Engineering Safe and Efficient Hydride-Based Technologies

Lead Research Organisation: University of Nottingham
Department Name: Faculty of Engineering

Abstract

Imagine providing a small, safe and energy efficient hydrogen refueller that can be installed in a domestic garage or industrial warehouse that will ensure that consumers can have an easy and resilient method of refuelling, reducing the reliance on refuelling stations whilst the hydrogen economy infrastructure develops. Current technology provides options which are bulky, take a long time to refuel and require storage at high pressures.

This work uses metal hydrides as a solid state storage option for hydrogen, reducing the pressure at which hydrogen is stored and reducing the spatial footprint, at the same time using a metal hydride compressor to provide further compression of hydrogen to on-board vehicle requirement levels. The challenge is in designing a compact system that can deliver the flow rates of hydrogen to compete with conventional petrol refuelling or by providing an alternative method that fits in with the lifestyle of a consumer. This work is meeting that challenge and ensuring that it puts safety at the forefront of its design philosophy.

Fundamental modelling is required to underpin this work, with materials developments combined with advanced mechanical design to deliver a robust safe design of system and components.

Planned Impact

This project will address the need for efficient, safe hydride-based technologies (from distributed small scale refueling facilities for topping up a commuter vehicle to servicing a small fleet) this will help diversify the UK hydrogen infrastructure and facilitate within the UK a more rapid growth of, and a more sustainable, hydrogen vehicle market.

Beneficiaries

Academia
Enhancing the knowledge economy through dissemination of discoveries in peer reviewed journals and at national and international conferences; New understanding of how hydride-based technologies can be safely integrated into refuelling systems. Augmenting knowledge and developments of value to the Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Supergen Hub.

Industry
Providing valuable studies for SME developments in this area by providing new learning on the safety of metal hydride powders, their combustion and explosive behaviour and on the issues faced when integrating hydrogen generators, compressors and stores into a single, compact modular unit. Understanding of the optimisation of hydride-based systems already developed and new understanding of technologies that could help the role-out of hydrogen vehicles.

Policy Makers
Impact on policymakers on future technology options in transport and the introduction of H2 from low-carbon sources; this project supports policy by broadening the range of technologies available for deployment.

Societal and Economic Impact
The Societal and economic impact will be enhanced by developing new technology that will help to support the roll-out of hydrogen vehicles in the UK and these cleaner vehicles will help improve local air quality and thereby reducing incidents of associated health conditions such as asthma; Increasing the variety in the range of technologies available for the refuelling of vehicles. In addition the development of home refuelling (the focus of this project's technology) would contribute towards more geographically fair access to hydrogen vehicles, rather than communities that are local to deployed infrastructure and give consumers choice. There will also be a benefit from an increased public knowledge and acceptance of the safety issues associated with hydrogen based technologies. New scientific discoveries through dissemination in peer reviewed journals and at national and international conferences. New understanding of how hydride-based technologies can be safely integrated into refuelling systems.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Identification of new materials for a hydride compressor. Modelling heat management of hydride stores and compressors. Test methodologies for prototypes. Modelling ignition, propagation and extinction of hydrogen fires. Assessment of explosion hazards of hydrogen and simulation of storage configuration, dispersions and ignitions of hydrogen from possible accidental leakages.
Exploitation Route The low temperature hydride formulation is being modified and used for a metal hydride proptotype as part of a UK-Innovate Project 132140. If successful it could lead to commercial benefit with the three industrial partners
Sectors Energy,Transport

 
Description To develop further industrial interactions with industry. Potential KTP and commercialisation routes are being explored fro some of the compositions identified through the project and also interest has led to potential development work between two companies. Technology developed for compressor tanks translated to new projects Interest on the technology is continuing with two other commercial interested parties from overseas
Sector Energy
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Energy Catalyst - Early Stage Feasibility
Amount £180,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 132140 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 11/2016
 
Description Standard Research - Thermally-driven solar air conditioning (TSAC)
Amount £202,437 (GBP)
Funding ID R00143X 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2019
 
Description Collaborative Research with Tohoku Uiversity Japan 
Organisation Tohoku University
Department Department of Chemical Engineering
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have established a collaborative research link with Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan to work in the area of Turbulent Combustion Modelling. Professor Yohsuke Matsushita worked with our group as a visiting academic for a year and a postgraduate student from Tohoku University also spent time with our group and worked on developing various numerical methods. These include laminar flamelet models, FPV, UFPV and FGM. Professor Malalasekera also visited Tohoku University.
Collaborator Contribution Expert knowledge on Turbulent Combustion modelling is excahged and joint user codes are being devloped.
Impact Reseach publications and code development is ongoing.
Start Year 2016
 
Description HSE 
Organisation Health and Safety Executive (HSE)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Meetings with HSE to explore collaborative use of explosion models and also interact on policy making on hydrogen storage
Collaborator Contribution Sharing data and expertise and helping to form policy on handling metal hydride hydrogen stores
Impact On going discussion and reporting
Start Year 2014
 
Description Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Supergen 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Attendance at Supergen meetings, Reporting on project
Collaborator Contribution exposure to steering groups and feedback
Impact Dissemination
Start Year 2013
 
Description Hydrogen storage scale up 
Organisation Less Common Metals Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution development of new alloys
Collaborator Contribution Scale up technology development towards higher TRL hydrogen storage tanks
Impact development of scale up of new alloys critical to hydrogen storage
Start Year 2016
 
Description 14th International Metal Hydrogen Congress, Salford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact MH2014 is the 14th International Congress International conference on Metal Hydrogen systems. The modeling work we presented by this project work generated interest and potential collaborations with other groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://mh2014.salford.ac.uk/
 
Description 16th International Symposium of Metal hydrogen systems WeOC06 A6: Alastair Stuart Thermally - driven solar air conditioning , 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.mh2018.cn
 
Description 6th International Energy Storage Conference (China Industrial Association of Power Sources), (Shenzhen, China), 25/5/2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 3-day conference on energy storage in Shezhen (China), May 2016. Talk given my Prof David Book to about 150 participants from industry, local Government and academia.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Academiv visit to 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Academic visit by a member of the research team to, Combustion Technology Group, at the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Technical University of Eindhoven, Netherlands to study and learn the Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) method for turbulent combustion simulations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description China visit to ZEG and GRINM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Visit to ZEG and GRINM to establish potential collaboration in hydrogen storage applications

With GRINM set up collaboration on scale up in which material is being tested fro demonstrators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Energy for Life: Energy Solutions for Developing Economies by Energy Technologies Research Institute (ETRI). David Grant, Metal hydride compressor optimisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Energy Technologies Research Institute (ETRI) hold an energy conference once every two years around a particular theme. In 2019 the theme was 'Energy for Life: Energy Solutions for Developing Economies'.The two-day conference featured academics, researchers and industrial experts from around the globe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/energy-for-life-energy-solutions-for-developing-economies-registratio...
 
Description Energy for Life: Energy Solutions for Developing Economies by Energy Technologies Research Institute (ETRI). Kandavel Manickam presentation - Metal hydrides for stationary hydrogen storage application 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Energy Technologies Research Institute (ETRI) hold an energy conference once every two years around a particular theme. In 2019 the theme was 'Energy for Life: Energy Solutions for Developing Economies'.The two-day conference featured academics, researchers and industrial experts from around the globe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/energy-for-life-energy-solutions-for-developing-economies-registratio...
 
Description Energy for Life: Energy Solutions for Developing Economies by Energy Technologies Research Institute (ETRI). Ming Li, Case Study: Developing self-sustained, renewable, low-carbon energy generation and storage systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Energy Technologies Research Institute (ETRI) hold an energy conference once every two years around a particular theme. In 2019 the theme was 'Energy for Life: Energy Solutions for Developing Economies'.The two-day conference featured academics, researchers and industrial experts from around the globe.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/energy-for-life-energy-solutions-for-developing-economies-registratio...
 
Description Exhibit to Energy Technologies Institute Low Carbon Showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Exhibit stimulated interest in hydride compressors and thermal stores with industrial and academic parties

contacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.eti.co.uk/events/low-carbon-future-showcase/
 
Description Guest Lecture and Seminar at Tohoku University, Sendai Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Invited guest lecture at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan by Professor W. Malalasekera outlining turbulent combustion modelling reserach at Loughborough University UK including research on Hydrogen safety.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Guest Lecture at Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Japan 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A guest lecture at the Steel Research Laboratory, JFE Steel Corporation, Fukuyama, Hiroshima, Japan. The lecture explained latest turbulent combustion modelling research undertaken by the Loughborough research group including Hydrogen safety research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference (Bath, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Shahrouz Nayebossadri gave a talk at the "Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference" in Bath (December 2015) on alloy development for a domestic two-stage metal hydride compressor.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.h2fcsupergen.com/events/h2fc-supergen-researcher-conference-bath-14-16-dec/
 
Description IEA international experts meeting TASK 40: ENERGY STORAGE AND CONVERSION BASED ON HYDROGEN 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact IEA TASK 40: ENERGY STORAGE AND CONVERSION BASED ON HYDROGEN

Hydrogen storage and hydrogen compressors and thermal orange along with air conditioning approaches discussed

Reserach collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description IEA-HIA Experts meeting Chamonix France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact IEA HYDROGEN IMPLEMENTING AGREEMENT
Task 32 - Hydrogen-based energy storage
Task 32 IEA HIA EXPERT MEETING
Dates: 18-22 January 2015
Chamonix, France
Discussion oh hydrogen storage technologies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description International Experts meeting. IEA Task 32 HYDROGEN-BASED ENERGY STORAGE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Energy Agency- Hydrogen Implementation agreement Task 32 experts meeting HYDROGEN-BASED ENERGY STORAGE

Disceminated our ideas about thermally driven air conditioning using metal hydrides and also hydrogen storage and other thermal stores

Outcomes collaborations and combined papers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Lecture - European Materials Research Society 2020, Poland - Metal Hydrides for Energy Systems, Gavin S Walker. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk on Metal Hydrides for Energy Systems. This sparked conversations with regards to collaborations with Kyushu University, Japan, and Curtin University, Australia. Due to follow-up on these in 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Keynote lecture - Renewable Energy and Role of Hydrogen as a Future Fuel 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a Keynote Lecture at the conference "4th International Conference of Chemical Engineering & Industrial Biotechnology ICCEIB 2018" held in Kaula Lumpur, Malaysia, in August 2018. The conference was organised by the University of Pahang, Malaysia and attended by more than 200 international participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://icceib.ump.edu.my/index.php/en/
 
Description Keynote lecture at the 28th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP28) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An invited Keynote lecture on "Application of Advanced Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques in Combustion Modelling" was conducted at the 28th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena - 2017, held at the University of Peradeniya, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.pdn.ac.lk/istp28/
 
Description Keynote lecture at the ICBSE 2016 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An invited Keynote Lecture on "Hydrogen as Future Fuel" was given at the 7th International Conference on Sustainable Built Environment (ICSBE 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Oral Presentation - Thermally-driven Solar Air Conditioning. Stuart, A. D., 16th UK Heat Transfer Conference (UKHTC2019), University of Nottingham, September 2019. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact engaging industry and academia with new concept in thermal storage fro air conditioning
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Plenary Gavin Walker Metal hydrides fo r energy systems , 268 MH2016 16th International Symposium of Metal Hydrogen Systems, Guangzhou 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.mh2018.cn/
 
Description Plenary Lecture - H2FC Supergen Conference 2020, UK - Solid State Technologies for Hydrogen Systems, Gavin S Walker. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Discussed collaboration opportunities with at Imperial College (Agreed an exchange of samples) and services requested by the company Element Energy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Present work to HSE in the modelling and experiments with domestic hydrogen compression experiment and update on current developments in the regulation of hydrogen applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Shared knowledge on hydrogen safety and update on new reluations to be in place. common interest in modelling and also their test facilities

Further collaboration within the project. HSE representative to be invited regularly to quarterly meetings
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Talk MoOA03 A1: David Grant Metal hydride compressor optimisation , 232 16th International Symposium on Metal-Hydrogen Systems: in Guangzhou 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dissemination of research outputs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.mh2018.cn
 
Description UK Expert - IEA Task 40 Energy Storage and Conversion - Talk on Improving the performance of metal hydrides for storage, compression and thermal management, Gavin Walker - Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meeting of experts from International Energy Agency affiliated countries. The aim is to generate a more collaborative approach to research in the area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019