Organic molecular films on semiconductors for device applications

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: London Centre for Nanotechnology

Abstract

The functionalisation of semiconductors through the direct attachment of organic molecules to their surfaces is an emerging area of fundamental research that will lead to the creation of new and exciting functional devices. This activity brings together the enormous breadth of functionality and tailorability of organic molecules-including their chemical, bio-chemical, physical, electronic, and optical properties-with the highly sophisticated and massively parallel capabilities of todays semiconductor processing techniques and technology. In addition to the obvious advantages for incorporating molecular functionality with existing semiconductor devices, semiconductor surfaces are particularly attractive hosts on which to bind molecules because of the robust covalent attachments that organic molecules form with semiconductor surfaces; this often leads to structures that are highly stable, even at room temperature or above. In addition, it is anticipated that organic molecules will form the basis of novel devices where individual molecules are incorporated as active elements (molecular electronics), and their use could extend to ultra-high density information storage applications and quantum computing. However, such applications require a detailed understanding of the interfaces between these molecules and the surfaces to which they are bound. It is therefore critical for the fabrication of such devices and the proper understanding of the science that underpins their operation that we: (1) develop a detailed understanding of the fundamentals of the organic-semiconductor interface; and (2) develop methods and techniques for the creation of defect-free and thermally stable organic layers on semiconductors with the ability to tune the properties of the molecular layer. The aim of the proposed research is to investigate the functionalisation of semiconductor surfaces with organic molecules through the formation of stable, covalently bound, low defect density, homogeneous and heterogeneous organic layers and multilayers on semiconductor surfaces. The techniques that will be applied are scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS); synchrotron X-ray methods such as photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray standing wave spectroscopy (XSW) and near-edge X-ray adsorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS); and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductive AFM (cAFM). The major goal of this project is to find ways to maintain the strong advantages provided by the semiconductor substrate when forming organic overlayers; i.e., to maintain the highly homogenous, highly periodic, and highly reproducible nature of the atomically clean and flat semiconductor surface within the organic film

Planned Impact

The main beneficiaries of this research will be academic and industrial researchers with interests in the molecular functionalisation of semiconductor materials. In the immediate term, this research is likely to be of most interest within the organic electronics community where knowledge of the mechanisms of charge transport through organic molecules and across organic-semiconductor interfaces is of interest. There is also potential for this work to impact within the rapidly growing and potentially lucrative organic display industry. In the longer term, there may be impacts within scientific and industrial biomolecular communities in the areas of biomolecule immobilisation and biocompatible implants. Benefits to the general public will be of a general interest nature in the short term, e.g., through publication of the work in non-specialist literature. In the longer term the public will benefit through the potential technological applications such as electronic, computational, light emitting, or biofunctional devices, as well as the associated economic benefits for the UK.

Publications

10 25 50

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Grzela T (2014) Interface and nanostructure evolution of cobalt germanides on Ge(001) in Journal of Applied Physics

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Koczorowski W (2015) Initial growth of Ba on Ge ( 001 ) : An STM and DFT study in Physical Review B

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Koczorowski W (2015) Ba termination of Ge(001) studied with STM. in Nanotechnology

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O'Donnell K (2019) Dissociation of CH 3 -O as a Driving Force for Methoxyacetophenone Adsorption on Si(001) in The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

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O'Donnell KM (2015) Manipulating the orientation of an organic adsorbate on silicon: a NEXAFS study of acetophenone on Si(0 0 1). in Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal

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O'Donnell KM (2016) Orientation and stability of a bi-functional aromatic organic molecular adsorbate on silicon. in Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP

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Schofield S (2013) Phenyl Attachment to Si(001) via STM Manipulation of Acetophenone in The Journal of Physical Chemistry C

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Schofield SR (2013) Quantum engineering at the silicon surface using dangling bonds. in Nature communications

 
Description We have expanded the boundaries of knowledge at the organic/inorganic interface, specifically organic molecules on silicon. We have also developed new concepts in atomic point defects at silicon surfaces of importance for future atomic scale devices.
Exploitation Route The research that we are doing is well suited for future application as we are developing knowledge of the fundamentals at the atomic scale. There are still significant boundaries to the construction of real devices at this scale, but this research programme continues to contribute at the fundamental level for informing future activities.
Sectors Electronics

 
Description Contributions to academic knowledge.
First Year Of Impact 2010
 
Title Benzonitrile/Si(001) dataset 
Description Data from Australian Synchrotron, DFT calculations, and STM measurements at UCL relating to the publication: K. M. O'Donnell, H. Hedgeland, G. Moore, A. Suleman, M. Siegl, L. Thomsen, O. Warschkow, and S. R. Schofield, "Orientation and stability of a bi-functional aromatic organic molecular adsorbate on silicon," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., vol. 18, pp. 27290-27299, 2016. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Data is available. 
URL https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.154112
 
Description Andrew Teplyakov 
Organisation University of Delaware
Department Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution XPS NEXAFS measurements or organics on semiconductors
Collaborator Contribution FTIR TPD measurements or organics on semiconductors
Impact I will present a departmental seminar at the University of Delaware in March 2016
Start Year 2015
 
Description IMRE/A*STAR Singapore / Johnson Goh 
Organisation Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)
Department Institute Of Materials Research And Engineering
Country Singapore 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This fellowship grant partially enabled the establishment of a collaboration with Dr Johnson Goh at IMRE Singapore. We currently have one joint PhD student.
Collaborator Contribution The Singaporean funding body A*STAR funds two years of a PhD studentship (for the period that the student is based in Singapore)
Impact The collaboration was established early 2014; however, our joint student has only begun work in October 2014 so there are no outputs yet.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Lars Thomsen 
Organisation Australian Synchrotron
Country Australia 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution photoelectron spectroscopy measurements
Collaborator Contribution photoelectron spectroscopy measurements
Impact One publication to date with several others in process. Several international conference presentations.
Start Year 2012
 
Description Semiconductor surface chemistry 
Organisation University of Delaware
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Photoelectron spectroscopy studies of semiconductor surface chemistry
Collaborator Contribution Infrared spectroscopy studies of semiconductor surface chemistry
Impact Publications and conference invitations.
Start Year 2014
 
Description Chair of international three day conference: Advanced Materials for Demanding Applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A meeting at the conference has led to ongoing discussions regarding a potential industrial collaboration with Zyvex Labs. in Dallas, TX, USA.

The conference was covered by BBC radio, with a 20 minute segment including interviews with the invited speakers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://amda2014.iopconfs.org/home
 
Description Chair: Nanoscale Physics and Technology Group of the Institute of Physics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Participants in your research and patient groups
Results and Impact Chair of an IOP group committee Chair IOP group committee. Awarding Body - Institute of Physics, Name of Scheme - Nanoscale Physics and Technology Group

Through my role on this committee I have organised numerous workshops and events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://www.iop.org/activity/groups/subject/npt/
 
Description Departmental Seminar - University of Delaware 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Invited Talk: 29th European Conference on Surface Science (ECOSS-29), 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A very interesting international conference that led to numerous discussion of my research.

Discussions with leading experts in the field were very valuable.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012
URL http://physicsworld.com/cws/event/2012/sep/03/-cmd-24-ecoss-29-ecscd-11-cmmp-12-
 
Description Invited Talk: 544th Wilhelm und Else Heraeus-Seminar, "Interactions with the Nanoworld 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A very nice meeting of experts in scanning probe microscopy and atomic scale manipulation.

Valuable discussions with leaders in the field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://mpsd-cmd.cfel.de/weh544/index.html
 
Description Invited Talk: Chemistry of Semiconductor Surfaces, Telluride, CO, USA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This intimate conference of just 25 carefully selected experts was an invite-only conference.

This was an extremely valuable workshop of a small group of experts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
 
Description Invited Talk: Interdisciplinary Surface Science Conference (ISSC-19) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An interesting international workshop that led to good discussions with world leading experts.

Valuable discussions after my talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://physicsworld.com/cws/event/2014/jul/21/icsos-11-11th-international-conference-on-the-structur...
 
Description Invited Talk: MicroScience 2010, Scanning Probe Microscopy (UKSPM), London, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A nice meeting of national (and some international) scientists in scanning probe techniques and applications.

A great chance to become more familiar with the national community in scanning probe measurements. Led to establishment of good national contacts.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2010
 
Description Invited talk: American Physical Society March Meeting 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact There was significant interest in my talk; this is the largest condensed matter physics meeting in the world and my talk was in the largest auditorium at the meeting so this reached quite a wide audience.

I have been invited to several other meetings to speak on this topic and had invitations to collaborate with various international groups.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAR14/Session/B39.1
 
Description Invited talk: International Conference on Atomic Scale Wires 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Very good discussions with key international competitors and collaborators at this workshop

Extremely valuable to share information about the stages of experiments in various international laboratories.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://atwires.nanosam.pl/atwires/index.html
 
Description Invited talk: International Conference on Atomic Scale Wires 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Very good discussions with key international competitors and collaborators at this workshop

Extremely valuable to share information about the stages of experiments in various international laboratories.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://atwires.nanosam.pl/atwires/index.html
 
Description Organising Committee Member, 39th International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering (MNE2013) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A very successful international conference series being run in the UK for the first time in over a decade.

This was a great opportunity for me to become more familiar with large conference organisation and I have chaired several workshops since this drawing on my experience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.mne2013.org/
 
Description Research Seminar - Czech Academy of Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Research Seminar - University of Twente, The Netherlands 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Section Editor, JPCM 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Promoted to Section Editor for Surface and Interfaces at the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://iopscience.iop.org/journal/0953-8984/page/Editorial%20Board
 
Description Theory Meets Experiment: Molecular Nanoscience and Applications 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I organised and chaired and international 3 day conference at University College London in the summer of 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://tmemna2015.iopconfs.org/home
 
Description Workshop: Theory meets Experiment - Organic Molecules on Inorganic Surfaces 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation workshop facilitator
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact One-day international workshop.

This one-day workshop was co-organised by the PI. International invited speakers:

John Boland (Trinity College Dublin)

John Polanyi (University of Toronto)

Damien Riedel (Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d'Orsay)

Andrew Teplyakov (University of Delaware)

Saw Wai Hla (Ohio University)

Oliver Warschkow (University of Sydney)

We will be organising a repeat workshop (and expanding to a three day programme) in 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2013
URL http://www.thomasyoungcentre.org/events/theory-meets-experiment-organic-molecules-on-semiconductor-s...