SwiTching And tRansmission (STAR)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Leeds
Department Name: Electronic and Electrical Engineering

Abstract

The Internet power consumption has continued to increase over the last decade as a result of a bandwidth growth of at least 50 to 100 times. Further bandwidth growth between 40% and 300% is predicted in the next 3 years as a result of the growing popularity of bandwidth intensive applications. Energy efficiency is therefore increasingly becoming a key priority for ICT organizations given the obvious ecological and economic drivers. In this project we adopt the GreenTouch energy saving target of a factor of a 100 for Core Switching and Routing and believe this ambitious target is achievable should the research in this proposal prove successful. A key observation in core networks is that most of the power is consumed in the IP layer while optical transmission and optical switching are power efficient in comparison, hence the inspiration for this project. Therefore we will introduce energy efficient optimum physical network topologies that encourage optical transmission and optical switching at the expense of IP routing whenever possible. Initial studies by the applicants show that physical topology choices in networks have the potential to significantly reduce the power consumption, however network optimization and the consideration of traffic and the opportunities afforded by large, low power photonic switch architectures will lead to further power savings. We will investigate a large, high speed photonic switch architecture in this project, minimize its power consumption and determine optimum network physical topologies that exploit this switch to minimize power consumption. We will design new large photonic switch fabrics, based on hybrid semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) / Mach Zehnder interferometers as gating elements to minimise the switching energy per bit, and plan to optimize the network architecture making use of these new switch architectures and introduce (photonic) chip power monitoring to inform higher layer decisions.
Networks are typically over provisioned at present to maintain quality of service. We will study optimum resource allocation to reduce the overprovisioning factor while maintaining the quality of service. Protection is currently provided in networks through the allocation of redundant paths and resources, and for full protection there is a protection route for every working route. We will optimize our networks to minimize power wastage due to protection. The power savings due to optimum physical topology design, optimum resource allocation, optical switching instead of IP routing, more efficient photonic switches and energy efficient protection can be combined and therefore the investigators and their industrial collaborators BT, Alcatel Lucent and Telekomunikacja Polska, believe that an ambitious factor of 100 power saving in core networks can be realised through this project with significant potential for resulting impact on how core photonic networks are designed and implemented.

Planned Impact

The development of new network architectures, protocols and hardware to reduce the energy consumption of communication networks is of particular importance currently, and is one of the most exciting areas in the communications field. Optical networks play a crucial role in networking today, however, a new generation of energy-efficient, ubiquitous, high capacity and flexible optical networks is required. The proposed work will contribute to the research community on many fronts, firstly in the design of new energy efficient large photonic switching architectures and their use in optical networks to maximise energy efficiency. Here, design guidelines, and rules for dimensioning the network and its components will be derived. The results are of particular interest to equipment manufacturers and network operators seeking to redesign their network in the most energy efficient manner. Secondly, energy-efficient resource allocation, traffic engineering and routing strategies will be formulated and their performance assessed using analytic (eg. mixed integer linear programming optimisation) and simulation studies. This will enable the network operator to choose the most appropriate strategies for their network. Finally, a study of energy-aware survivability mechanisms will enable the network operator to design the most appropriate energy efficient survivability strategy that maximises the use of optical transmission and optical switching at the expense of IP routing.
As can be seen from the attached letters of support, there is considerable backing for this proposal from the collaborating industrial consortium. Whilst the programme has direct exploitation, we are delighted that there are several areas within the research activity which are at a basic and generic level and require technical breakthroughs. As a result, we believe that the project will be of benefit to the wider networking academic community, and allow the creation of links with other universities in the communications, networking and computing fields, both in the EU and internationally. Since the project will develop new technologies, components, sub-systems, architectures, protocols and algorithms it will also be of considerable interest to industry. For example, the architectures and protocols work will be of benefit to companies generally involved in network design and operation, carriers, Internet service providers, data centres and large ICT users. The hardware developments are of particular interest to network and communication equipment manufacturers, and indeed in wider applications where energy consumption is a major concern. The technical developments will be of particular benefit to the standards bodies (e.g. IEEE), government departments and the green ICT community. The programme will have tremendous economic benefits to the EU and internationally and fundamental transformational ecological benefits to our planet.

We will focus on maintaining and indeed growing links with our existing industrial collaborators as we believe that their markets will continue to grow. For example, Ethernet services are expected to grow substantially, with estimates of sales in the US alone being $27B over the next few years. Some industry analysts are anticipating a tripling of sales within 5 years despite the cost reduction pressures that will occur. The potential for the work in our proposal also to impact the $14B networking field is considerable. The energy reduction measures introduced in this project will have far reaching impact and their potential will be of direct benefit to the collaborating networking and equipment companies and beyond. This project will lead to exploitable concepts suitable for licensing, for example in energy efficient components, where we have an excellent track record in licensing to world leaders such as Avago with components already in production or in software, e.g. Xen or VNC.
 
Description The Internet power consumption has continued to increase over the last decade as a result of a bandwidth growth of at least 50 to 100 times. Energy efficiency is therefore increasingly becoming a key priority for ICT organizations given the obvious ecological and economic drivers.
In this project we adopt the GreenTouch energy saving goals in core network switching and routing where the internet protocol (IP) is used for packet addressing and routing, and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is used for capacity. A key observation in core networks is that most of the power is consumed in the IP layer while optical transmission and optical switching are power efficient in comparison, hence the inspiration for this project.

We have studied the optimisation of the physical topology of IP over WDM networks with the objective of minimising the total network power consumption. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model has been developed to optimise the physical topology under different IP over WDM approaches and nodal degree constraints. We have considered the NSFNET topology and compared its energy consumption with the energy consumption of optimised physical topologies. The results show that optimising the physical topology without a limit on the number of links results in a full-mesh topology with significant power savings of 95%.

We have also introduced the use of network coding as an effective technique for IP over WDM networks combining energy efficiency and cost reduction. We have developed a MILP model for non-bypass IP over WDM networks where a simple XOR operation is used to encode unicasting traffic flows. The results show that network coding introduces savings up to 20% compared to the classical IP over WDM networks. The results also show that higher power savings, up to 30% are obtained for topologies of high hop count such as the ring topology.

As an example of the application of our networking concepts, we have introduced a framework for designing energy efficient cloud computing services over IP/WDM core networks. We developed a MILP model to investigate three cloud services: Cloud Content Delivery, Storage as a Service (StaaS), and Virtual Machines placement for processing applications. We studied the optimisation of network related factors including the centralisation versus distribution of clouds and the impact of demand, content popularity and access frequency on the clouds placement, and cloud capability factors including the number of servers, switches and routers and amount of storage required in each cloud. Our results indicate that replicating content into multiple clouds based on content popularity yields 43% total saving in power consumption compared to power un-aware centralised content delivery.
We extended our framework for designing energy efficient physical topologies of core networks to consider the design of energy resilient physical topologies. We have developed a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model that considers in addition to minimising the operational and embodied energies, minimising the average hop count to ensure that when a link fails and a connection is rerouted the new route is not much longer in terms of hop count than the original route. The results show that the increase in operational power consumption in case of link failure can be limited at a cost of a slight increase in the operational and embodied energies of the energy resilient topologies compared to the power minimised topologies.

We studied the impact of renewable energy availability, represented by wind farms, on the location of clouds and the content replication schemes of cloud content over IP/WDM networks. The results show that building mini-clouds in different network locations based on content popularity is the most energy-efficient approach when clouds are powered by non-renewable sources or when renewable energy is restricted. However, a trade-off between transmission losses and non-renewable power consumption in the IP/WDM network exists when there is enough renewable energy to power all the clouds.

We studied the energy efficiency of BitTorrent-based P2P systems taking into account the presence of renewable energy sources. The results show that the renewable energy sources can be efficiently tapped in a P2P system by optimising the routing table so that the number of traversed nodes powered by non-renewable power is minimised, while local peers selection is maintained.

We have investigated the problem of virtual Network embedding (VNE) in IP over Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (O-OFDM) networks to take advantage of the flexibility offered by O-OFDM compared to rigid WDM networks. Two approaches were proposed: power minimised O-OFDM networks and spectrum minimised O-OFDM networks. Virtual network embedding in IP over O-OFDM network under both approaches is shown to outperform VNE in a 100 Gb/s IP over WDM network with average power savings of 63% and 17%, respectively.

We have explored the dynamics of TV viewing behaviour and program popularity to develop a time-driven cache replacement strategy to minimise the power consumption of standard definition and high-definition IPTV delivered over an IP-over-WDM network. Our results show that the cache hit ratios have increased under this strategy and so the network power consumption is reduced by up to 86% compared to no caching.

We have investigated the problem of energy-efficient traffic scheduling in IP over WDM networks by developing a MILP model and a real-time heuristic to allocate network resources with the objective of minimising the total network power consumption. The results show that energy-efficient network resource allocation (according to the scheduling opportunities/requirements) and allowing the rerouting of reserved and existing traffic requests can save up to 58% of the network power consumption compared to optimising the resource allocation to minimise the blocking probability.
We have investigated the impact of maximising profit on the power consumption and acceptance of virtual network requests (VNRs) in core networks with clouds. The results show that higher acceptance rates do not necessarily lead to higher profit due to the high cost associated with accepting some of the requests. In order to obtain optimal power consumption in the network, we minimised the power consumption for the same optimal profit and the results indicated that we can achieve lower power consumption for the same profit. Using the insights from the models, we developed a Profit Optimised and Energy Minimised heuristic, (POEM), with nearly the same power consumption, profit and VNR acceptance performance as the MILP model.

We have investigated the effective use of renewable energy in virtual resource allocation in IP/WDM core networks with clouds as a means of reducing the carbon footprint. We developed a Green Virtual Network Embedding (GVNE) framework for minimising the use of non-renewable energy through intelligent provisioning of bandwidth and cloud data center resources. The problem is modelled as a mixed integer linear program (MILP) and the results show that CO2 emissions could be reduced by up to 48% and that it is better to instantiate virtual machines in cloud data centers that have access to abundant renewable energy even at the expense of traversing multiple links across the network. While it is important for cloud infrastructure owners to address the problem of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, they are also equally concerned about the operational expenditure (OPEX) that is associated with electricity costs in the network. We have shown that completely focusing on reduction of non-renewable power consumption has the potential to significantly increase the overall OPEX associated with electricity consumption considering the geographical price discrimination of electricity. We have therefore developed a framework that addresses both concerns of reducing electricity costs and GHG emissions. The results of our developed model show that while maintaining the electricity cost at the lowest optimal value, GHG emissions could be reduced by up to 16%.

An efficient approach to address the power consumption challenge of transferring large volumes of data in big data networks is to progressively process large volumes of data as close to its source as possible and transport the reduced volume of extracted knowledge to the destination. We developed a MILP model to optimise the processing of huge volumes of data generated by different user zones in a progressive manner among different nodes of the core networks to reduce the network power consumption. Accordingly, a noteworthy decrease in data transferred is achieved which results in a generous reduction in network power consumption. We considered the 4Vs of big data to determine the impact of the proposed progressive processing on network power consumption as follows: Volume (with direct implications on power needs), Velocity (with impact on delay requirements), Variety (with varying of big data applications) and Veracity (with reliability and trustworthiness constraints).

IoT is expected to benefit from the wide spectrum of proposed energy efficient network solutions. Cloud computing is one of the main approaches investigated to reduce data centre and network power consumption. We introduced a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model to address the energy efficiency in IoT networks supported by cloud computing. The processing of IoT traffic is handled by Virtual Machines (VMs) hosted in distributed mini clouds and/or located near the IoT networking elements. We optimised the number of mini clouds, their location and the placement of VMs to reduce the total power consumption induced by traffic aggregation and processing. Our results showed that the optimal distribution of mini clouds in the IoT network can yield total power savings of up to 36% compared to processing IoT data in a single mini cloud located at the gateway layer.
Exploitation Route Implemented by vendors, operators and service providers to improve core network energy efficiency
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL http://project-star.org.uk/
 
Description The research in STAR introduced energy efficient routing, virtualisation, topology design and sleep mechanisms. These were selected and implemented in the GreenTouch GreenMeter as part of the set of measures adopted to improve the core network energy efficiency. GreenTouch is the leading international consortium in energy efficiency with over 50 industrial and academic members including Alcatel-Lucent, Huawei, China Mobile and France Telecom. The core network is one third of the overall GreenTouch GreenMeter work, a significant contribution, contributing significantly to the current world record core network energy efficiency improvement, 316x, GreenTouch white paper June 2015; adopted by the GreenTouch members including Nokia, China Mobile and France Telecom. The work has therefore had real industrial and academic impact, a clear distinction from the norm. As a result the work led to 4 key awards in the field, the 2015 GreenTouch 1000x award, the 2015 IEEE Comsoc TAOS outstanding service award, the 2016 IET Optoelectronics Premium Award and the 2016 Edison award in the Collective Disruption category. Five IEEE standards were based in part on the results of this project: IEEE P1925.1, IEEE P1926.1, IEEE P1927.1, IEEE P1928.1 and IEEE P1929.1.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description IEEE P1925.1™ Standard for Energy Efficient Dynamic Line Rate Transmission System
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact IEEE P1925.1™ is a standard for energy efficient dynamic line rate transmission systems. This standard specifies an energy-efficient rate-adaptive transmission system that can be used to deploy mixed line rates. It introduces the architecture and mechanisms needed to enable the use of an optimal combination of line rates to accommodate traffic while reducing power consumption.
URL http://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1925.1.html
 
Description IEEE P1926.1™ Standard for a Functional Architecture of Distributed Energy Efficient Big Data Processing
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact IEEE P1926.1™ is a standard for a functional architecture of distributed energy efficient big data processing. It specifies a functional architecture that supports the energy-efficient transmission and processing of large volumes of data, starting at processing nodes close to the data source, with significant processing resources provided at centralised data centre.
URL http://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1926.1.html
 
Description IEEE P1927.1™ Standard for Services Provided by the Energy-efficient Orchestration and Management of Virtualized Distributed Data Centers Interconnected by a Virtualized Network
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact IEEE P1927.1™ is a standard for services provided by the energy-efficient orchestration and management of virtualised distributed data centres interconnected by a virtualised network. This standard specifies an architecture for a service composed of distributed data centres interconnected by a network. It specifies the interfaces and the dynamic orchestration and management mechanisms for energy-efficient allocation of resources from data centres and network.
URL http://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1927.1.html
 
Description IEEE P1928.1™ Standard for a Mechanism for Energy Efficient Virtual Machine Placement
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact IEEE P1928.1™ is a standard for a mechanism for energy efficient virtual machine placement. This standard specifies an algorithm for energy-efficient virtual machine placement strategies considering network and computational power consumption. It also considers the geographic distribution of user demand.
URL http://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1928.1.html
 
Description IEEE P1929.1™ An Architectural Framework for Energy Efficient Content Distribution
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact IEEE P1929.1™ is an architectural framework for energy efficient content distribution which specifies a framework for designing energy efficient content distribution services, such as migration, placement, and replication, over networks.
URL http://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1929.1.html
 
Description Converged Optical and Wireless Access Networks (COALESCE)
Amount £1,373,034 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P003990/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 12/2021
 
Description EU H2020 - PICS4ALL project
Amount € 2,000,000 (EUR)
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2018
 
Description Terabit Bidirectional Multi-user Optical Wireless System (TOWS) for 6G LiFi
Amount £6,604,394 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S016570/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 12/2023
 
Title GWATT 
Description GWATT ( Global 'What if' Analyzer of NeTwork Energy ConsumpTion) is an interactive on line software tools that captures the GreenTouch GreenMeter results in 3 areas: core networks, access networks and wireless networks. Our work provided all the basis for one of the 3 areas: the core network energy efficiency measures. The software code was written by Bell Labs working closely with us in the core network part of the software. https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/belllabs-microsite-greentouch/index.php@page=gwatt-visualizing-the-greentouch-results.html https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/belllabs-microsite-greentouch/uploads/documents/GreenTouch-Celebration-E-Poster-GWATT.pdf http://gwatt.net 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Widely used by the 50+ GreenTouch industrial and academic member organisations including Huawei, Nokia, AT&T, France Telecom, China Mobile and others. Widely used by the Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSi) 40+ industrial members, which include BT, Samsung, Ericsson, Deutsche Telekom, Fujitsu, Microsoft, Sprint, Telefonica, Telenor, Verizon, ITU, 
URL http://gwatt.net
 
Description IEEE Green ICT Initiative 
Organisation Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Country United States 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution Prof. Elmirghani is founder and one of 2 Co-Chairs of the IEEE Green ICT Initiative
Collaborator Contribution We founded in 2013 the IEEE Green ICT initiative, http://greenict.ieee.org/, and continue to chair its activities. The IEEE Green ICT initiative, initially funded by IEEE Future Directions, secured $150k, $350k and $300k funding from the IEEE New Initiatives Committee (chaired by incoming IEEE president elect) in 2015, 2016 and 2017 and has set up Green ICT activities in conferences, standards (with 12 IEEE Green ICT standards projects), education (in partnership with NIST) and publications with a new IEEE Green ICT Magazine proposal having received wide support from IEEE societies and a new IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, inaugural issue January 2017. Our leadership in IEEE and our advocacy of Green ICT led to the IEEE Communications Society 2015 outstanding service award for "leadership and contributions to the area of green communications". Our leadership of the IEEE Green ICT Initiative led to 9 new IEEE standards in the green communications area. Five of these nine standards are the result of work in the INTERNET project. Two rapid reaction standardisation workshops were held in November 2015 (London) and July 2016 (Chicago) with the interested industrial (eg. Nokia, Ericsson, BT, etc) and academic members. The standards scope and focus was defined. In September and October 2016, the IEEE Communications Society approved these standards and Prof. Elmirghani was appointed chair of the working group responsible for these 5 standards; the IEEE Green ICT standards working group, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/wg/EEICT.html. In December 2016, the 5 standards were approved by the IEEE standards association. In the time between January 2017 and September 2018 the write-up of the 5 standards has to be concluded, final votes by September 2019. The standards will then start to be used by equipment vendors, network operators etc. Working with the GreenTouch industrial members we introduced the standards as a way to ensure that the INTERNET outputs are used and are implemented openly and in an interoperable way by the interested parties. The standards are: 1. IEEE P1925.1 Standard for Energy Efficient Dynamic Line Rate Transmission System, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1925.1.html, based on: El-Gorashi, T.E.H., Dong, X., Elmirghani, J,M.H.: 'Green optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing networks', IET Optoelectronics, 2014, 8, (3), pp. 137-148. The paper won the 2016 IET Optoelectronics premium award. 2. IEEE P1926.1 Standard for a Functional Architecture of Distributed Energy Efficient Big Data Processing, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1926.1.html. 3. IEEE P1927.1 Standard for Services Provided by the Energy-efficient Orchestration and Management of Virtualized Distributed Data Centers Interconnected by a Virtualized Network, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1927.1.html, based on: Nonde, L., El-Gorashi, T.E.H. and Elmirghani, J.M.H., "Energy Efficient Virtual Network Embedding for Cloud Networks," IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 33, No. 9, pp. 1828-1849, 2015. 4. IEEE P1928.1 Standard for a Mechanism for Energy Efficient Virtual Machine Placement, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1928.1.html, based on: Lawey, A., El-Gorashi, T.E.H. and Elmirghani, J.M.H., "Distributed Energy Efficient Clouds over Core Networks," IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 1261 - 1281, 2014. 5. IEEE P1929.1 An Architectural Framework for Energy Efficient Content Distribution, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1929.1.html, based on: Lawey, A., El-Gorashi, T.E.H. and Elmirghani, J.M.H., "Distributed Energy Efficient Clouds over Core Networks," IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 1261 - 1281, 2014.
Impact 1. A new IEEE Transactions on Green Communications and Networking, inaugural issue January 2017. 2. IEEE 2017 Greening through ICT Summit (Inagural event); held with IEEE ICC 2017, Paris, http://greenict.ieee.org/summit/gtict-summit-2017 3. Five new IEEE standards The standards are: (i). IEEE P1925.1 Standard for Energy Efficient Dynamic Line Rate Transmission System, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1925.1.html, based on: El-Gorashi, T.E.H., Dong, X., Elmirghani, J,M.H.: 'Green optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing networks', IET Optoelectronics, 2014, 8, (3), pp. 137-148. The paper won the 2016 IET Optoelectronics premium award. (ii). IEEE P1926.1 Standard for a Functional Architecture of Distributed Energy Efficient Big Data Processing, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1926.1.html. (iii). IEEE P1927.1 Standard for Services Provided by the Energy-efficient Orchestration and Management of Virtualized Distributed Data Centers Interconnected by a Virtualized Network, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1927.1.html, based on: Nonde, L., El-Gorashi, T.E.H. and Elmirghani, J.M.H., "Energy Efficient Virtual Network Embedding for Cloud Networks," IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 33, No. 9, pp. 1828-1849, 2015. (iv). IEEE P1928.1 Standard for a Mechanism for Energy Efficient Virtual Machine Placement, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1928.1.html, based on: Lawey, A., El-Gorashi, T.E.H. and Elmirghani, J.M.H., "Distributed Energy Efficient Clouds over Core Networks," IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 1261 - 1281, 2014. (v). IEEE P1929.1 An Architectural Framework for Energy Efficient Content Distribution, https://standards.ieee.org/develop/project/1929.1.html, based on: Lawey, A., El-Gorashi, T.E.H. and Elmirghani, J.M.H., "Distributed Energy Efficient Clouds over Core Networks," IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 32, No. 7, pp. 1261 - 1281, 2014.
Start Year 2013
 
Title PASSIVE OPTICAL-BASED DATA CENTER NETWORKS 
Description The patent gives a number of PON designs to replace the high power consuming access and aggregation switches in current data centers infrastructures. In addition to maximising the use of only passive optical devices, other challenges that have to be addressed by these designs include off-loading the inter-rack traffic from the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) switch to avoid undesired power consumption and delays and reducing or eliminating the need for expensive tuneable lasers. 
IP Reference WO2016083812 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact on going discussion
 
Company Name Celltron Networks 
Description Communication networks 
Year Established 2016 
Impact New networking hardware and software
 
Description IEEE COMSOC Student Competition, GreenMeter: Energy Efficient Core Networks Leonard Nonde, University of Leeds, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Student competition entry to raise the profile of Green ICT and energy efficiency.

A PhD student supported by the INTERNET project presented one of the entries:

"GreenMeter: Energy Efficient Core Networks Leonard Nonde, University of Leeds, UK"

the received an honorary mention, publicised to students and practitioners in the IEEE Comsoc website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.comsoc.org/2016-ieee-comsoc-student-competition-winners
 
Description A De-centeralised cloud could cushion the impact of IoT on ICT 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact article for Energy Central that discusses the massive impact that the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) will have in two ways on Information and Communications technology (ICT).

It talks about the increase in sensors and devices and the related increase in energy use; and the applications of IoT in many domains, with impacts on carbon footprint.

The blog considers the end devices and sensors and how processing at the IoT network's edge could decentralize the cloud and improve the sustainability of ICT in the service of IoT.

For the full article, follow this link: http://www.energycentral.com/c/iu/de-centralized-cloud-could-cushion-impact-iot-ict

Jaafar Elmirghani is Director of the Institute of Integrated Information Systems and Professor of Communication Networks and Systems, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.energycentral.com/c/iu/de-centralized-cloud-could-cushion-impact-iot-ict
 
Description GREEN ICT Special Report in the IEEE INSTITUTE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The March 2016 edition of The Institute, the member newspaper of the IEEE (received by all 430k IEEE members), included a Special Report on Green ICT and our work in the IEEE Green ICT Initiative. Several members and projects in this space have been highlighted. The March 2016 issue is here: http://theinstitute.ieee.org/ns/quarterly_issues/timar16.pdf
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://theinstitute.ieee.org/ns/quarterly_issues/timar16.pdf
 
Description HOW THE INTERNET OF THINGS IMPACTS ICT AND GREEN ICT EFFORTS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact article for the Intelligent Utility Magazine that discusses how the Internet of Things Impacts ICT and Green ICT Efforts.

It talks about developments from healthcare and manufacturing to smart cities, smart agriculture and other areas and presents challenges, particularly in how IoT's rise will further challenge our efforts to "green" - or make more sustainable - information and communication technology (ICT).

For the full article, follow this link: http://www.energycentral.com/c/iu/how-internet-things-impacts-ict-and-green-ict-efforts

Jaafar Elmirghani is Co-Chair, IEEE Green ICT Initiative, and Director of the Institute of Integrated Information Systems and Professor of Communication Networks and Systems, School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.energycentral.com/c/iu/how-internet-things-impacts-ict-and-green-ict-efforts
 
Description IEEE Greening through ICT Summit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Greening through ICT Summit (GtICT) examines opportunities both where information and communications technology (ICT) is used as a tool to improve environmental and societal functions, and improving the energy efficiency, carbon footprint and life cycle management of ICT itself.


ICTs are currently transforming all spheres of human activity and creating, in our 21st century societies, a paradigm shift similar or even greater in scope and impact to the industrial revolution. ICTs are a key driver of sustainable development, with the potential to reconcile socioeconomic benefits with positive environmental impacts.

The Summit's objective is to identify the combination of key technological, commercial and public policy challenges that must be overcome to achieve sustainability in our increasingly connected world. As such, it seeks to build a broad dialogue among the research community, ICT practitioners and its vertical application sectors, equipment and technology providers, the ICT standardization community, and with public policy influencers and decision makers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://greenict.ieee.org/summit/gtict-summit-2017
 
Description IEEE the Institute: Sustainability in a connected world 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In the February issue of The IEEE Institute (received by all 430k IEEE members), Professor Jaafar Elmirghani, one of the Co-Chairs for the IEEE Green ICT Initiative, talks about Green ICT technological, economical, and public policy hurdles.

These issues were the focus the IEEE Green ICT Initiative's global conference, the Greening through ICT Summit (GtICT), held 25 May 2017bin Paris. The conference's mission was succinctly captured by its theme: "Sustainability in a Connected World." It was held alongside the IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE ICC 2017) and the International Workshop on the Application of Green Techniques to Emerging Communication and Computing Paradigms.

For the full article, please click http://theinstitute.ieee.org/ieee-roundup/technology-topics/communications/sustainability-in-a-connected-world-is-the-focus-of-ieee-green-ict-conference

For more information on the May 25th, 2017 GtICT Summit and to register, click http://greenict.ieee.org/summit/gtict-summit-2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017