Heterogeneous Mechanics in Hexagonal Alloys across Length and Time Scales

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Materials

Abstract

We intend to make the UK the world leaders in the understanding, performance and application of hexagonal material systems used by the aero, energy and defence sectors. We wish to develop step-change technology by bringing to bear the extraordinary range of experimental, characterization and modelling techniques in which the UK holds many leaders but which have yet to be brought together to take full advantage of the synergy and multiplication possible. This simply remains un-achievable without clear UK unification of research effort. Hexagonal structural materials that are of industrial significance are all of close packed crystal structure (largely titanium, zirconium and magnesium alloys) and are strategic and profoundly important to the UK economy and find wide application. The implications of research success are profound in developing significant improvement in materials, material structure and processing conditions in optimizing manufacture, in optimizing component design with superior property-behaviour relationships, in improving operational efficiencies and in reducing production and running costs, thereby contributing to fuel efficiencies and very importantly, the UK's competitive advantage. Our ambition is to bring together the UK's experts in academia, supply chain and end-users, coupled with techniques to be brought to bear in four key themes in hexagonal metals which are fundamental mechanisms, micromechanics, performance in aero applications and performance in nuclear applications.

Planned Impact

This programme grant will benefit all those UK companies which employ hexagonal materials in their businesses, whether in processing, design or application in-service in the transport, energy and defence sectors. Those companies directly benefitting include the civil and military aero-engine companies and sub-contractors (including Rolls-Royce Aero and TIMET), the civil nuclear energy programme companies (including Rolls-Royce Civil Nuclear, EdF, Westinghouse), and the UK's nuclear defence companies (including Rolls-Royce Marine, AWE, DSTL and QinietiQ). The outputs of the research will enable better efficiencies, less material usage, lower pollution, and higher added value to UK products and components in transport, energy and defence thus increasing UK competetiveness. The aim of the project is to make the UK the world leaders in the understanding and performance of hexagonal material systems used by the aero, energy and defence sectors, hence the research will impact the UK businesses identified above but will also provide opportunities for policy makers and government agencies to sell the UK expertise developed in attracting overseas investment in to the UK's energy and transport industries. Our pathways to impact include partnering the Big Innovation Centre to disseminate reearch outputs and innovations to partner and non-partner industries alike as well as government and policy makers. In addition, Technology Take-Up Workshops and Technology Transfer Meetings with industry will maximise up-take of research outputs.

The programme grant will engage seriously with two-way public aggagement addressed primarily at the 8 - 11 year old school student groups, focusing on Materials in Energy and Transport, involving the development of workshops for schools, in schools, which are two-way, and in the London museums (through the Imperial Dana/Science Museum initiative). The aim is to inspire and enthuse new generations of school children in the science of materials in energy and transport. Working with the Royal Society, the Royal Academy of Engineering, the Big Innovation Centre, and our industrial partners, we aim also to raise the profile of the UK's world-leading research strengths in hexagonal materials.

A crucially important impact will result from the large number of highly trained graduates and post-docs with both breadth and depth in a unique range of skills and knowledge in characterization techniques, modelling techniques, analytical and experimental skills. They will be true assets to the UK's hexagonal metals and other industries as well as to academic endeavour and will play a key role in the public engagement with schools.

Publications

10 25 50

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Abdolvand H (2018) Strong grain neighbour effects in polycrystals. in Nature communications

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Bai M (2015) Microtexture Analysis of the Alumina Scale in Thermal Barrier Coatings in Journal of the American Ceramic Society

 
Description Blue spot (corrosion) defects understood and quantified (Dye et al) leading to £10smillions savings in maintenance costs
Transformational new technique to extract texture from ultrasound developed and proved. Under implementation into industry partner Rolls-Royce.
Dwell fatigue mechanistic understanding obtained and predictive models developed. Role of alpha beta microstructures in dwell now understood, facilitating the development of new dwell fatigue resistant alloys. In addition, the role of thermal alleviation is understood contributing to the closing out of important safety cases, and to resolution saving £100millions in reduced inspection/maintenance regimes. Local texture in Ti microstructures influences local ASB formation. Effects quantified in predictive models.
Exploitation Route Through industrial engagement, international collaborations, workshops and conferences
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Transport

URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/hexmat
 
Description Dwell fatigue understanding and predictive modelling is influencing safety-critical aero-engine component design. The methods have now been extended (2018) to include properly representative microstructures in alpha-beta alloys and to incorporate thermomechanical loading. In particular, this has enables us to establish the role of thermal alleviation in cold dwell fatigue. New ultrasonic methods for texture measurement pioneered and undergoing implementation in industry partner. New contemporaneous methodology for high-resolution digital image correlation strain measurements and gold reflectance temperature measurement at high rate in adiabatric shear band formation within microstructures established.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Membership of Reactor Programes Group (RPG)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Mechanistic models for structural integrity supported in core components
 
Description MAI (USA)
Amount £900,000 (GBP)
Organisation Honeywell Aerospace 
Start 05/2018 
End 04/2019
 
Title High-resolution 3D DIC system 
Description A high-resolution digital image correlation (DIC) system has been designed to measure both in- and out-of-plane displacements. The system has been coupled to both high-resolution and high-speed camera systems, and has specifically been developed to support measurements of high-strain-rate deformation in shear test specimens. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The corresponding software which interprets the DIC images and calculates displacement and strain has been built from open-source and freely-available codes, and has been shown to be as precise as leading commercial software. 
 
Title Miniature Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar, m-SHPB 
Description The m-SHPB is a miniature split-Hopkinson pressure bar designed specifically for the intermediate strain-rate testing of small volumes of material. The system is equipped with 6 mm diameter input and output bars, and has been used to subject materials to strain-rates between upper 10^2 s^-1 to 10^4 s^-1. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This system has partly underpinned a long-term facility proposal for ESRF. The small sample volumes are amenable to dynamic X-ray imaging and diffraction, and thus we have proposed to site this system, or a variant thereof, at the ID19 beamline for use by the wider high-rate and shock physics communities. 
 
Description EdF HexMat 
Organisation EDF Energy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Research direction and properties/behaviour of Zr
Collaborator Contribution Researcch direction
Impact Zr properties and behaviour
Start Year 2013
 
Description Magnesium 
Organisation Magnesium Elektron
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Towards understanding of twin nucleation in Mg alloys
Collaborator Contribution Integrated crystal plasticity modelling with experiment and characterisation has provided new mechanistic insights in to twin nucleation
Impact Internal reports
Start Year 2018
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation AMEC
Department AMEC Clean Energy Europe
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation Canadian Nuclear Laboratory (CNL)
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation EDF Energy
Department EDF Innovation and Research
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation EDF Energy
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation Imperial College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation National Nuclear Laboratory
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation Paul Scherrer Institute
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation Queen's University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation Studsvik
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description PACE Consortium on PCI 
Organisation Westinghouse
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Initiated consortium and hosted and presented results from related projects at biannual consortium meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial partners have sponsored PhD projects, or provided material for research program. All partners have shared knowledge and ideas at biannual progress meetings. Progress meetings have also been hosted by ICL and at Westinghouse (Sweden)
Impact Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop (18-19 June 2014, University of Manchester) The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A. The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena. Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members. Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Rolls-Royce plc 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution transformational understanding of dwell fatigue and delivery of predictive modelling capabiliy
Collaborator Contribution Data, expertise - most particularly dwell facet fatigue data for disc spin tests
Impact Understanding Predictive models Published papers
Start Year 2013
 
Description TIMET 
Organisation Timet UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Properties/Behaviour of Ti alloys in service
Collaborator Contribution research direction
Impact Properties/Behaviour of Ti alloys in service
Start Year 2013
 
Description Westinghouse HexMat 
Organisation Siemens AG
Department Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Regular meetings, discussion of research and research direction
Collaborator Contribution Aiding in research direction; project specification
Impact Zirconium research direction
Start Year 2013
 
Title Texture from ultrasound 
Description Deconvolution of ultrasonic wave speed to give polycrystal orientation distribution function 
IP Reference  
Protection Copyrighted (e.g. software)
Year Protection Granted 2018
Licensed Yes
Impact Software
 
Title Dwell Fatigue Software 
Description The software enables analysis of titanium polycrystals in aero-engine components facilitating the prediction of dwell fatigue sensitivity resulting from microstructure variation, and thermal alleviation. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact This methodology is having significant impact in closing out a serious safety 'red-top' within Rolls-Royce 
 
Title Texture from Ultrasound 
Description Ultrasonic kit has been established which enables the measurement of bulk texture (Kearns factors) in polycrystal metals. 
Type Of Technology Physical Model/Kit 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact It has led to the development and exploitation of the technology by our partner Rolls-Royce 
 
Description CMWG 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scrutiny of policy and practice

Influencing policy and practice
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Dwell Workshop AFRL 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact AFRL dwell workshop with Rolls-Royce, GE, Pratt and Whitney, Honeywell
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description French High School Visit to Imperial College London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 10 students (age 19-21, BTEC equivalent students) from Diderot High School, France, visited the Materials Department at Imperial College London. HexMat researchers gave talks, demonstrations and a tour of the labs, showing some state of the art equipment and machines used at Imperial College. Some of the students were highly interested in studying Materials Science at Imperial and at the end of the visit raised questions on the application process.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/engineering/materials/hexmatresearchce...
 
Description HexMat HCP Alloys Workshop Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation was delivered by PhD student Jack Patten, titled, "A method for surface temperature and strain measurements in shear regions" at this workshop linked to the Hexagonal Materials Programme Grant. Attendees were a mix of programme grant colleagues, and researchers in academia and industry. This presentation highlighted current efforts to perform simultaneous strain and temperature measurement on dynamically compressed samples, and resulted in better defining the sample geometry and testing methodology for future experiments.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description HexMat International Workshop 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We have hosted a second international workshop focussed on discussing the latest insight and developments in understanding the high value and important hexagonal close packed family of materials. The workshop was hosted in Oxford and contained a range of high quality technical presentations and focussed discussion sessions. Around 80 attendees, including international and national.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/hexmat/news-and-events/hexmat-workshops/2nd-hexmat-workshop-2018/
 
Description HexMat Short Film 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Film on HexMat - a story of hexagonal metals used in aerospace and nuclear power. The video has been uploaded on YouTube to be viewed by all, including external stakeholders, policy makers, academics and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dozeiBk3zjM
 
Description International Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact HexMat symposium organised as part of international conference on modeling of materials.

25 presentations made within the HexMat symposium, leading to signifcant engagement and impact of the research outputs. Provided an international forum for HexMat impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://icmm4.usacm.org/
 
Description International Innovation HexMat Interview Article (Research Media) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A paper included in Innovation International on the UK's leading research, development and uptake of hcp alloys

Influencing decisions and policy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description International Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description MP for Newcastle North & Shadow Treasury Minister invited to Imperial College London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Catherine McKinnell, MP for Newcastle North & Shadow Treasury Minister visited Imperial College London to discusses with HexMat academics and students, the industrial uptake of Hexagonal metals research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description PDRA Days (Imperial, Manchester, Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A series of networking days which were designed to encourage PDRAs to network and collaborate with each other and to also see the facilities available at each of the cohort universities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Pellet Cladding Interaction Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The goal of the first workshop was to bring together researchers with an interest in the key area of Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI), and together with key industrial partners discuss what is known, what needs to be investigated and how future research can be carried out in a coherent way, avoiding fragmentation and producing the most impact. Attendees included representatives of a range universities, research institutes and industry with participants coming from the Australia, France, Sweden, Switzerland, U.K. and U.S.A.
The key outcome of the workshop is an agreement to form a research consortium to coordinate work in the area of PCI (PACE - Pellet-Associated Cladding Degradation). It was agreed that the complex nature of the PCI phenomenon required improved understanding of a number of interdependent material behaviours. Combining the strengths and capabilities of a range of institutions interested in working in this area with the knowledge and experience present in industry will provide a strong platform to achieving this goal. The aim of the proposed consortium will be to provide a more mechanistic understanding of the PCI phenomena.
Key industrial partners (Westinghouse, EDF, Studsvik and Rolls Royce) provided presentations detailing their perspective on PCI and the resulting discussions led to the development of a number of potential research projects to be pursued by the consortium members.
Since the workshop, the PACE consortium has proceeded to have biannual progress meetings, where current and future projects are discussed. PhD projects associated with PACE are underway at Manchester University and Imperial College London as well as at Queens University in Canada and Boise State University in the US. Project sponsors include, Rolls Royce, EDF, NNL, CNL and Westinghouse.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Penwortham Primary School Workshops 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Twice a year visits to Penwortham Primary School (South London) to engage with KS2 pupils and spend half a day with practising scientists and engineers to work on exciting science projects, building their interest in science and engineering.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013,2014,2015
 
Description Presentation at PETER 2015 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation was delivered by Jack Patten at the PETER 2015 conference, titled "3D DIC and Reflectance Thermometry for in-situ High Frame-Rate Sub-Micron Measurements of Adiabatic Shear Band Formation in Hexagonal Crystals", to an audience of ~60 people from academia, government and industry. This presentation helped raise awareness of the challenges in performing high-rate thermometry, and resulted in useful discussions with collaborators on alternative approaches.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Public Engagement - Disruptive Forces Seminar (BIC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Open discussion of innovation and uptake of research by business, business leaders and policy makers

Follow up for subsequent EPSRC meeting and Big Innovation Centre meeting on research uptake
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Radio Interview -Radio Cardiff 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Dr Ben Britton was interviewed on Radio Cardiff talk about titanium and zirconium alloys used in the aero and nuclear industries.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.rhysphillips.co.uk/pythagoras-trousers/episode176/
 
Description Research Seminar at HEMI 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr. Daniel Eakins visited the Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute, delivering a seminar to an audience of postgraduate researchers and academics describing various research conducted in the ISP, including work on Hexagonal Materials and Boron Carbide. This talk resulted in a formal link between the ISP (Imperial College) and HEMI (Johns Hopkins University), where collaboration on Hexagonal Materials is one of the primary points of interaction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Titanium and Zirconium Days (Rolls-Royce, Derby) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Focus discussion days with industry on zirconium and titanium alloys

Very strong engagement, influencing research directions and generating new collaborations. Rolls-Royce Marine now a Steering Board Member of the HexMat Programme Grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/hexmat/news-and-events/2014-news/
 
Description WCSIM and HexMat Schools Workshop (London Bridge) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Multiple full-day events with London and Oxfordshire primary schools

Much very positive fedback from teachers and children, including 'I want to become a scientist' from the latter
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014