44% from 2006 to 2030. In Europe, electricity generation is expected to increase by an average of 1.3 % per year up to about 4.6 trillion kilowatt-hours by 2030. The latest World Energy Outlook summary by the International Energy Agency predicts OECD countries will spend on average around 2% of their GDP in gas and oil imports by 2030 with Europe seeing a net import increase. An outstanding challenge is the development of structures able to support novel, more efficient systems for the production and storage of energy. The unique properties of graphene can open new opportunities in the design of new devices that will have a significant impact in the strategic field of energy such as more efficient membranes for liquid and gas separation, supercapacitors, catalysis, light-weight composites...
This project also addresses the need to developing new manufacturing capabilities in the UK. The recent economic crisis has highlighted the important role of the manufacturing industry in creating a sustainable economy and promoting job creation. This project will contribute to the formation of a manufacturing base on graphene technologies and area where there is an opportunity for UK to take a world-leading role. It is designed to generate new fabrication technologies with emphasis on industrial translation and whose impact goes beyond the field of graphene. These technologies will provide new commercial opportunities. The work ill also contribute to the formation of new highly skilled professionals will take a leading role in academy and industry.
Finally the dissemination of our work and the participation of the members of the team in outreach activities will encourage more high quality students to join the fields of materials science and engineering. We will also make an effort to hire female PDRAS and increase the number of female scientists.
 
Title Tadpole2 
Description Large Scanning Electron Image, won image price in Dpt of Materials competition 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2015 
Impact A large version of the image is part of the exhibition decorating the Dpt of Materials Entrance. It can be seen by visitors and generating interest in graphene research. 
 
Description Synthesis of graphene-based materials and other 2D structures

We have developed and installed a computer-controlled reactor for the large-scale production of chemically modified graphene. This system can be used to investigate systematically the factors that control the chemistry and morphology of graphene oxide and reduced graphene as a way to tailor them for diverse applications. Specific examples of applications that have been developed in this project include novel polymer and ceramic-based composites, graphene inks for 3D printing, membranes for liquid filtration or porous three-dimensional networks for energy storage or oil cleanup. One of the key achievements has been the formulation of a protocol for the controlled synthesis of graphene oxide flakes with large lateral size (tens of microns) that are optimized for key technologies such as structural composites or protective coatings. There are no commercial materials currently available with these characteristics and we are providing chemically modified graphene suspensions to several research groups across UK and Europe.

Chemically modified graphene opens opportunities for the manipulation of chemistry as a way to tailor it to specific uses. With our synthesis process we have developed diverse approaches to tailor graphene chemistry. In particular we have developed methods to make graphene platelets highly dispersible in acetone as a way to enhance the performance of graphene-based polymers. These include a chemical reduction method to exfoliate graphene nanoplatelets that can be subsequently grafted with polymers or a reduction method to brominate few-layer graphene sheets. The brominated sheets are a convenient, stable, liquid-phase precursor, suitable for the synthesis of a variety of directly functionalised graphenes. Brominated graphene is also active for nucleophilic substitution reactions, as illustrated by the preparation of methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG)- and OH-substituted derivatives. Chemical modification does not only enhance processability but also performance, for example we have participated in the development of an approach to increase the charge storage of the graphene double layer based on the addition of phosphorous. This approach can open new opportunities to enhance the performance of graphene-based energy storage devices.

The synthesis technologies have been extended to other 2D materials beyond graphene. These include: i) oxidation-resistant nanosheets of TiS2 down to monolayer thicknesses with lateral sizes up to 4 µm. These nanosheetes can be used in the fabrication of highly concentrated (>1 mg/mL) inks stable for over 12 months. This study will accelerate the applications of TiS2 nanosheets, from large area electronics to energy storage and energy conversion devices; ii) mono- and bi-layer WS2 with record high room temperature charge carrier mobility up to 52 cm2/Vs and ultra-sharp photoluminescence line width of just 36 meV over submillimeter areas; iii) synthesis of Bi2Te3 nanosheets with controlled thickness, morphology and crystallinity at moderalety low temperatures opening opportunities for large-scale production; and iv) atomically thin layers of MoS2 and WS2 that can oxidize water to O2 under incident light showing that charge carrier lifetime is tailorable in atomically thin crystals by designing heterojunctions with different compositions and architectures. These nanosheets could be used in photocatalytic systems for water oxidation, which can be coupled with different reduction processes for solar-fuel production.

Porous graphene three-dimensional networks

Graphene foams and aerogels could have multiple applications in technologies as diverse as energy storage, oil clean-up or shock adsorption. However, to develop these technologies it is necessary to create processing routes for the fabrication of foams with architectures rationally designed to provide the desired performance.

We have developed a versatile technique to build ultralight (density =1 mg cm-3) graphene cellular networks based on the use of soft templates and the controlled segregation of chemically modified graphene to liquid interfaces combined with ice templating. These novel structures can be tuned for excellent conductivity, large accessible porosity, high thermal conductivity, versatile mechanical response (elastic-brittle to elastomeric, reversible deformation, high energy absorption) and organic absorption capabilities (above 600 g per gram of material). We have performed a systematic study of the mechanical response of the networks that has served to identify graphene flake lateral size as the key parameter that determines mechanical response. We have also shown that these networks can be heated by direct resistive heating. Efficient heating can be achieved at comparatively low voltages. These characteristics should enable quick and uniform temperature control of a permeating gas within the porous nanocarbon network or of functional particles supported on the graphitic framework. The combination of these excellent Joule heating characteristics with other, well-established benefits (e.g., light weight, high-surface area, chemical inertness etc.) makes these graphene networks highly interesting candidates for energy-efficient and homogeneous flow-through heating systems in catalysis and solid adsorbent regeneration. In collaboration with the University of Exeter we have also shown how the graphene foams can be used as a substrate for the fabrication of ultralight ceramic (SiC) structures through the reaction with a silicon vapour source.

Carbon foams have also been produced from macroporous poly(divinylbenzene) (poly(DVB) precursors. The resulting carbon foams 'carboHIPEs', exhibit surface areas of up to 505 m2/g and excellent electrical conductivities of 81 S/m. The use of a pourable, aqueous emulsion-template enables simple moulding, minimises waste and avoids the strong acid treatments used to remove many conventional solid-templates. The retention of the macroporous structure is coupled with the introduction of micropores during carbonization, producing hierarchically porous carboHIPEs, suitable for a wide range of applications as sorbents and electrodes.

Graphene-based composites

The integration of graphene in ceramic and polymers has attracted much attention. Its unique properties open opportunities to create new materials exhibiting unique structural and functional performance including light weight composites with high thermal or electrical conductivity or films able to provide efficient protection against water or chemical attack. To achieve this goal, graphene distribution in the materials should not be random but follow a rational design. This has proven difficult, in particular when relatively large graphene contents are required.

We have produced highly organized layered graphene/ceramic (SiOC) composites with good structural control at the nanometer and micrometer length scales. In our approach we combine the highly organized graphene 3D structures obtained through ice-templating with a pre-ceramic polymer. Once the shaping step is done the polymer can be converted to a ceramic through a heat treatment (above 800 C). We successfully showed that infusion and heat treatment led to the formation of a highly organized, layered silicon oxycarbide/graphene composite that is strong and though and retains high electrical conductivity. The microscopic network of thin (20-30 nm) conductive interfaces can direct crack propagation and significantly enhance toughness. It can also be used to sense the formation of microscopic defects. This opens the possibility of fabricating structures able to self-monitor for damage. Following a similar approach we have developed electrically conductive composites able to self-repair of change shape as well as sense bending and flexion. These composites are fabricated through the infiltration of the graphene foams with a self-healing or self-shaping polymer. Healing can be enhanced and shaping can be triggered using Joule heating of the network with relatively low voltages (<10 V for samples with sizes of the order of centimeters).

In the field of polymer composites we have developed a pressing and folding method to fabricate materials with very high graphene contents (up to 74 vol %) that can not be achieved by other methods and performed a systematic assessment of the effect of graphene platelet size on the properties and processing of graphene-polylactide (PLA) composites. Following this assessment, a co-extrusion technique has been developed to produce poly(lactic acid)/graphene multilayer films. These films exhibited a multilayer structure made of alternating layers of neat PLA and PLA containing graphite nanoplatelets. As a result, a significant reinforcement and improved water vapour barrier properties are achieved. This industrial scalable processes open up possibilities for lightweight and strong packaging materials for food and industrial applications and nanocomposites with enhanced functionalities including sensing, heat management, and energy storage

Additive manufacturing/3D printing

One of the challenges in the fabrication of 3D structures is the control of their architecture at multiple length scales from the macro to the nano-levels. In this respect additive manufacturing (3D printing) technologies open new opportunities. We have focused on the design of different approaches for the formulation of graphene-based inks for 3D printing. We have demonstrated how graphene functionalization with responsive molecules (either pH or thermally responsive) can be used to formulate graphene inks with the viscoelastic response needed to build practical three-dimensional structures with precision and reliability using robotic assisted deposition. As a demonstration we have been able to print copper/graphene structures and test their performance as supercapacitor electrodes. This performance is comparable to that of electrodes build using other technologies. The process opens new opportunities to create new ad-hoc devices tailored for specific applications. The rheology of the inks could potentially be adjusted for other processing technologies such as extrusion, gel or tape casting. By effectively extending the materials palette of additive manufacturing technologies to include novel 2D compounds it will be possible to create new technological opportunities in the fabrication of devices and nanocomposites on demand for a wide range of applications in energy, environment, health or transportation.

In the field of 3D printing we have also demonstrated that the flake-like shape of graphene oxide (GO), with different functionalities on their edges and faces, results in the formation of GO networks in water. As a result, graphene oxide is a universal additive that can be used to manipulate the viscoelastic response or particle suspensions. It enables the formulation of water-based inks and pastes containing materials with different chemistries (metals, polymers and ceramics), particle morphologies (from spherical to platelets and fibers) and sizes (from nano to tens of microns). These suspensions can be tailored for different processing technologies. Graphene oxide is an all-in-one additive, acting as a surfactant, viscosifier, printing aid and binder simultaneously; leading to formulations containing only three components, graphene oxide, water and the material of interest. In addition, graphene oxide could also potentially add functionality to the final materials, by designing post-processing steps to facilitate in-situ reduction, for example spark plasma sintering. This opens up multiple possibilities for the processing of complex structures using a range of techniques from additive manufacturing, to casting, injection or roll-to-roll processes.

Membranes and multimaterial structures

The team has demonstrated the fabrication of Graphene oxide (GO) membranes on ceramic hollow fiber substrates with great potential in liquid filtration. The GO hollow fiber membranes show higher permeation fluxes of acetone and methanol than most commercial membranes, and reject molecules larger than 300 Da, showing a great potential in the use of value-added organic solvent nanofiltration processes. These membranes have also demonstrated long-term (1200 hours) gas-tight stability. Post-treatments (e.g. by UV) can induce the formation of microstructural defects and greatly enhance the permeability without losing the molecular sieving properties.

We have also performed a systematic analysis of CO2 adsorption capacities, isotherms, and thermal stability of sodium, potassium, and cesium impregnated layered double oxides (LDOs) supported on graphene oxide (GO). The incorporation of GO in LDO promotes enhanced thermal stability that is not compromised by the alkali species. Sorption enhancement can improve the efficiency of hydrogen production by the water gas shift reaction (WGS), which is an important stage in the steam reforming of methane or the gasification of coal or biomass.
Exploitation Route Our research delivered new information required to optimise the large-scale synthesis of graphene that can be used by the companies working on synthesis of nanomaterials. In addition we have developed different methods to produce graphene 3D structures with controlled architectures and demonstrated their use in diverse technologies. This work will enable the design and fabrication of graphene and graphene-based materials specifically designed or different applications. The materials will impact technologies such as electrodes, supercapacitors, membranes, protective coatings or light-weight composites, and enable novel, more efficient systems for transportation, production and storage of energy.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Electronics,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description One of the main direct applications arising from our findings is the large-scale availability of high-quality chemically modified graphene for the industrial and research communities (including Arcelor Mittal or the Universities of Cardiff and Liverpool between others). The material attracted attention from several companies (DSM, BASF) that are interested in evaluating its integration in their product line. One of the project industrial partners (Graphenea) has installed a large-scale graphene
Sector Chemicals,Energy
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Advanced Materials Transformation Map - World Economic Forum
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Member of Graphene Innovation Leadership Board-Knowledge Transfer Network
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Acerlor Mittal
Amount £153,123 (GBP)
Organisation Acerlor MIttal 
Sector Private
Country Luxembourg
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description EPSRC Standard Research Grant
Amount £768,786 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M022250/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2015 
End 06/2019
 
Description Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowships
Amount € 200,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 12/2013 
End 09/2015
 
Description ONRG Living Materials
Amount $450,000 (USD)
Organisation ONRG Office of Naval Research Global 
Sector Public
Country United States
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2021
 
Description Petronas
Amount £480,000 (GBP)
Funding ID P50766 
Organisation Petronas 
Sector Private
Country Malaysia
Start 10/2014 
End 09/2017
 
Title Graphene Reactor 
Description We have installed a medium scale reactor for the large-scale production of chemically modified graphene (CMG) with tailored physical and chemical characteristics the exfoliation of graphite . The reactor is a computer controlled system that allows a control of the process (e.g. temperature, agitation, purification...) resulting in a much more accurate tailoring of the characteristics of CMG "on demand" for specific applications. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2013 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The large scale availability of tailored chemically modified graphene has supported significant progress in different projects. For example: a) Development of graphene-polymer composites and coatings. b) Development of graphene 3D networks with different applications from Joule heating to catalyst supper or oil adsorption. c) Formulation of graphene-based inks for 3D printing. 
 
Description Collaboration with CINN-Spain 
Organisation University of Malaga
Department CSIC
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of 3D printing strategies translatable to wide range of materials (graphene-based but also ceramics and metals)
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in zirconia-based implants
Impact Publication: Goyos-Ball L, García-Tuñón E, Fernández-García E, Díaz R, Fernández A, Prado C, Saiz E... Torrecillas R. (2017). Mechanical and biological evaluation of 3D printed 10CeTZP-Al 2 O 3 structures. Journal of the European Ceramic Society,
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Exeter University 
Organisation University of Exeter
Department College of Engineering, Mathematics & Physical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Our expertise in mechanical properties has been used to characterise ultralight foams produced in Exeter
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in the fabrication of ultralight materials through the conversion of graphene foams
Impact A common publication "Ultralight, Strong, Three-Dimensional SiC Structures" The work involves chemistry, materials science, mechanical properties
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with INSA Lyon 
Organisation National Institute of Applied Sciences of Lyon
Country France 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Design and fabrication of graphene-ceramic composites
Collaborator Contribution Advanced mechanical characterization
Impact Publication: Picot, O.T., V.G. Rocha, C. Ferraro, N. Ni, E. D'Elia, S. Meille, J. Chevalier, T. Saunders, T. Peijs, M.J. Reece, and E. Saiz, Using graphene networks to build bioinspired self-monitoring ceramics. Nature Communications, 2017. 8: p. 14425.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Instituto de Ceramica de Galicia-Spain 
Organisation University of Santiago de Compostela
Department Ceramic Institute of Galicia
PI Contribution Expertise on graphene synthesis and rheology of graphene-based suspensions
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in 3D printing equipment
Impact Publication: Garcia-Tunon, E., S. Barg, J. Franco, R. Bell, S. Eslava, E. D'Elia, R.C. Maher, F. Guitian, and E. Saiz, Printing in Three Dimensions with Graphene. Advanced Materials, 2015. 27(10): p. 1688-+
Start Year 2014
 
Description Thomas Swan and Co Ltd 
Organisation Thomas Swan and Co Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Long standing partnership developing technology and licensing it
Collaborator Contribution Development of synthesis and processing routes relevant to new company products. Advice and discussion. CASE studentships (3)
Impact New nanomaterials products.
 
Title MATERIAL FUNCTIONALISED WITH A POLYMER 
Description The present invention relates to an ink composition comprising a functionalised material, a pH regulating agent, and an aqueous solvent, wherein the functionalised material comprises a carbon material or layered oxide, nitride or transition metal dichalcogenide functionalised with a pH responsive polymer 
IP Reference WO2015189625 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted
Licensed No
Impact This development has been disseminated in publications and different presentations in conferences (including several invited presentations) The work has been highlighted in numerous general news magazines and web pages including wired, CNET or Business Insider UK
 
Description 3D printing graphene 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A video published in youtube and other channels describing our progress in the 3D printing of graphene. It has reached more than 56K views and has attracted much attention from industry. We had numerous inquires about this technology and we are now discussing future projects with some of the companies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UB8x1yEVn-0
 
Description - Suelen Barg, Felipe Macul Perez, Na Ni, Salvador Eslava, Cecilia Mattevi, Eduardo Saiz. Mesoscale Assembly of Graphene into Complex Cellular Networks. Graphene Miniworkshop, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 08/2013 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The presentation generated discussion

After the presentation new collaborations were initiated with some of the scientists attending. The work is undergoing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description 1. V. G. Rocha, E García-Tuñón, F. Markoulidis, E. Feilden, E. D'Elia, N. Ni, M. Shaffer and E. Saiz. Robotic assisted deposition of ceramics and ceramic-based materials. 6th International Congress on Ceramics. Aug 21, 2016 - Aug 25, 2016, Dresden, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk in international conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 1. V.G. Rocha, S. Eslava, E. García-Tuñon, E. D'Elia, C. Ferraro, N.Ni, S. Barg, & E. Saiz Engineering 3D architectures from chemically modified graphene. 5th Postdoc Symposium of the Materials Department, Imperial College February 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation to the Dpt of Materials at Imperial College. Engaged students and postdocs in research on graphene.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2. E. García-Tuñon, V. G. Rocha, S. Barg, R. Bell, S. Eslava, E. D'Elia, R. Maher, E. Saiz. '3D printed graphene structures' 5th Postdoc Symposium of the Materials Department, Imperial College February 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Undergraduate and postgraduate students in the Dpt of Materials at Imperial College attended and engaged with research in graphene in the Dpt.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2. V. G. Rocha, O. T Picot , N. Ni, C. Ferraro ,E. D'Elia, E. Saiz, M.J Reece, T. Peijs. Damage sensing capabilities of layered graphene/ceramic composites. International Workshop on Graphene/Ceramic Composites (WGCC'16) Cuenca (Spain), September 28-30, 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk in Summer School on Graphene. Focus on young researchers that got an introduction to graphene-ceramic mateirals
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 3. V.G. Rocha, E. García-Tuñon, E. D'Elia, C. Ferraro, N.Ni, S. Eslava, S. Barg, Olivier T Picot Mike J Reece, Ton Peijs & E. Saiz Engineering chemically modified graphene into 3D structures. XXIV International Materials Research Congress. (Cancun) Mexico, August 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk in international conference. Dissemination of our results in academia and industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 4. V. G. Rocha, O. T Picot, N.Ni, C. Ferraro, E. Saiz, M. J Reece, T. Peijs. Ice templated graphene foams: A novel approach for producing layered ceramic/graphene composites. July CARBON 2015, Dresden, Germany 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of our results to academy and industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 5. V. G. Rocha, E. Garcia-Tuñon, S. Eslava,& Eduardo Saiz. High density and binder-free low tortuosity LiFePO4/Graphene electrodes by freeze casting. 14th Conference of the European Ceramic Society. June Toledo, Spain, 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of our results to the professional community.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 9th International Workshop on Interfaces: New Frontiers in Biomaterials 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on the progress related to the development of graphene-based composites. Mostly to a technical audience. It trigger discussions and help to set up collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Bio inspired carbon composite materials by freeze casting Invited talk, Royal Society International Scientific Seminar, Nanomaterials by Design Manufacturing carbon nanomaterials for future markets.The Royal Society at Chicheley Hall, Kavli Royal Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact Talk generated questions and discussions

After the talk we have initiated a couple of scientific collaboration with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in USA it also trigger additional visits to the University of Exeter that have resulted in a collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Building Porous Structures Department seminar, University of Exeter, UK, May 22, 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The talk sparked discussion and interest for students

It served to initiate a collaboration with the University of Exeter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description CASC industry day: Water based building blocks for robocasting, 20th January 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk at the industry day of the Center for Advanced Structural Ceramics. It disseminated our technology between people working in industry. Several follow up meetings have been planned to explore future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Florida 2018 -ICACC'18- talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Florida 2018 -ICACC'18- Additive Manufacturing '2D colloids of graphene oxide for materials manufacturing' Esther García-Tuñón,*1 Ezra Feilden,2 Eleonora D'Elia,2 Eduardo Saiz2
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Graphene 3D printing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Press release from Imperial College on our work on graphene 3D printing. It was picked by numerous news channels including Associated Press, Nanowerk, CNET, Chemistry views and more..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_12-2-2015-8-58-8
 
Description Graphene Associated Press 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in an Associated Press Video introducing graphene-based technologies. It has been used by news outlets (e.g. Business Insider UK). Disseminated graphene research to the general public
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://uk.businessinsider.com/graphene-material-graphite-future-devices-2015-4?r=US&IR=T
 
Description IWAC 2016, 3D printing components for energy storage devices, Limoges, France 26-28 September 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk in international conference. Disseminated our work on graphene 3D printing to an international audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Inteview about Graphene 3D printing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interview in Spanish web newspaper, El Publico, about progress in graphene 3D printing. Engaged the general public with a new technology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://blogs.publico.es/eureka/2015/03/22/el-material-del-futuro-llega-a-la-impresora-3d/
 
Description Invited talk: 'Graphene 3D printing' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk at the Wellcome Trust HQ in London. It disseminated our 3D printing technology by Esther Garcia Tunon. Discussion afterwards opened new opportunities for collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Miriam Miranda*, Na Ni, Ben Milsom, Michael J. Reece, Eduardo Saiz. The influence of carbon nanostructures on the sintering of ZrO2. CapStone, Haifa (Israel), 2013. Poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The poster generated scientific discussions

As a consequence of the discussions our group has been asked to participate in a couple of large European project applications currently being prepared
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Miriam Miranda, Na Ni, Ben Milsom, Michael J. Reece, Eduardo Saiz. Sintering studies of ceramic-carbon structures by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Talk at MS&T'13. Montreal, 2013. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other academic audiences (collaborators, peers etc.)
Results and Impact The talk generated interest and future contacts

The talk also generated communication and collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description PACRIM 2015, Jeju Island, Korea. Novel approach for producing bioinspired ceramic nanocomposites based on ice-templated graphene. Olivier Picot, Victoria G. Rocha, Claudio Ferraro, Na Ni, Ton Peijs, Mike Reece, Eduardo Saiz foams and ceramic precursors. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Presentation Carbon Conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact V. G. Rocha, E García-Tuñón, C. Botas, F. Markoulidis, E. Feilden, E. D'Elia, N. Ni, M. Shaffer and E. Saiz. Towards 3D Printing Devices for Energy Storage. Carbon Conference 2017. 23th-28th July, 2017, Melbourne, Australia. Oral Presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation RAMS 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact V.G.Rocha, , E. García-Tuñon, E. Saiz. Engineering and Processing Chemically Modified Graphene into 3D structures: Towards real applications. Recent Appointees in Materials Science. RAMS 2017, 11th-12th Sept, Exeter, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description RAMS 2016, 3D printing graphene based devices, 23rd September 2016, Lancaster University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at the RAMS2016 symposium for new academics in Materials Science in UK by Esther Garcia Tunon. Established new links with young academics in UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description RECENT APPOINTEES IN MATERIALS SCIECE RAMS 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on advances on the processing of graphene structures. Audience of young researchers and new UK academics. It trigger some discussion and talks potential collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Suelen Barg, Claudio Ferraro, Esther Garcia-Tuñon, Na Ni, Eduardo Saiz. Structural and Functional Complex Cellular Networks. Highlight lecture at MSE 2014, 09/2014, Darmstadt, Germany, 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The presentation generated scientific exchange afterwards

The talk has been followed by further contacts and discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Suelen Barg, Felipe M Perez, Na Ni, Paula do V Pereira, Esther Garcia-Tuñon, Salvador Eslava, Cecilia Mattevi, Eduardo Saiz. Graphene Complex Cellular Networks, Graphene Conference, Toulouse, France, 05/2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The poster attracted interest and was followed by discussions

We have been contacted by BASF that wanted to know more about our research on graphene and have asked Profs Saiz and Dr. Mattevi to visit their headquarters to deliver a seminar and for further discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description workshop with KTN: 4th October 2016, London, Nano4Industry 4.0 invited talk: Institute of Physics, 3D printing graphene based devices - 8th November 2016, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk in a workshop on graphene organized by KTN. The discussion opened new opportunities for collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016