DiSECCS: Diagnostic Seismic toolbox for the Efficient Control of CO2 Storage

Lead Research Organisation: NERC British Geological Survey
Department Name: Energy & Marine Geoscience

Abstract

The year 2011 recorded the highest ever global consumption of energy, estimated at more than 12 billion tonnes of oil equivalent. Because of this, and despite increasingly widespread deployment of renewable energy generation, annual global emissions of greenhouse gases are continuing to rise, underpinned by increasing consumption of fossil fuels. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is currently the only available technology that can significantly reduce CO2 emissions to the atmosphere from fossil fuel power stations and other industrial facilities such as oil refineries, steel works, cement factories and chemical plants. However, achieving meaningful emissions reduction requires wide deployment of large scale CCS and will involve long term storage of very large volumes of CO2 in the subsurface. Ultimately, if CCS were to be rolled out globally, volumes of injected carbon dioxide could become comparable, on an annual basis, to world hydrocarbon production.

The most likely sites for CO2 storage are depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. Understanding and monitoring geomechanical processes within different types of storage site is crucial for site selection, for achieving long term security of storage and for instilling wider confidence in the safety and effectiveness of CCS. In many cases depleted hydrocarbon fields have experienced strong pressure decrease during production which may have affected the integrity of the caprock seal; furthermore, CO2 injection into saline aquifers will displace large volumes of groundwater (brine). In all cases, as injection proceeds and reservoir pressures increase, maintaining the geomechanical stability of the storage reservoir will be of great importance. Understanding and managing these subsurface processes is key to minimising any risk that CO2 storage could result in unexpected effects such as induced earthquakes or damage to caprock seal integrity.

Experience from existing large-scale CO2 injection sites shows that monitoring tools such as time-lapse 3D seismic, micro-seismic monitoring and satellite interferometry have the potential to make a significant contribution to our understanding of reservoir processes, including fine-scale flow of CO2, fluid pressure changes, induced seismic activity and ground displacements. The DiSECCS project will bring together monitoring datasets from the world's three industrial scale CO2 storage sites at Sleipner (offshore Norway), Snohvit (offshore Norway) and In Salah (Algeria) to develop and test advanced and innovative monitoring tools and methods for the measurement and characterisation of pressure increase, CO2 migration and fluid saturation changes and geomechanical response. A key element of the research will be to identify those storage reservoir types that will be suitable for large-scale CO2 storage without unwanted geomechanical effects, and to develop monitoring tools and strategies to ensure safe and effective storage site performance.

In addition, our research will explore public attitudes to CO2 storage. We will consider what insights may be drawn from previous proposed CCS schemes involving onshore storage and other activities that have aroused similar concerns (such as earthquakes associated with shale gas fracking near to Blackpool) and how this experience can inform proposed large-scale offshore storage operations in the future. In the past, public opposition to some onshore storage proposals has led to project delays and cancellation, for example, in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany, and research has identified storage as the stage in the CCS chain that has most potential for concern to members of the lay public. Developing an improved understanding of potential societal responses to CO2 storage and monitoring is crucial for establishing a sustainable and successful CCS strategy; this research will contribute to this through a combination of case study analysis and participatory research with lay citizens.

Planned Impact

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified by DECC and the UK government Committee on Climate Change as pivotal to achieving the UK's CO2 emissions targets in the coming decades. For CCS to be deployed safely and to its full potential, it is essential to ensure reservoir containment integrity, to utilise the best storage reservoirs with optimal efficiency and to properly understand the extent of realistic storage capacity. The DiSECCS project has been designed to address these key issues and aims to achieve impacts in a number of ways.

Long term beneficiaries will be global populations and their governments who need large-scale implementation of CCS over the next 10 to 50 years to help reduce societal and economic impacts from climate change and to facilitate a managed transition from carbon-based to low-carbon energy economies. The insurance industry will also benefit from this in the longer-term.

The main direct beneficiaries of DiSECCS research will be industrial emitters of CO2 who will face caps on their permitted emissions in line with national targets; storage operators who will have to run their storage sites in accordance with national and international regulatory requirements (e.g the EU Storage Directive); national authorities responsible for permitting and regulating storage; and government policy-makers who need have robust estimates of national storage capacity for strategic planning reasons (in the UK this would include DECC and the Crown Estate). To this end, on our Stakeholder Panel we have DECC-EDU, responsible for regulating CCS in the UK, and two major oil companies currently engaged in large-scale CCS in Europe and beyond. We hope to extend our Stakeholder Panel further by inviting the successful projects in the UK CCS Commercialisation Programme to join. We are also in discussions with a leading CCS scientist from the Canadian government to join the Stakeholder Panel (Canada is currently leading the way towards deployment of full-chain CCS via a number of projects in Alberta and Saskatchewan). (Note the above impacts are applicable both to the UK and internationally).

The UK, along with Norway, controls Europe's principal CO2 storage resource in its offshore basins. Large-scale rollout of CCS therefore provides the possibility of storing CO2 from other European countries, opening up major additional financial opportunities for the UK, with direct benefits to the UK Treasury. More specifically, DiSECCS research involves unique and innovative elements and can underpin developments of niche UK technical capabilities in CCS. These have the potential to develop business opportunities worldwide [an analogous situation emerged in 2010 when BGS specialist shallow monitoring teams were employed by the Weyburn CO2-EOR project in Canada to test and refute leakage claims]. The applicability of DiSECCS science moreover extends well beyond CCS. It is closely relevant to time-lapse monitoring of UK hydrocarbon production particularly those fields utilising fracture permeability and is of direct application to improving 'fracking' methodologies, such as for shale gas exploitation. It is important to exploit these domestic resources to their full potential for energy security and economic reasons and this element of the research will be of particular interest to companies with an interest in fossil fuel production.

Social research in DiSECCS will examine controversial aspects of all underground injection activity and aims to contribute to improving the CCS industry's approach to societal concerns and help promote public confidence in future storage projects.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Because carbon dioxide stored underground is a buoyant and very mobile fluid, it is important to monitor development of stored CO2 plumes very carefully to ensure that they do not leak from the storage reservoir or migrate in unexpected directions. Time-lapse seismic reflection profiling is a sophisticated geophysical survey method, a type of echosounding, which allows us to observe and track carbon dioxide in deep subsurface reservoirs, and also to map pressure increases in the reservoirs that might compromise their mechanical integrity. The DiSECCS project has developed new computer software programmes and methodologies to obtain from seismic reflection data information about the thickness and properties of individual layers of CO2, just a few metres thick, and also to indicate pressure changes, in storage reservoirs. These computer programmes will be made available online for anyone to use. In order to calibrate and verify the seismic software tools, we have also carried out innovative laboratory experiments to measure how the presence of CO2 and changes of pressure alter the seismic properties of reservoir rocks. In addition to this, DiSECCS has explored how the public views CCS, in the light of sophisticated seismic monitoring systems, via assessment of information transfer on social media, by interviewing local stakeholders in communities potentially affected by CCS or by analogous activities such as shale gas exploration, and by targeted focus groups with the public. Our results have been disseminated by many presentations at scientific meetings and by publications in scientific journals. We have also published some aspects of our work in non-specialist magazines and in online forums. Summary reports of our research activities can be found on the project website: https://www.bgs.ac.uk/DiSECCS/?src=topNav.
Exploitation Route Key project findings and products are available online in the project web-pages. These include a summary of all research activity carried out in DiSECCS, results, publications files and links. Two key products, which are specifically designed for use by third-parties, are the Insights and Recommendations document on CO2 storage site monitoring and the seismic analysis software toolbox. The guidelines set out observations and recommendations for the effective use of seismic reflection data for storage site monitoring and also for the key steps required to obtain a social license to operate a storage site. The toolbox contains computer programmes for a number of analytical tools designed to extract the maximum amount of information on reservoir and CO2 plume properties from seismic data. Both products will be openly available for reference and utilisation.
Sectors Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Energy,Environment

URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/diseccs/
 
Description DiSECCS findings have been disseminated widely via more than thirty presentations, magazine articles and online forums. In addition we have currently twenty eight publications in a wide range of scientific journals, as published abstracts or as technical reports, with an additional number in preparation or in press. These cover all aspects of the project subject matter from advanced seismic analysis, seismic tool development, active monitoring observations from real CO2 storage sites and laboratory experiments to social research and software development. Presentations were at a wide variety of meetings, workshops and conferences in the UK, across Europe and worldwide (including Australia, the United States and Mexico). Most of these were specialised geophysics or social science events but some were more general such as the GHGT-13 international conference in Lausanne and one, held at the Geological Society of London, was on 'Communicating contested geoscience' which addressed a much wider audience, including policy-makers and members of the public. A number of public outreach activities were also undertaken, including public lectures and two focus groups on CCS and social licence. We also communicated with policy makers on a number of key issues, notably submissions to the Energy and Climate Change Committee inquiry into the UK fifth carbon budget This very wide dissemination activity has had the impact of increasing understanding across the globe, and across a wide range of stakeholders, of the potential for seismic time-lapse data to provide detailed insights into and constraints on the behaviour of CO2 in underground storage reservoirs. The tools that we have developed will be of widespread utility in optimising and improving the analysis of seismic monitoring datasets to provide the means for storage operators to more effectively monitor storage processes in the reservoir. Overall it will increase the confidence among policy-makers, operators and the general public that large-scale CCS can be carried out safely and securely, because of the monitoring systems that can be put in place. A key part of this are the insights and recommendations on the Social License to Operate which will enable storage operators design and publicise their projects in such a way as to more easily overcome public and social resistance.
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Energy,Environment
Impact Types Societal

 
Description Chadwick R.A. 2015. 'CO2 storage: UK perspective' Plenary Lecture at the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in CCS and Cleaner Fossil Energy - Winter School, Nottingham. 17 February 2015.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Overview lecture in CO2 storage to winter school participants with a wide range of disciplines.
 
Description Chadwick R.A. 2015. Cost-effective offshore monitoring for CCS. UKCCS RC CPD Training Course. Cranfield University, 20-21 April 2015.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact This was a CPD lecture to CCS practitioners in industry and government.
 
Description Submission to the Energy and Climate Change Committee inquiry into the UK fifth carbon budget. UKCCS Research Centre submission (R.A. Chadwick)
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmselect/cmenergy/692/692.pdf
 
Description Tyndall Centre Manchester (Gough, C., Mander S.) 2016 Submission to the Energy and Climate Change Committee inquiry into the UK fifth carbon budget. 4 February 2016.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Implementation circular/rapid advice/letter to e.g. Ministry of Health
URL http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmselect/cmenergy/692/692.pdf
 
Title Spectral decomposition tool for seismic reflection data 
Description The tool extracts specified discrete frequency components from short windows targeted on individual reflections within a seismic wavelet. This enables us to estimate the tuning frequency of the reflective layer producing the reflection and from this an estimate of the layer thickness. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact We are using it to obtain more robust quantitative analysis of the injected CO2 plumes at the Sleipner and Snohvit CCS projects (in the North Sea and Barents Sea respectively). A number of peer-reviewed research papers have been published or are in preparation utilising the tool. The tool will be made available as part of the DiSECCS Seismic Toolbox as an online resource for open use. Expected online availability is Spring 2017. 
 
Title Wavelet CODA analysis tool for reflection seismics 
Description Seismic Unix application to assess fracture orientations from multi-azimuth seismic reflection data, based on the shape of the reflected/scattered wavelet. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact No impacts as yet. The tool will be made available as part of the DiSECCS Seismic Toolbox as an online resource for open use. Expected online availability is Spring 2017. 
 
Title Seismic Analysis Toolbox 
Description The DiSECCS project has developed seismic monitoring tools and methodologies to identify and characterise injection-induced changes, whether of fluid saturation or pressure, in storage reservoirs. The DiSECCS Seismic Analysis Toolbox comprises a toolbox of seismic software developed and utilised in the project. The tools include software for the measurement and characterisation of thin CO2 layers by spectral and attenuation analysis, fracture characterisation via wavelet coda analysis, novel rock physics algorithms and a summary of new laboratory analyses. Full copies of the software codes for practitioners are available to download online (see below for URL). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact A number of academic papers (listed elsewhere) have accompanied development of the Toolbox. Impacts arising directly from open utilisation of the Toolbox will be realised in the future. 
URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/start.cfm?id=3383
 
Description A. Chadwick, DiSECCS partners. 2015. The DiSECCS project. UKCCS RC Bi-annual Meeting. Cranfield University, 21-22 April 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact DiSECCS project progress lecture at the UKCCS Research Centre Bi-annual meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A. Chadwick, G. Williams, J White. 2015. Forensic analysis of a carbon-dioxide layer at Sleipner from time-lapse 3D seismics. TCCS-8, Trondheim, Norway, 17-18 June 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific lecture at international CCS meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description A. Chadwick. 2015. Storage verification: the role of time-lapse seismics. What Geological Storage can bring to mitigating climate change - a UK research perspective. UNFCC UK Side Meeting, London, 1 July 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on CCS to UNFCC side meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Best A.I. 2014. Physics of Rocks for CO2 reservoir characterisation and monitoring. UKCCSRC meeting, Bristol, 23 October 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture at technical workshop aiming to develop new research proposal in CCS. This ultimately led to a successful NERC grant award.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description C. Birnie, A. Stork, L. Roach, D. Angus, S. Rost. Spatial and temporal properties of noise from the Aquistore CCS pilot permanent surface array. Third Sustainable Earth Science Conference & Exhibition: Use of the Deep Sub-surface to serve the Energy Transition, Celle, Germany,13-15 October 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at scientific meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Chadwick A, Williams, G, White J. 2015. Seismic reflections at Sleipner: how have they changed with time and what do they mean? IEAGHG 10th Monitoring Network Meeting, Berkeley, US, 10-11 June 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Science lecture at International Network Meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Chadwick A. 2017. 3D seismic monitoring of CO2 storage - achievements and challenges 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Invited Keynote Lecture to the EAGE-SEG Research Workshop, Trondheim, 29-31 August 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chadwick A. 2017. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). Holes - what use are they? Given to the Parliamentary Scientific Committee, Portcullis House, Westminster. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This was a talk given to given to the Parliamentary Scientific Committee at Portcullis House, Westminster. The morning workshop was devoted to a number of presentations aimed at explaining to parliamentarians how the subsurface could be exploited for sustainable energy purposes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chadwick, R.A. 2014. Carbon Capture and Storage: the issues. Keynote Lecture at Communicating Contested Geoscience. Conference at the Geological Society of London, 20 June 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Presentation at the Geological Society of London as part of a workshop on 'Communicating Contested Geoscience'. Was attended by a range of stakeholders including scientists, industry and the general public.

Plans for further collaboration and outreach on this important topic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Chadwick, R.A. The DiSECCS project. UKCCS RC bi-annual meeting in Nottingham, September 2013. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to the Plenary Session of the UKCCS RC bi-annual meeting. Talk triggered some questions and discussion among the CCS practitioners present,.

Agreements for future collaboration with new colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
 
Description Clair Gough, Rebecca Cunningham, Sarah Mander Societal responses to CO2 storage in the UK: media, stakeholder and public perspectives. 2016. IEA greenhouse gas technologies conference (IEAGHGT-13) held in Lausanne, Switzerland, 14-18 November 2106. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to international audience at the major CCS conference (biennial).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Clair Gough, Sarah Mander, Rebecca Cunningham. 2016. Societal responses to CO2 storage: media, stakeholder and public perspectives. Technical session on social science at UKCCSRC Biannual meeting, Manchester, April 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to specialist technical session at UKCCS Biannual meeting. Involved dissemination of research across academic/stakeholder communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Falcon-Suarez I et al. Laboratory simulation of CO2 injection in sandstones and sands for improved seismic monitoring of CO2 reservoirs. EUROCK, Vigo, 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Discussions and agreements for future collaboration.

Possible future collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Falcon-Suarez I, North L, Best AI. Experimental Rig to Improve the Geophysical and Geomechanical Understanding of CO2 Reservoirs. EGU, Vienna 2014). 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The work was presented as a talk and also as a poster. Both sparked questions and discussions from other researchers in the field.

Interest in future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Falcon-Suarez I. 2017. CO2 geosequestration at the laboratory scale: Combined geophysical and hydromechanical assessment of weakly-cemented shallow Sleipner-like reservoirs 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Lecture to the AGU Fall Meeting, 11-15th December, New Orleans, LS, US
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Falcon-Suarez, I. 2017. Geological CO2 storage at the laboratory scale: Novel response on core variable pore pressure and partial CO2 saturation. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited lecture at 11th IEAGHG Monitoring Network Meeting, 13-15th June, Traverse City, MI, US.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Falcon-Suarez, I. 2016 Captura y almacenamiento de CO2: Investigación a contrarreloj. Centro de Geociencias de la UNAM; Querétaro, México, 25th October 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Disemmination of CCS activities, and DiSECCS goals and capabilities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Falcon-Suarez, I. 2016 Caracterización de macizos rocosos para el almacenamiento de CO2; Universidad de Guanajuato, México, 26th October 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Disemmination of CCS activities, and DiSECCS goals and capabilities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Falcon-Suarez, I. 2016. Nondestructive assessment of static and dynamic geomechanical properties of sandstone samples for geological CO2 storage monitoring. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at SEG Conference, Dallas, US, October 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Falcon-Suarez, I., Best, A., North, L., Browning, F., 2016. Nondestructive assessment of static and dynamic geomechanical properties of sandstone samples for geological CO2 storage monitoring. SEG International Exposition and 86th Annual Meeting, Dallas, US, October 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific lecture to specialist audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Falcon-Suarez. 2017. A combined geophysical, hydraulic and mechanical approach to study confining and pore pressure effects in sandstones 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to 4th International Workshop on Rock Physics. In: 29 May - 2 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description G. Papageorgiou & M. Chapman. Multi-fluid substitution, capillarity and inclusion models. Oral presentation at 3rd International Workshop on Rock Physics, Perth, 13-17 April 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific lecture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Gough C., Cunningham R., Mander S., Chadwick A. 2015. Focus Group on CCS at Teesside, 21 December 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Focus group on CCS involving a small representative group of selected members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Gough C., Cunningham R., Mander, S., Chadwick A. 2015. Focus Group on CCS at Thornton-in-Cleveleys, 7 December 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Focus group on CCS involving a small representative group of selected members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Gough, C. 2014. Communicating contested geoscience: CCS. Invited panel member at the Communicating Contested Geoscience. Conference at the Geological Society of London, 20 June 2014. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop at the Geological Society of London. Participants ranged from scientists working in a range of 'controversial' areas such as shale gas exploitation ('fracking'), and radioactive waste disposal, to policy makers and members of the public.

Plans for further outreach events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Gough, C. 2015. Panel member in Sense About Science: Capturing carbon: sensible solution or dangerous detour? Live Q & A 22 October 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On line Q & A session. The DiSECCS Co-PI Dr Clair Gough was part of an expert panel on CCS via the Sense about Science online forum
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.senseaboutscience.org/pages/ccs-q-and-a.html
 
Description Gough, C. 2016. Is carbon capture and storage a vital tool in the fight against climate change? Public Health Today, part of a yes/no debate on page 5: DEBATE: 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Yes/no debate on CCS. Published online in Public Health Today which is a magazine that goes out to 3300 public health professionals, with impacts of building awareness amongst non-technical specialists.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.fph.org.uk/uploads/PHT%20Spring%202016_PHT%20Spring%202016.pdf
 
Description Gough, C. 2016. Societal responses to CO2 storage in the UK: media, stakeholder and public perspectives. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented at 13th International Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Lausanne, Switzerland, November, 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description I. Falcon-Suarez, L.J. North, A. Best. Geophysical and Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Monitoring for Efficient Control of CO2 Storage. 3rd International Workshop on Rock Physics, Perth, 13-17 April 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific lecture to disseminate findings and capabilities of DiSECCS project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description J. White G. Williams A Chadwick A. 2015. Seismic discrimination and mapping of saturation and pressure changes at Snøhvit. IEAGHG 10th Monitoring Network Meeting, Berkeley, US, 10-11 June 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific lecture to International Network Meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description L.A. Roach, D.A. Angus, D.J. White. Determining the limitations to deep reservoir caprock fracture characterisation using AVOA analysis. Third Sustainable Earth Science Conference & Exhibition: Use of the Deep Sub-surface to serve the Energy Transition, Celle, Germany,13-15 October 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Scientific lecture.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Mander, S. 2016. Comparing online and offline knowledge networks of Carbon Capture and Storage 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented at 13th International Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Lausanne, Switzerland, November, 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Papageorgiou G. 2015. Wettability and a 'wet-Gassmann' model for fluid substitution in rock physics. SEG Conference, New Orleans, US, October 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Technical lecture to specialist audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Papageorgiou G. Chapman M . 2016. Capillary Pressure as a source for Brie's fluid mixing law 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented as an e-poster at the EAGE 2016 annual meeting in Vienna.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Papageorgiou, G. Chapman, M . 2016. Capillary Pressure as a source for Brie's fluid mixing law. E-poster Vienna EAGE 2016 annual meeting. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an e-poster presented at the EAGE Annual Meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Papageorgiou, G., Chapman, M. 2015. Advances in Rock Physics Modelling and Improved Estimation of CO2 Saturation. Geophysical Modelling for CO2 Storage, Monitoring and Appraisal: UKCCSRC Special meeting, Leeds University, 2-3 November 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to UKCCS Research centre specialist storage workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Sarah Mander, Rebecca Cunningham, Clair Gough. 2016. CCS knowledge networks - exploring offline and online communities. Technical session on social science at UKCCSRC Biannual meeting, Manchester, April 2016. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at specialist technical session at UKCCSRC Biannual Meeting. involved dissemination of research across academic/stakeholder communities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Sarah Mander, Rebecca Cunningham, Louise Lever, Clair Gough 2016. Comparing online and offline knowledge networks of Carbon Capture and Storage. IEA greenhouse gas technologies conference (IEAGHGT-13) held in Lausanne Switzerland, 14-18 November 2106. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation to international audience at the major CCS conference (biennial).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description White, J.C., Chadwick, R.A., Williams, G.A. 2015, Monitoring, mapping and modelling thin layers of CO2, Geophysical Modelling for CO2 Storage, Monitoring and Appraisal: UKCCSRC Special meeting, Leeds university, 2-3 November 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at UKCCS Research Centre specialist workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Williams G. Chadwick A. 2016. An improved history-match for layer spreading within the Sleipner plume including thermal propagation effects. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented at 13th International Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Lausanne, Switzerland, November, 2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Williams G. Chadwick R.A. 2016. An improved history-match for layer spreading within the Sleipner plume including thermal propagation effects. Energy Procedia. IEA Greenhouse Gas Technologies conference (IEAGHGT-13) held in Lausanne Switzerland, 14-18 November 2106. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the principle international CCS conference (biennial)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Williams, G. Chadwick R.A. 2015. Musings on the properties of a mobile CO2 layer flowing in a porous sand: monitoring and modelling. Flow & Transport for CO2 Storage: UKCCS RC Special Meeting, Imperial College, London, 29/30 October 2015. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at UKCCS Research Centre specialist workshop.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015