Interface and Network Infrastructure to Support EV Participation in Smart Grids

Lead Research Organisation: University of Strathclyde
Department Name: Electronic and Electrical Engineering

Abstract

This project will investigate new technologies that can support high levels of electric vehicle (EV) charging and deliver the benefits that flexible charging can bring for electricity supply and the integration of renewable generation.

Electric Vehicles (EVs) are a central part of transport and energy policy for many nations. They represent a key pathway for reducing petroleum dependence and promoting transportation sustainability (provided the electricity generation mix has been successfully decarbonised). If EVs displace most petroleum vehicles then they will represent a very significant new and additional demand to be serviced via electricity networks. EVs also present opportunities for power network operation; their charging also represents a very large discretionary load that can be managed to provide Smart Grid services and assist the integration of clean energy.

EV integration can also contribute industrial economic growth and high quality employment. A recent study for the UK Department for Business Innovation and Skills identified a potential for 130GW annual installation of power electronics for EV in the UK and perhaps 5,000 GW worldwide. This level of installation presents huge opportunities both for energy savings (even relatively modest efficiency gains in each installation will aggregate to large energy savings) and for economic benefits from the design and manufacture of high valued-added power electronic system.

Planned Impact

This project brings together a number of leading Chinese and UK research institutions to address the infrastructure required to support and exploit high levels of EV charging. A key element of the project is to understand the role of advanced power electronics in future EV charging networks. This applied work directly compliments the basic research to be undertaken by the EPSRC Underpinning Power Electronics 2012 program. The joint UK China consortium brings together complimentary skills sets and explores and promotes mutual understanding of the research challenges and national perspectives. Collaboration will help to challenge pre-conceived research concepts and develop new ideas. The investigators will be in a unique position to define the key research challenges, technical requirements and technologies fundamental to the two countries, and therefore internationally.

In addition to improving collaborative activities through an understanding of cultural backgrounds, technical expertise will be shared through a programme of collaboration, exchange visits, joint workshops, publications and patent submissions. It is intended that such exchanges will form the basis of long-term collaborative arrangements that will facilitate submission of further research proposals to EPSRC in the UK and to NSFC in China. Further funding will also be sought from such bodies as the Royal Academy of Engineering, for example, to facilitate visiting scholars, investigator and researcher exchange visits.

Electric vehicles have been identified as a key tool for meeting CO2 reduction targets whist at the same providing sustainable personal mobility. China has the potential to become the leading market for EVs. In 2012 China published "Energy saving and development plan for alternative fuel vehicle" which includes a target of 5 Million E.V by 2020. In the UK it has been projected that by 2050 the average requirement for electric vehicle charging could reach an average of 30GW. These EV aspirations must be supported by a charging infrastructure presenting a huge potential market for the high value added power electronics design and manufacturing.

Increasing the capacity and flexibility of the EV charge network will allow improved utilization/capture of clean energy and reduced requirements for (often CO2 intensive) reserve generation. Improved access to EV stored energy for network services will improve network resilience, reduce renewable energy spillage and reduce net capital cost of generation. Skills:

The project will develop expertise in power electronics which has been identified as a key skill area. The NSFC-EPSRC collaborative research program will help to expand and maintain the skills base. To further skills impact additional funding for PhD level researchers will be sought through national schemes such as the Energy Technology Partnership (ETP).

Electric vehicles have been identified as a key element of climate change mitigation and energy security strategy. This research will help to provide technical base that can facilitate expansion of EVs and the integration of clean generation. By facilitating EV deployment, this research will help to meet aspirations for flexible and personal transport whilst reducing oil dependence and CO2 emissions. Complimentary operation of EV battery charging and large scale renewable generation can help to meet customer requirements and expectations of power system reliability.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The grant has advanced a number of areas associated with the integration of Electric Vehicle charging into smart grids. Notably
1. Minimisation of on-board charger footprint through by combining the functionality of drive train and grid interface power electronics.
2. The demonstration of light weight, high frequency wireless E.V charging technology. This will facilitate en-route contact less and en-route charging providing advantages of increased effective E.V. range and better distribution E.V. demand.
3. The demonstration of low loss, high power quality AC-DC conversion techniques. These allow the grid to E.V charger to appear as an ideal sinusoidal load without the disadvantages of increased switching loss or complex (VAR hungry) AC side filters.
4. The evaluation of technologies for M.V. grid reinforcement including detailed analysis assessment of multi-level converter options for 11kv-66kv operation.
5. As a result of the work undertaken in this project the teams at Strathclyde and Imperial have developed greater understanding of the role that wide band gap power semiconductors can play in improving the performance of E.V. charging and grid interface systems.
Exploitation Route Industry Collaboration.
The Strathclyde team have engaged with:
Texas Instruments (T.I.) in the field of automotive power electronics. With T.I supporting two PhD projects in the area.
Jaguar Landrover (JRL) who are discussing potential projects in the are of E.V. charge systems.

E.G. KTP, Innovate U.K programs.
Follow up funding has been achieved through the EPSRC program "EP/R029504/1 Title: Quietening ultra-low-loss SiC & GaN waveforms"
Since taking up post at Edinburgh investigator (Finney) has been exploring possible industry funding. Most recently through discussion with Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Electronics,Energy,Transport

 
Description EPSRC 2018 ICASE
Amount £84,900 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description Quietening ultra-low-loss SiC & GaN waveforms, EP/R029504/1
Amount £1,944,910 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R029504/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 06/2022
 
Description Collaboration with Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy Limited 
Organisation Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy
Country Spain 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of proposal for industrial R&D in the field of wind turbine interfaces. ( Details Confidential)
Collaborator Contribution Technical input and to PhD student projects and guest lectures to MSc class. Participation in Quietening ultra-low-loss SiC & GaN waveforms industry workshops and contribution to QW reserach. Funding for PhD and lab hardware still at pre contract stage.
Impact 2-Level Si IGBT Converter with Parallel Part-Rated SiC Converter Providing Partial Power Transfer and Active Filtering Paul D. Judge ; Stephen Finney 2019 20th Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics (COMPEL) Year: 2019 | Conference Paper
Start Year 2017
 
Description Guest Professor Power Electronics at Zhejiang University. 
Organisation Zhejiang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Professor Tim Green of Imperial College was appointed Guest Professor at I was made a Guest Professor at Zhejiang University in Lay 2017
Collaborator Contribution Professor Green will be lading the UK contribution to collaboration in the area of multi-level converters. This continues and builds on the work carried out in the Interface and Network Infrastructure to Support EV Participation in Smart Grids program.
Impact Collaboration with team led by Professor Xiangning HE, College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University The program will exploit work carried out under the previous collaborative program with the objective of joint publications and funding applications.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Joint research with China Electric Power Research Institute 
Organisation China Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI)
Country China 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution University of Strathclyde researchers worked on this project with researchers from China Electric Power Research Institute
Start Year 2013
 
Description Joint research with Huazhong University of Science and Technology 
Organisation Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Strathclyde researchers worked on this project with researchers from Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Start Year 2013
 
Description Joint research with Zhejiang University 
Organisation Zhejiang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution University of Strathclyde researchers worked on this project with researchers from Zhejiang University
Start Year 2013
 
Description Researcher Exchange between Zheijiang and Sterathclyde University 
Organisation Zhejiang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The University of Strathclyde hosted Dr Jian De Wu of Zheijang from October 2013 -2014. Dr Wu worked alongside the U.K team working on the Interface and Network Infrastructure to support E.V. patticipation in smart grids and also assisted P.G reserachers working in other application areas.
Collaborator Contribution ZHeijang University provided full financial support for Dr Wu during his visit.
Impact No outcomes to date however a number of areas of colaborative reserach were developed which should form the basis for future publication.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Interface and Network Interaction of Electric Vehicle and Smart Grid (U.K. China workshop) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop took place in Hangzhou China 18-20th may 2014
The audience comprised Researchers, Research program managers (NSFC) and industry representative with an interest in smart grids and E.V. integration.
The purpose of the workshop was to share preliminary research outputs and to gain understanding the issues affecting E.V. integration in U.K and China.
The workshop lead to lengthy and detailed technical discussions and helped to establish the direction for collaborative research.


Identification of possible research areas notably the use of alterative converter topologies for L.V power conversion and the potential benefits of new power semiconductor device technologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited lecture to power electronics reserach group, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, P.R.China 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of the University of Strathclyde's recent research in power electronic converters.
In particular high efficiency AC-DC conversion and E,V, integration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Second China-UK Cooperation Project Bilateral Conference in Interface and Network Infrastructure to Support EV Participation in Smart Grids 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was the second in a series of workshops which brought together researchers from U.K and China working in the field of E.V. Integration. The workshop took place at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, on 22nd and 27th September 2015 . The audience comprised Researchers, Research program managers (NSFC) and industry representative with an interest in smart grids and E.V. integration. The purpose of the workshop was to share research outputs and experience of the issues affecting E.V. integration in the U.K and China. Researchers and postgraduate students were able to present their work in an international forum and to help develop the on-going research plan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description The 2016 China-UK Cooperation Project Bilateral Conference for Interface and Network 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This was the final joint conference of the 3-year research project titled: "Interface and Network Infrastructure to Support EV Participation in
Smart Grids". The project is jointly funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), grant no. EP/L00089X/1, and National Science Foundation of China (NSFC).
The workshop tool place on April 16th to 17th, 2016, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China . The presented the final results of he three year collaborative project to an audience of researchers,and industry representative with an interest in smart grids and E.V. integration.
The presentations allowed discussion of the project outputs, the identification of achievements and potential direction of further research and collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016