Increasing energy yield from the integration of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis

Lead Research Organisation: Aston University
Department Name: Sch of Engineering and Applied Science

Abstract

Biomass-based energy processes are frequently cited as a great opportunity but also a risk because of their competition for productive arable land used for food production. Virgin crop biomass is much easier to use for energy production and for this reason is the basis of first generation biofuel production. Waste and mixed biomass sources are more difficult to process into usable fuel products, and the key research challenges therefore lie in developing technologies to provide second generation biofuels from these waste sources. The vision for the proposed research is to develop a synergy between biological (AD) and thermal (intermediate and fast pyrolysis) conversion processes in which the overall net energy yield from waste biomass can be improved, producing energy carriers that are both storable and transportable. These gains can be achieved as the thermal process allows access to lignin-bound components within the biomass which are otherwise unavailable for anaerobic biological conversion. In return, biological system can process the lower carbon chain molecules in pyrolysis oils and in the aqueous fraction to produce a fuel gas, thus improving the value of the liquid fuel fraction. The solid char also has potential for use as an energy carrier as well as other value-added uses.

The vision includes proving that this hybrid approach can provide a sustainable and societally acceptable means of recovering value from the non-source segregated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). This waste fraction currently poses the greatest challenge to the UK Government in terms of the requirement for diversion of organic materials generated by society, industry and commerce from landfill: whilst it also offers the potential to contribute significantly to renewable energy targets and to the offset of carbon emissions. This is proposal is therefore closely aligned to the aims of the SUPERGEN call 'Challenges in Bioenergy Technologies' and also to several areas within the RCUK research portfolio on energy, bioenergy and living with environmental change.

At the heart of the project is a new thermal processing technology, intermediate pyrolysis, which can use feedstocks with higher water content than fast pyrolysis thus, increasing the potential for direct process integration with commercial AD plants. This technology is currently available for use in the project at a large pilot scale (up to 100 kg hour-1), ensuring that adequate quantities of material will be available for in-house use in AD trials at a scale allowing realistic estimation of energy balances. Plans are already in place for up-scaling of the pyrolysis side of the process through the construction of five demonstration plants around Europe within the next three years.

Increasing the energy yield obtained from the initial feed stock (MSW) is vital, as future energy generation technologies will need to become more efficient compared to current technologies. Having localised energy generation systems (for example combined pyrolysis and AD) will reduce the transmission distance for electricity which will in turn reduce energy losses and reduce the UK reliance on foreign fuel supply. Focusing this project upon the utilisation of MSW will provide a possible use for the organic fraction of MSW and increase the UK's generation of sustainable energy. The proposed research is therefore ideally timed to develop bespoke AD solutions for the digestion of the different fractions produced from pyrolysis (oil phase, water phase, vapours and gaseous fractions), in order to optimise the energy yield obtained from a critically important waste feedstock. In addition the project will also address the range of social and regulatory factors that need to be better understood if this vision is to gain acceptance and deliver its perceived benefits.

Planned Impact

The target of this project is to improve the overall net energy yield obtained from residual municipal solid waste, through a combination of thermal pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. This will be undertaken in the context of producing a hybrid process that is technically efficient, economic, compliant to regulations and acceptable to society. Discussions have already taken place with specialist AD companies (for example Marches Biogas and ADBA), pyrolysis companies (Pyrotop and WSE) and with energy producers (EoN), providing demonstrable evidence of commercial interest for this synergy to be developed (please see statements of support). We also expect public-sector interest, for example from local authorities.

The project has also been designed to take into consideration the views of regulatory and market concerns/priorities, engaging regulators (DEFRA, Environment Agency), industry (ADBA, specific AD companies, fuel suppliers, engineers), financiers and local authorities (especially LGA and NGOs). Providing a new synergy approach for the disposal of MSW; will reduce the requirement for landfill, reduce GHG emissions from this waste and increase energy production without conflicting with food waste or the use of agricultural land.

The foreseen benefits to the AD industry include the production of new substrates from pyrolysis which are suitable for AD and a thorough understanding of the digestion conditions required to form protocols which maximise the energy yield obtained from these substrates. Similarly, this research would benefit the pyrolysis companies, providing additional commercial usages for pyrolysis products and an increased understanding of how different processing conditions affect the process and the composition of the products. With regard to energy companies and the local authorities, this research will provide companies/local authorities with alternative treatment solutions for MSW, increasing the energy yield obtained. If 50% of the collected MSW that would have been sent to landfill was used in an integrate pyrolysis/AD system, it would save the government an estimated £4.8 billion per year on landfill costs and an estimated 17 million MTCE per year. This is in addition to the energy produced from the process and production of digestate and char to be used on the land. Reduing landfill and GHG emissions would also benefit companies' compliance with producing greener energy, aid with meeting UK targets set under the Climate Change Act, waste management and carbon management.

The benefits to society will include the development of an alternative waste management process which will be more environmentally benign than current options. Commercial companies are currently interested in the development of this synergy approach and realise the benefits this technology could bring. Moreover, the proposal also has the potential to contribute to producing decentralised heat and power through energy-generation units that use waste materials in a more efficient way. This will reduce the UK's reliance on importing energy and minimise the fluctuations in energy prices which are associated with this. As the research project intends to increase the energy security of the localities whilst serving environmental aims, the proposed combination of technologies has international applicability in urban and rural regions. Indeed, with the potential to use animal, catering and municipal mixed waste, the latter posing a major, long-standing cost and environmental concern, this technology has global applications at various levels.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Bench-scale experiments at Aston
The yield of liquid product from slow pyrolysis of the Organic Fraction of MSW decreases significantly with an increase of heating temperature (temperature of the reactor skin). Aqueous phase products from high moisture content feedstock at a low pyrolysis temperature (450 C) have the potential for biogas production (Reported by Southampton partner). The pH values of the aqueous phase change from moderate acidic (about 3.5) to moderate basic (about 11) from low pyrolysis temperature (450 °C) to high temperature (800 °C). With the increase in pyrolysis temperature (reactor skin temperature from 450 to 800 °C), the combustible fraction in the gaseous products (i.e. H2, CH4 and CO) increases considerably. Under a same heating temperature, feedstocks with high moisture content produces less quantity gaseous product than those with high moisture content.

Pilot-scale experiments at Aston
At Aston, nine intermediate pyrolysis runs have been completed so far under the same pyrolysis conditions (500 C and 7 minutes solid residence time). The average mass balance (based on received feedstock on wet basis) for the runs are: liquid 55.0% (organic phase 5.1% and aqueous phase 49.9%), gas 11.6% and char 23.8%. Also a carbon deposit was collected (in the pipe between intermediate pyrolysis and condenser) after the runs and amounted to 1.9%. The mass balance closure was 92.9%. The losses are attributable to 7.1%. The organic phase is extremely viscous (hardly flows under ambient temperature), but has but has a useful heating value (being 32 MJ/kg). Aqueous phase products appears to be neutral in terms of pH value.
To date, Harper Adams University has developed an optimised methodology for the collection and processing of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), prior to intermediate pyrolysis. At Harper Adams University, research has focused on the anaerobic digestion of pyrolysis water samples produced from a bench-top auger reactor at Aston University, with the OFMSW used as a feedstock. Biochemical methane potential assays have been conducted and have suggested that pyrolysis water can be anaerobically digested to produce biogas, however care has to be taken as to the inclusion level of pyrolysis water as excessive pyrolysis water inclusion has had a negative effect on biogas yield.

WP5 has investigated efforts at commercialising two Advanced Thermal Treatments (ATTs), pyrolysis and gasification, in waste-management systems. This context is a crucial baseline for analysing socio-economic aspects of the EPSRC project focus on pyrolysis-AD synergies. WP5 carried out an extensive literature survey and interviewed approx. 15 key actors.
Preliminary results: Pyrolysis has been commercialised mainly for homogeneous waste feedstock (such as vehicle tyres), and as a preliminary stage before gasification of MSW; it has been more difficult to design pyrolysis per se for treating MSW. Gasification has been commercialised at small scale for MSW in several other countries, though the waste needs substantial pre-treatment for the process to run smoothly. Some technology developers have gained adoption of their gasification technologies by UK waste-management companies for contracts with local authorities or for C&I plants. These proposals have had to overcome suspicions that gasification is 'incineration in disguise'.
Exploitation Route The integrated technology of pyrolysis and AD has the potential to improve system energy efficiency, so applications in optimised renewable energy production are probable. A key requirement is the definition of organic liquid loadings that are able to be digested.

Cities and rural environments are both targets for implementation by local and regional authorities

Planning applications that utilise an integrated approach are another target
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Communities and Social Services/Policy,Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description The potential of an integrated approach to energy from waste has been promoted at academic and commercial meetings as a means of increasing efficiency and hence reducing costs
First Year Of Impact 2014
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Energy,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic,Policy & public services

 
Description Aston Institute of Materials Research Seedcorn Grant- Aging Characteristics of Bio-bitumen from the Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste
Amount £1,500 (GBP)
Organisation Aston University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) Networking Grants- Pyrolysis of Municipal Organic Waste for Renewable Road Construction Materials
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Funding ID GCRFNG\100203 
Organisation Academy of Medical Sciences (AMS) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 01/2019
 
Title Database for mass and energy balances and economic evaluation of the intermediate pyrolysis system 
Description Dataset for the energy balance and economic evaluation of the intermediate pyrolysis and combined heat and power system. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The models provide a comprehensive understanding on the performance and economic of the intermediate pyrolysis based energy system. 
 
Description Further development of new materials 
Organisation Aggregate Industries
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Discovered new opportunity of using organic fraction of the liquid product as a new road paving material. Processing raw material and producing liquid product for further research.
Collaborator Contribution Providing in-kind support to the research including technical advice and free access to laboratory facilities for material characterisation and synthesis.
Impact Collaborative research is still on-going. Multi-disciplianry research includes biomass/waste thermal processing, material science, highway engineering.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 'Beyond incineration? Prospects to improve and commercialise Advanced Thermal Treatments for MSW' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 'Beyond incineration? Prospects to improve and commercialise Advanced Thermal Treatments for MSW' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 21.11.2016 seminar had presentations by Les Levidow & Paul Upham, 'Gasifiers versus incinerators for treating MSW: decision-makers' criteria', and then by Geraint Evans, Energy Technologies Institute, followed by discussion. Then by Anthony Bridgwater, 'AD-pyrolysis integration for treating MSW: experimental results and implications', again followed by discussion. Each participant brought some specialist expertise to help build a big picture of the prospects and difficulties in improving thermal treatment of MSW.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Bioenergy Australis 2016 Conference - oral presentation and published abstract in the conference proceedings. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An oral presentation was given at the Bioenergy Australia 2016 conference, relating to the scope of the project and some of the research outcomes to date. A question and answer session followed the presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description CIWM Thermal Treatment Special Interest Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Information gathering and sharing
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop organised by the OU on policy directions for renewable energy opportunities
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion. SGBH annual conference, Sheffield 17 November 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Annual Meeting of the SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description International Conference- 21st International Symposium on Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis - Y Yang 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International conference presentation for results dissemination. There were interesting discussions and debate with research peers during the session. Two international experts expressed interests in further research collaboration on pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://pyro2016.sciencesconf.org
 
Description Internet based project library (OpenFields) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A summary of the project's concept was written to inform the general public and spark interest in the use of anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis and the disposal of household waste.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.openfields.org.uk/Library/content/Detail.aspx?q=a2lyYnk=&ctID=ZWVhNzBlY2QtZWJjNi00YWZiLWE...
 
Description Invited key notes speaker at the International Conference of Sustainable Agriculture, Yogykarta (Indonesia) 17-18 January 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited key notes speaker at the International Conference of Sustainable Agriculture, Yogykarta (Indonesia) 17-18 January 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Levidow, L. and Upham, P. (2016) 3rd Energy & Society Conference. ESA RN12 Environment and Society Midterm Conference, 12-14 September, UFZ Leipzig. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact "Transforming Energy for Society"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Levidow, L. and Upham, P. (2016) 3rd Energy and Society Conference - Transforming Energy for Society, 12-14 Sept, UFZ, Leipzig. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Conference presentation "Socio-technical change linking expectations and representations: the case of incineration and gasification for residual municipal solid waste"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Levidow, L. and Upham, P. (2016) 4S-EASST joint conference, 31 Aug- 3 Sept, Barcelona Internacional Convention Centre. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact "Socio-technical change linking expectations and representations: the case of incineration and gasification for residual municipal solid waste"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Poster Presentation - Y Yang, Aston 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description PyroAD BORRG Presentation 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation by Dr Nikolaos Venetsaneas to Bioenergy and Organic Resources Research Group (BORRG) at the University of Southampton, plus external visitors, summarising research progress and results. Approximately 35 participants. Presentation subsequently circulated to attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description PyroAD BORRG Presentation 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation by Dr Nikolaos Venetsaneas to Bioenergy and Organic Resources Research Group (BORRG) at the University of Southampton, plus external visitors, summarising research progress and results. Approximately 30 participants. Presentation subsequently circulated to attendees.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PyroAD ECR presentation 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation by Dr Nikolaos Venetsaneas to the Early Career Researchers meeting funded by BBSRC ADNet, Birmingham 4-5 July 2016
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://adbioresources.org/events/ad-network-early-career-researcher-event
 
Description PyroAD Facebook update 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Update on project posted to University of Southampton Environment Lab Facebook site describing collaborative work on testing of pyrolysis samples produced by Aston University. Post viewed by over 275 people to date, primarily academic / research / industry but also public and schools. For details see post 93 placed on 07/03/2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/environmental.lab.university.of.southampton/
 
Description PyroAD video clip on test methods 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Over 1500 people viewed an item on the University of Southampton Environment Lab Facebook page describing testing of the properties of aqueous fractions from pyrolysis of municipal waste as aprt of the PyroAD project. The posting included a training video which was viewed by over 200 people. The audience was primarily academics and practitioners, especially early career. This post led to a greater awareness of the project and also of specific activities by the group at Southampton, demonstrated by increased viewing and following of items on the site. See post 79 on 26/10/2016.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/environmental.lab.university.of.southampton
 
Description SUPERGEN ADNet ECR presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation by Dr N Venetsaneas on 'Increasing energy yield from the integration of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis' at the AD Network (a BBSRC NIBB) Early Career Researcher Event, Warwick University, 29-30 June, 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub Annual Assembly 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Joint poster with Harper Adams University on 'Increasing energy yield from the integration of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis' for conference in Aston
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description SUPERGEN Hub presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation by Dr N Venetsaneas on 'Biodegradation and inhibition effects on anaerobic digestion of pyrolysis aqueous fractions' at SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub Annual Assembly 2015, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden UK, 19 November, 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SUPERGEN PyroAD posting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Information on publication from SUPERGEN PyroAD project looking at characterisation of slow pyrolysis products and testing of the aqueous fraction for anaerobic digestion. The posting also covered presentations at the joint ADNet / SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub workshop in Birmingham on 6 Feb 2018. Posted 13 Feb 2018, viewed by more than 120 people, 15 likes. See https://www.facebook.com/environmental.lab.university.of.Southampton for related posts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.facebook.com/environmental.lab.university.of.southampton/posts/880994235395035
 
Description SUPERGEN RBB-11 poster 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster presentation by Dr N Venetsaneas 'Increasing energy yield from the integration of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis' 11th International Conference on Renewable Resources and Biorefineries (RRB-11), Park Inn Hotel, York, UK 3-5 June, 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SUPERGEN poster presentation ADBA R&D forum 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster on 'Increasing energy yield from the integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis' at R&D forum of the Anaerobic Digestion and Bioresources Association, 14-15 April 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description SUPERGEN project page BORRG Soton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Project webpage on Bioenergy and Organic Resources Research Group website
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.bioenergy.soton.ac.uk/projects/SUPERGEN.pdf
 
Description Slow pyrolysis of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW): Characterisation of products and screening of the aqueous liquid product for anaerobic digestion. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation entitled: Slow pyrolysis of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW): Characterisation of products and screening of the aqueous liquid product for anaerobic digestion has been give in the a SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub and AD Net joint event.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK - India Partnering Symposium and Workshop RCUK 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Charles Banks gave a presentation at a research symposium at the Institute of Chemical Technology Mumbai on 9 Jan 2017. The main topic area of the symposium was gas fermentations and speakers included academics and professionals from the UK and their counterparts in India. Prof Banks' presentation made reference to the IBCat H2AD project, as it is directly relevant to some of the technical issues of gas transfer into fermenter systems and to the potential for using methane as a substrate. He also mentioned to the work in PyroAD because of the potential for use of pyrolysis gases. , The Mumbai symposium was followed by a workshop on 10 Jan 2017 which further developed these topics and in which Prof Banks chaired 3 sessions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Upham, P. and Levidow, L., 7th International Sustainability Transitions (IST) Conference, 6 - 9 September, Wuppertal Institute. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact "Ideational-cognitive structuration processes: the case of gasification for energy from waste",
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Videoconference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A videoconference was held on 1 April, 2016, between Aston (Dr. K. Wilson) and the U. of Kentucky (Dr. M. Crocker and V. Song) to discuss arrangements for a graduate student internship (V. Song will visit Aston in May-June 2016).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description WP5 (OU and Leeds) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact WP5 has had interchanges with the CIWM Thermal Treatment Special Interest Group (SIG) and has been invited to present some results at its next quarterly meeting.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Y Yang, Aston - Oral Presentation : increasing energy yield by the integration of anaerobic digestion and pyrolysis at Shanghai Jiaotong University, "International workshop on advances in thermal biomass conversion for energy and fuels" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation to a group of experts in Bioenergy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Y Yang, Aston - Poster Presentation: Increasing Energy Yield from the Integration of Pyrolysis and Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW), TC Biomass 2015 Conference Chicago 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster Presentation at International Biomass Conversion conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015