The impaCt of hydrOcarbon depletioN on the Treatment of cAprocks within performance assessment for CO2 InjectioN schemes - CONTAIN

Lead Research Organisation: NERC British Geological Survey
Department Name: Energy & Marine Geoscience

Abstract

The UK is committed to meeting stringent carbon dioxide emission targets over the next 35 years. One potentially valuable technology in achieving this target is the development of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, where carbon dioxide is captured during power generation and, instead of being released into the atmosphere, is injected into porous rocks underground. Porous rocks, such as sandstone, can act as a 'reservoir' for CO2, which can potentially be stored at depth over long periods of time and kept isolated from the rocks above by a much less porous 'caprock'. The UK has a large 'porosity resource', currently estimated to be of sufficient capacity to store the necessary 2-5 billion tonnes of CO2 to meet 2050 CO2 emission targets. It has been estimated that up to 9 billion tonnes of UK storage capacity come from reservoirs that previously contained hydrocarbons, which have been extracted by the oil and gas industry. This form of CO2 storage has a number of benefits, as the rocks are generally well characterised and there may be pre-existing infrastructure (such as pipelines) suitable for adaption to CO2 injection.

However, the process of hydrocarbon extraction, or 'depletion', can significantly impact both the reservoir involved and the surrounding rocks. These activities can potentially cause deformation, movement on faults and/or damage to infrastructure. However, the long term impacts of these activities, particularly when the reservoir is 're-inflated' during injection of CO2, are not well understood and there is limited physical data for specific rock types and scenarios. In order for depleted reservoirs to become a viable national resource, these uncertainties must be addressed. As such, this project is focussed on providing a better understanding of the impact of depletion and reinflation on reservoir and caprock material. It will involve a combined approach, using both laboratory experiments and computer simulation to improve our understanding of this aspect of storage site behaviour. The project seeks to address this key area with a focussed programme of work that will generate a much-needed and unique data-set, new modelling tools and a fuller understanding of the processes involved. The findings will inform regulators and aid operators in reducing the financial and environmental risks of CCS, for depleted storage sites, making the technology more likely to happen.

In addition, work will be carried out to examine effective communication with the public, relating to this new technology. Social acceptability represents a major potential barrier to CCS developments, as indicated by protests and moratoria in several countries. It is therefore critical to understand public attitudes and the bases of concern about CCS, and work as effectively as possible to improve understanding and engagement. Work within this project will explore the factors that determine public and stakeholder understanding and acceptability of CCS storage proposals. The lessons and knowledge derived from this work will be summarised in an outreach and engagement toolkit, which will be disseminated to regulators, operators and communication specialists.

Planned Impact

1. Who will benefit from this work and how?
Energy and related industries: Companies engaging with CCS technologies will gain insights into storage risks and solutions, and how social barriers to CCS deployment may be overcome through effective public engagement. Other potential beneficiaries include firms developing controversial or novel energy technologies (e.g. shale gas) who will be able to use the project outcomes to understand public concerns and use effective engagement methods.
Policy community: UK Government and other organisations associated with the policy process (e.g. Ofgem, Environment Agency) also stand to benefit. This research will provide novel and robust empirical findings relating to CCS risks and benefits, and tools and methods to mitigate social barriers to deployment.
General public and cluster communities: There may also be wider public benefits in terms of increasing awareness of energy systems and policies, and of the potential role of CCS in meeting requirements for a sustainable energy system.
Academic community: This project will advance research in various fields (e.g. psychology, geomechanics, multiphase flow and reservoir modelling). Strong links with UKCCSRC research programmes, as well as other RCUK energy programmes (including UKERC), will ensure that these contributions are fully utilised.

2. What will be done to ensure that they have the opportunity to benefit from this work?
An engaged scholarship approach will be achieved through the following activities:
(a) Executive Group: To guide research ensuring salience and timeliness, we will convene an Executive Group consisting of work package leaders, Shell, and where appropriate, representatives from policy, industry and EPSRC.
(b) Stakeholder/public interviews, survey and workshops: This research will seek to understand societal perspectives on CCS and feed this into project outputs. Interviews, survey and workshops, will elicit stakeholder and public understandings and perceptions. Project deliverables include a toolkit of tested engagement methods and communication recommendations.
(c) Stakeholder briefings: Electronic briefings will be published bi-annually to provide tailored information in a timely fashion.
(d) Conferences: We will present our work at major UK and international conferences in the relevant areas.
(e) Academic publications: Our research will be published in disciplinary high-impact peer-reviewed journals, including a major synthesis paper, integrating findings from across the project.
(f) Internet portal: A web-based portal will be set up at the beginning of the project, to include details of project activities, outputs and briefings.
(g) Public dissemination event: To disseminate our research and gain further feedback, we will participate in the British Science Festival in September 2016, where we will present our findings and encourage public debate about their implications.
(h) Stakeholder dissemination event: Finally, industry, policy and other UKCCSRC stakeholders will be invited to a final workshop to disseminate project findings, held at a suitable UK venue.

3. Who will undertake these activities?
The project team will share responsibility for delivering impact activities. BGS will have lead responsibility for Executive Group liaison and coordinating meetings; and maintaining the internet portal. CU will lead on the stakeholder and public interviews, survey and workshops, as well as organising the public dissemination event. IC will publish the stakeholder briefings and arrange the stakeholder dissemination workshop.

4. Summary of resources
Costs associated with facilitating the inputs of the Executive Group, workpackage activities, development of stakeholder briefings, attendance at UK and international conferences, development and maintenance of the project internet portal, and the dissemination of our results are included in the costs submitted with this proposal.

Publications

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Defoort T. (2015) A finite element geomechanical study of the brittle failure of a caprock due to deflation in 49th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium 2015

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Salimzadeh S (2017) Finite element simulations of interactions between multiple hydraulic fractures in a poroelastic rock in International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences

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Salimzadeh S (2018) Effect of cold CO2 injection on fracture apertures and growth. in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

 
Description Primary outputs include: (i) A significantly expanded experimental data-set relating to the hydromechanical behaviour of caprocks (and also some additional reservoir materials). (ii) Substantially improved national capability for numerical simulation of coupled Thermo-hydromechanical behaviour of caprocks. (iii) A wider understanding of public perceptions and the impacts of information framing in the context of Carbon Capture and Storage. Wide dissemination of the technical findings (including through multiple publications and presentations at conferences and network meetings) from the project are, therefore hoped to provide: - an improved understanding of the hydromechanical behaviour of caprocks (i-ii) within academia and industry - reduced uncertainty surrounding caprock response during hydrocarbon depletion and reinflation for CCS. This, in turn, may help reduce perceived financial 'risk' around the storage process, encouraging uptake of the technology. Currently CCS, is seen as one necessary part of a future UK energy mix and society will benefit from it's implementation as a result. Additional economic benefits may result from the creation of products and services associated with the CCS industry. Wide dissemination of the social-science findings (including through multiple publications and presentations at conferences and network meetings) from the project are hoped to provide: - additional understanding in relation to public perceptions in CCS within academic, NGOs, government and industry. Depending on the way in which CCS is presented, different groups will be more or less likely to support CCS implementation and findings from this project inform as to the impact of such 'framing' of information. In turn, this should aide improved communication with the public in CCS, which may facilitate uptake of the technology (and the associated economic and societal benefits described above) and reduce the risk of a failure to deploy resulting from poor communication.
Exploitation Route Companies engaging with CCS technologies will gain insights that will aide minimisation of storage risk and how social barriers to CCS deployment may be overcome through effective public engagement. Other potential industrial beneficiaries include firms developing other controversial or novel energy technologies who will be able to use the project outcomes to understand public concerns and use effective engagement methods.

UK Government (BEIS) and other organisations associated with the policy process (e.g. Ofgem, European Commission, Environment Agency) also stand to benefit. This research will provide novel and robust empirical findings relating to CCS risks and benefits, both technical (in relation to behaviour of the caprock) and societal (in relation to public perceptions). Outputs from the project demonstrate robust methodologies for assessing storage site behaviour (testing depletion/injection strategies and simulating caprock response) and support evidence-based decision making in relation to investment and infrastructure deployment. Our public engagement approach will benefit relevant agencies (e.g., Environment Agency) in implementing activities related to public engagement and acceptance of CCS, as well as other new energy technologies.

Dissemination has already been carried out with members of the public and it is hoped that those involved in these activities are also already benefiting through gaining a better understanding of the opportunities and risks associated with CCS deployment.

Findings from the project have also been widely distributed in the academic community (e.g., publications, conferences, UKCCSRC network meetings) and this is expected to be taken up and advance research in a number of disciplines and fields (e.g. psychology, geomechanics, multiphase flow, science & technology studies, energy policy, scenario development, and reservoir modelling). The improved understanding of mechanical/transport behaviour of argillaceous materials will also be of relevance to a number of developing technologies, including the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, underground storage of natural gas, the nascent UK shale-gas industry, and subsurface compressed air energy storage. Outputs relating to public perceptions work will also be highly applicable in academia, within the topic of CCS, but also in relation to other new/controversial energy topics.
Sectors Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice

URL https://www.bgs.ac.uk/co2contain/
 
Title A novel 3D thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element code 
Description A novel three-dimensional thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) finite element code has been developed and validated. It contains a novel iterative solution method that combines thermoporoelastic deformation, fracture growth, and frictional forces acting along fracture faces that are in contact. Fractures are allowed to grow across material boundaries, thus enabling simulations of fracture growth from the reservoir into the overlying caprock. Simulations of depletion of the Goldeneye reservoir in the UK Central North Sea are now being performed with this new code. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This model represents a step-forward in simulating such processes and will allow simulation of scenarios in potential storage sites, providing insights of value to academics and operators alike. This will, in turn, enable improved performance assessment for CCS sites, reducing the risks of potential leakage and increasing viability of this nascent industry. 
 
Title CCS Public Attitudes Survey 
Description A public survey conducted during July-September 2017 to explore in more detail the public perceptions of risks and benefits associated with CCS. This survey elicited 5,406 complete responses from members of the public across five countries (UK, US, Canada, The Netherlands and Norway) from representative socio-demographic backgrounds. The survey analysis is being finalised and written up for publication in the form of a journal article. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Impacts are currently minimal, but are expected to increase after publication. Survey results will be made freely available after publication later in the year and this should provide valuable insight for those involved in public engagement in the sector, thereby impacting academics, policy-makers, operators and, ultimately, the public themselves 
 
Title CCS expert survey 
Description Following the qualitative expert interviews conducted during the previous year, we undertook a CCS expert survey during May-June 2016 to explore in more detail perceptions of risks and benefits associated with CCS and the perceived role of public engagement in CCS roll out. This survey elicited 99 complete responses from experts across a range of countries and backgrounds working in the field of CCS. Interview and survey analysis are being finalised and will form the basis of a mixed methods journal article. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Impacts are currently minimal, but are expected to increase after publication. Survey data will be made freely available by publication later in the year and this should provide valuable insight for those involved in public engagement in the sector, thereby impacting academics, policy-makers, operators and, ultimately, the public themselves. 
 
Title Hydromechanical properties of the Mercia Mudstone Group 
Description We have collected a detailed data-set examining the hydromechanical properties of the Mercia Mudstone Group, a key caprock material for CCS in the UK. This data represents a rare source for parameterisation for performance assessment simulations, not just within this important material, but also within caprock material in general. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Impacts are currently minimal, but are expected to increase after publication. Experimental data will be made freely available by publication later in the year and this should provide valuable insight for those seeking to parameterise numerical simulations of caprock behaviour at potential CCS sites (including Southern North Sea and the East Irish Basin), thereby improving performance assessment and reducing operational risk. 
 
Title Hydromechanical properties of the Sherwood Sandstone 
Description We have collected a detailed data-set examining the hydromechanical properties of the Sherwood sandstone, an onshore analogue for a key reservoir formation for CCS in the UK. This data represents a rare source for parameterisation of performance assessment simulations. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Impacts are currently minimal, but are expected to increase after publication. Experimental data will be made freely available by publication later in the year and this should provide valuable insight for those seeking to parameterise numerical simulations of reservoir behaviour at potential UK CCS sites (including Southern North Sea and the East Irish Basin), thereby improving performance assessment and reducing operational risk. Combined within further data, currently being collected, an important resource for estimating the influence of reservoir heterogeneity on hydromechanical properties (constraining factors such as injectivity and operational limits) will be made available to the UK community. 
 
Description Sample sharing and analysis work 
Organisation University of Nottingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution A new partnership formed with a University department with complementary skills - we have already agreed a sample exchange and expect future research outputs as a result. We have also discussed seeking further funding for future work.
Collaborator Contribution Partners will conduct analytical analysis on caprock material from BGS. The intention is to publish resulting outputs and findings will also better inform some findings from the CONTAIN project.
Impact The work has yet to be completed, but outputs are anticipated.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Sample sharing with industrial operators 
Organisation Shell International Petroleum
Department Shell Global
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution To prepare a number of presentations (for partner and further consortium members) outlining the scope of the work to be undertaken within CONTAIN, to allow access to caprock taken from the North Sea.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of valuable preserved caprock core to undertake research on.
Impact Testing on-going - none at present.
Start Year 2016
 
Description A finite element geomechanical study of the brittle failure of caprock due to deflation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at high-standing international conference (49th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium) describing findings and implications of research from CONTAIN. The meeting audience included academics, professionals and industrial representative in the sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Accurate element-based modelling of fracutre growth and interactionm in three dimensions 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of project findings to students and academics at the Department of Mathematics at the University of Bergen.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Annual meeting with project executive board 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Project researchers met with members of the CONTAIN Executive Board - an invited panel of experts within the CCS sector. Each work package presented progress to date and initial findings and the Executive Board were given the opportunity to comment and suggest future actions in relation to both technical and wider aspects of the research project. The board were generally very positive, with regards to the current direction of the project and provide useful comments and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014,2015
 
Description Deliverable 10 (CONTAIN) - Project outreach and engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A public outreach event was held at the Natural History Museum (NHM), as part of their "Science Uncovered' series. This year's focus on Oceans was a good forum to discuss CCS issues as the majority of the UK's potential CO2 storage reservoirs are beneath the sea bed. A very diverse audience including the general public, school and university students and industry professionals were in attendance. The NHM estimates that 4230 visitors attended the event, during which 34,818 interactions with researchers took place.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Engaging the public with CCS: learning from experts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at high-standing national network meeting (UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre specialist meeting, 'CCS in the UK: Moving forward', Manchester, 2016) describing findings and implications of research from CONTAIN. The meeting audience included academics, policy-makers, professionals and industrial representative in the sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Experimentally Determined Transport and Consolidation Properties of the Mercia Mudstone Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation at high-standing international conference (Second EAGE Workshop on Geomechanics and Energy, Celle, Germany) describing findings and implications of research from CONTAIN. The meeting is predominantly attended by industrial operators in the hydrocarbons/CCS sectors, as we as other professional practitioners and academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Experts' views on engaging the public with CCS. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dissemination of CONTAIN findings and implications at a at high-standing international Conference (Society for Risk Analysis, Europe). The meeting audience included academics, as well as those working in the sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Learning from experts on public with CCS: learning from experts 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dissemination of CONTAIN findings and implications at a at high-standing international Conference (European Geosciences assembly 2016, Vienna, Austria). The meeting audience included academics, as well as those working in the sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Numerical modelling of 3D fracture propagation and gragmentation in brittle rocks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dissemination of project findings to early career scientists and other academics as part of the hydrogeology seminar series at Polytechnic University of Catalonia, Barcelona.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://h2ogeo.upc.edu/en/seminars-hydrogeology/171-seminar-numerical-3d-fracture-propagation-fragmen...
 
Description Numerical modelling of fracture growth and caprock integrity during CO2 injection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at high-standing national network meeting (UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre specialist meeting on Gephysical Modelling for CO2 Storage, Monitoring and Appraisal, Leeds) describing findings and implications of research from CONTAIN. The meeting audience included academics, professionals and industrial representative in the sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Orkney Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The first talk was aimed at the general public and interested industry specialists. This were followed by a large number of questions and discussion about UK energy needs. The second talk provided information to high school students in relation to their up and coming energy focussed projects.

Follow-up visits are not practical given geographic constraints. However, a number of follow-up e-mails were received and an invitation to return to the Festival next year was received.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Poster presentation at UKCCSRC bianual meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Project findings were presented to a wide range of stakeholders, resulting in questions and discussion. One particular outcome was a new partnership formed with a university group with complementary skills - we have already agreed a sample exchange and expect future research outputs as a result.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://ukccsrc.ac.uk/news-events/events/ukccsrc-programme-conference
 
Description Presentation at EGU general assembly 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented at: European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2018, Vienna, Austria, 8-13 April 2018. Published subsequently in Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 20. Munich: European Geosciences Union.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://orca.cf.ac.uk/111407
 
Description Presentation at International Conference of Experimental Psychology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the International Conference of Environmental Psychology, ICEP 2019, in Plymouth (UK) from 4-6 September 2019. Title of presentation: "Lessons learned from a large-scale cross-national survey on Carbon Capture and Storage."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://icep2019.exordo.com/programme/presentation/300
 
Description Presentation at the International Conference of Environmental Psychology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given at the International Conference of Environmental Psychology ICEP held from 30th August to 1st September 2017 in A Coruna Spain. The presentation was entitled "Symposium: Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage (CCUS): Perceptions and acceptance." A wide and varied international audience was in attendance and the presentation stimulated both questions and discussion, as well as potential avenues for future research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.icep2017.org/?fwp=28&fwl=2
 
Description Presentation at the International Conference of Experimental Psychology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at the International Conference of Environmental Psychology, ICEP 2019, in Plymouth (UK) from 4-6 September 2019. Title of presentation: "Ignorance is bliss? Public concerns about Carbon Capture, Storage & Utilisation and the subsurface, and the impact of message framing."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://icep2019.exordo.com/programme/presentation/150
 
Description Presentation introducing CONTAIN at the UKCCSRC Biannual Meeting, Cranfield 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Invited talk at the Biannual meeting of the UK Carbon Capture and Storage network meeting, describing project objectives and progress. The audience included a wide range of stakeholders from within the CCS sector, including policy makers, industry representatives, academics and NGOs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Project progress meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Annual project progress meeting with all partners. Project researchers met to discuss progress. Each work package presented progress to date and the findings since the last project meeting. This was followed by useful discussion, with a focus on the remaining deliverables and discussion of the steps to be taken to complete the outstanding deliverables. Discussion of planned publication outputs also took place.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Project progress meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Annual project progress meeting with all partners. Project researchers met to discuss progress. Each work package presented progress to date and initial findings, followed by useful discussion, focus on deliverables and discussion of next steps/planned published outputs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Project web page 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Web pages were developed and published to provide information on project aims and objectives. Where appropriate future project outputs will be posted here for general dissemination purposes.

The impact is that the web page is now providing information on the project for interested parties.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.bgs.ac.uk/co2contain/home.html
 
Description Researcher workshop (Shrewsbury) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact In May 2016, CONTAIN researchers convened a researcher workshop in Shrewsbury to share findings and coordinate approaches between social science researchers on several RCUK CCS (or related) projects, including CONTAIN, DiSECCS and Co2IS, that include a public perceptions component. This was helpful for refining our ideas for the final stage of the CONTAIN project and avoiding overlap with other work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The geomechanics of candidate CCS reservoirs and seals 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation given at the 11th Euroconference on Rock Physics and Rock Mechanics. 6 - 11 September 2015, in Ambleside, UK. The presentation was attended by delegates mostly from within Europe, although USA and Canada were represented in the audience. The talk generated questions and resulted in fruitful discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Thermal effects during hydraulic fracturing in low-permeability brittle rocks 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation at high-standing international conference (50th U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium, Houston) describing findings and implications of research from CONTAIN. The meeting audience included academics, professionals and industrial representative in the sector.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016