Generation of Multi-Modal Imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Lead Research Organisation: University College London
Department Name: Medicine

Abstract

Context of the Research

Regenerative Medicine has the potential to transform medicine and provide treatments and cures in areas of unmet need. Cell therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasingly applied in clinical trials in areas such as stroke, heart disease and as adjuvant therapies for cancer. However, with all emerging technologies, there are a number of barriers to evaluating their potential effectiveness that need to be addressed, which is localised delivery to target tissue and functionality of the cells once in situ. The focus of my research programme will be to provide multi-modal cell labelling agents for complimentary imaging technologies that can be utilized together to provide a clear understanding of the mechanisms of delivery and uptake with functional cell survival so that scientific beneficiaries (academics, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies, regulatory authorities) are able to accelerate these new medicines to other areas of regenerative medicine as well as translation to the human population with full confidence.

The monitoring the delivery and tracking the viability of cells once transplanted into patients is of particular importance not only for the assessment of both the degree and duration of therapeutic efficacy but also for patient safety. Identification of the optimal route of administration, the degree and longevity of cell uptake and routes of clearance can identify possible organs of risk while potentially limiting the number of repeat injections or surgeries required per patient.

Iron oxide nanoparticle have shown promise in localizing stem cells to defined areas of disease by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) and a number of these nanoparticles have been previously been approved for clinical use. However, they do not currently display the necessary characteristics for the sensitivity that is required to track transplanted cells or provide information on their functionality in vivo. However, other imaging modalities such as nuclear medicine (SPECT/CT) are capable of tracking cells throughout the body, albeit with poor resolution and with new developments in molecular biology are capable of assessing cell viability in vivo. However, at present one imaging modality and one imaging probe cannot provide the information required for the complete characterization of cell therapeutics.

The new technologies we propose therefore combines innovative molecular biology approaches with nanochemistry to generate multi-modal imaging MSC for in vivo imaging with complimentary preclinical imaging modalities (MRI, SPECT/CT, photoacoustic and bioluminescent imaging). We aim to label cells with both reporter genes and nanopartlces, uniting imaging platforms and imaging probes to utilize the most favourable components of each while reducing their limitations. We will then utilize this to quantify delivery and monitor the localisation and viability of transplanted cells to clinically relevant models of tumours. We will identify the optimal routes of administration and the longevity of cell survival and apply this knowledge to optimize the subsequent application and dosing regimens of our therapeutic MSCs as anti-cancer delivery vehicles. Although this proposal is based on stem cells as adjuvant therapies for cancer the use of our labelling technologies for cell trafficking can be applied to other stem cells and regenerative medicines. Merge this with clinically translatable MR imaging endpoints to provide a full assessment of the efficacy of the cell therapy will therefore accelerate these therapies into mainstream clinical practise.

Planned Impact

The work proposed here addresses the current barriers that are essential for the clinical translation of stem cell therapies to the clinic. The ability to accurately track stem cells to their target site and monitor their cell integrity over time by providing important molecular biology and nanoparticle tools for imaging regimes it is anticipated that this proposal will an impact on a significant number of beneficiaries.

1. Academia: Due to multi-disciplinary approach of the proposal the novel techniques developed in will have a direct benefit for academic centres (both nationally and internationally) that are working on cellular therapeutics. As the UK is one of the leading investigators of stem cell research, this will enhance the competitiveness cell therapy groups within the UK for the translation of cellular therapies to the clinic. The advances in physical sciences, life sciences and imaging methodologies have the potential for impact within their own specific disciplines and can be utilized for numerous applications and will be disseminated through the most appropriate channels.

2. Industry: This proposal will potentially impact on a number of industrial sectors. As the commercial cell therapy industry increases nationally and internationally and with the set up of investment schemes such as the "The TSB Catapult" to accelerate translation to the clinic, there will be a significant change for exploitive investigations of stem cell therapies within leading markets and established pharmaceutical industries. Developing techniques that can provide a predictive measurement of tumour delivery with therapeutic outcome are also of great interest to pharmaceutical companies. Lastly, product companies such as novel imaging/devices companies and contrast agent development companies that specialize in biofuntionalisation of nanoparticles for diagnosis, will also be beneficiaries.

3. Third sector: The charitable investment in regenerative medicine at present reflects the funding for an emerging technology. It is therefore anticipated that charitable funding will increase significantly. With those such as namely concerned with stems cells therapies but also in this case lung cancer charities such as The British Lung Foundation will also benefit.

4. The Public: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to benefit to a vast number of diseases, with the potential to change the outcomes of diseases that affect the general well being an entire population. The technologies that we propose to develop in our MSCs are transferable to other models of regenerative disease and other cellular therapies such as T cells. Therefore the advances made by this proposal will be utilized to assess the efficacy of cell therapies and the longevity of their potential treatments that when translated will aid the NHS in patient therapy planning and highlight potential risks. We also recognize that discoveries concerning stem cells attract intense media interest. Therefore, we will utilizing both UCL and specific charities such as those mentioned above to engage with public specific engagement mechanisms such as the Regenerative Medicine Network.

Publications

10 25 50

publication icon
Hembury M (2015) Gold-silica quantum rattles for multimodal imaging and therapy. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

 
Description I have developed a rapid stem cell labelling method for PET imaging called "Zirconium-89 oxine". The tracer can label cells within 20 minutes at clinical associated doses for clinical tracking of stem cells after transplantation into a patient which is important for obtaining safety and efficacy data in regenerative medicine and cancer therapy trials involving stem cells.

I have developed a dual modality (MRI/SPECT) direct labelling cell tracking agent that can successfully label cells with the required activity for cell tracking in vivo. The combination of imaging afforded by the probe has provided the most comprehensive data on stem cell distribution after injection in mice that has been used to inform on injection routes and dosing regimens.

I have found that the gene tyrosinase that produces melanin can be used to transfect stem cells but that they do not express specific proteins/enzymes downstream in the synthesis of melanin. It is therefore not possible to use this gene as an imaging reporter for photoacoustic imaging and I have discontinued this from my proposed project.

I have developed both the nuclear and optical bicistronic reporter genes and have successfully transfected mesenchymal stem cells without affecting their proliferation or differentiation capabilities.
Exploitation Route The imaging tool kit I have developed has been shared with my collaborators in their regenerative medicine models where possible.

The development of the Zirconium-89 oxine strategyis being adopted into a clinical trial for imaging Mesenchymal Stem Cells in lung tumour patients as part of an imaging arm of phase II of the UCL TACTICAL clinical trial lead by Professor Sam Janes. I have received two grants to achieve this; one in collaboration with King's College London and Queen Mary's (London Advanced Therapies Award) to produce clinical grade Zirconium-89 oxine and to facilitate the infrastructure needed within clinical radiopharmacies to provide this, and a JP Moulton grant to conduct the imaging arm of Phase 2 TACTICAL.
Sectors Chemicals,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description UK Regenerative Medicine Platform - Stakeholders workshop
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Development of photoacoustic reporter genes in CAR T cell therapies
Amount £72,183 (GBP)
Funding ID NC/C01906/1 
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 05/2020
 
Description Early detection pump primer award - Early detection of lung cancer using a molecular tracer
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID A29237 
Organisation Cancer Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Description Multi-spectral in vivo imaging system
Amount £270,000 (GBP)
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
 
Description The Use of PET/CT for the Tracking of Positron Labelled Cell Therapies to Investigate Cell Distribution and Therapeutic Efficacy in the Diseased Lung.
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation University College London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 09/2023
 
Description UK Regenerative Medicine Safety Hub: Partnership funds
Amount £160,000 (GBP)
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2015 
End 08/2017
 
Description Whole-body 89Zirconium PET Imaging of a Genetically Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy: First-in-Man Study
Amount £225,000 (GBP)
Organisation J P Moulton Charitable Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2020 
End 02/2023
 
Title Conjugation of DOTA to iron oxide (SPECT/MRI nanoparticle) 
Description To label an iron oxide with a nuclear imaging tracer to produce a multi-modal direct imaging agent to label cells with. I initially tried to label a previously FDA approved SPION for MRI called Ferucarbotran (lab grade Resovist) and has been used in my previous research to label my mesenchymal stem cells. Although, Ferucarbotran has a carboxydextran coating and in my paper published in 2014 (http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2014/fd/c4fd00114a?page=search) we describe 3 ways of conjugating a NIR dye to the surface. The degree of carboxyl groups present on the surface was not sufficient for conjugation to a nuclear probe. I therefore moved FluidMAG-CT from Chemicell (Berlin) which has known function carboxyl functional groups on the surface. I then modified the DOTA chelator by functionalizing one arm of the DOTA with an amine group. This then formed a peptide bond with the SPION coating. We have since chelated Indium-111 to the DOTA in a reproducible manner and have used this to label mesenchymal stem cells and are now testing cell viability and using this in vivo in animal models. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact At present the preparation of the DOTA-FluidMAG-CT nanoparticle has been completed and I have optimized the chelation efficiency and purification methods of the radioactive tracer. The nanoparticle uptake and toxicity are being tested in vitro in Mesenchymal stem cells. The particle is able to label 1 million stem cells with 10 Mbq of Indium-111 and 1.4 mg of iron. This is suitable to imaging cell biodistribution by SPECT in vivo and identify localization by MRI. We have used this particle in cells already expressing the gene reporter luciferase to identify cell viability and are assessing cell distribution via different injection routes in control animals. Will then apply to tumour models and magnetic targeting strategies. This work will be presented at the European Molecular Imaging Meeting in Utrecht on 9th March 2016 as a poster presentation (#57). 
URL http://esmi-insight.eu/emim2016/contxt/programme/default_session.asp?node=&day=wednesday&sessionID=1...
 
Title Gold nanoparticles for photoacoustic and CT imaging 
Description The use of gold nanoparticles to label cells for photoacoustic and computerized tomorgraphy (CT). A range of gold nanoparticles where tested for photoacoustic signal, silica coated gold nanorods where capable of producing a significant signal and could be clearly defined from that of the haemoglobin within the blood. Whereas, circular gold nanoparticles did not. These gold nanorods have been produced by my collaboration with the UK Regenerative Medicine Platform Safety Hub where they were designed as contrast agents for the iThera MSOT system (Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography). Gold also exhibits a high X-Ray absorption co-efficient and can be used as a CT contrast agent. The signal intensity in this case is dependent on gold density not shape. Tracking cells by CT is beneficial as CT is widely available in the clinic, is used for lung imaging and is col-localised to nuclear tracers. mesenchymal stem cells labelled with gold where tested in vivo. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact All luciferase positive cells labelled with gold nanoparticles (rods or spheres) showed no change in proliferation on internalization of gold. Further work is need to identify if gold alters their phenotype. Photoacoutic imaging was able to detect 200 thousand cells injected subcutaneously and provided similar contrast to that of tyrosinase (see reporter section). CT could also detect these cells as an area of increased signal intensity for up to 2 months. The corresponding bioluminescence images confirmed that these cells where viable throughout. We also looked at cell distribution throughout the kidney after intra-renal artery injection (see ultrasound guided injections) and throughout the lung after intra-tracheal instillation. The work is being presented a the European Molecular Imaging Meeting in Utrecht on the 8th May 2016 as an oral presentation (#PS01/05). 
URL http://esmi-insight.eu/emim2016/contxt/programme/default_session.asp?node=&day=tuesday&sessionID=11
 
Title Hypercapnia gas challenge MRI 
Description I have developed in collaboration with the UKRMP Safety and Efficacy Hub a method for early detection and resolution of liver fibrosis using MRI. So far only the MRI parameter T1 has been applied liver fibrosis but this parameter is effected by both immune infiltration and fibrosis and the change in T1 is minimal. This measure will therefore be confounded by the administration of a cell therapy and does not present a large enough effect size for assessing liver regeneration. Our method is based on the fact that in fibrosis, collagen builds up around the vessels causing stiffness in the vessel wall and reduced vasodilation. Although resting perfusion is not altered in fibrosis vs control mice initiating vasodilation by hypercapnia challenge resulted in increased perfusion whereas fibrosis mice and a reduced perfusion, thereby giving a clear effect range that is not effected by cell therapy to assess organ regeneration. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Highly significant changes in perfusion derived from hypercapnia MRI was seen as early as 6 weeks in fibrosis mice whereas the gold standard T1 only showed a marginal significant increase. Removing the fibrosis insult and allowing the livers to regenerate naturally for 4 weeks resulted in T1 returning to baseline, whereas hypercapnia MRI still showed some underlying remaining disease. Histology showed that although the liver parenchyma had regenerated there was remaining collagen around the vessels. We therefore conclude that hypercapnia MRI is sensitive enough to measure the extent of liver regeneration where T1 is not. I am now applying this to cell therapies. I am also now working this up for translation to the clinic with my UCLH collaborators using drug based vasodilators. This work is to be presented as a talk at the European Molecular Imaging Meeting in Cologne in April 2017. 
 
Title Lenti viral nuclear imaging reporter genes 
Description The formation of lenti-viral reporter genes for the permanent transfection of Mesemchymal Stem Cells with nuclear imaging reporter genes. I have generated bicistronic imaging vectors: 1) hNET (noradrenalin transporter) and luciferase (SPECT/CT and bioluminescent imaging), 2) hNIS (sodium-iodine transporter) and luciferase (SPECT/CT and bioluminescent imaging). 3) hDAT (dopamine transporter) and luciferase (SPECT/CT and bioluminescence imaging). I have also started work on utilizing/synthesizing their PET imaging probes for PET/CT. All bicistornic imaging vectors contain a EF1a promoter and a CD19 surface protein for cell sorting. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact These are novel bicistronic lenti-viral vectors were tested in mesenchymal stem cells. Testing of the reporter genes lead to a high transfection efficiency and no effect on cell proliferation, differentiation into 3 different lineages (adipogenic, chondrogenic and oestogenic) than non transfected cells. Luciferase on the bicistronic vectors has confirmed cell localisation and optimization of the other imaging component. The nuclear reporter genes are expressed well and are now being used in vivo. Therefore there has been no notable impact resulting from this development as yet. 
URL http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4385325/
 
Title Lenti viral photoacoustic imaging reporter genes 
Description The formation of lenti-viral reporter genes for the permanent transfection of Mesemchymal Stem Cells with photoacoustic imaging reporter genes. I have generated the bicistronic imaging vector: tyrosinase (melanin) and luciferase for photoacoustic and bioluminescent imaging. It also contains a EF1a promoter and a CD19 surface protein for cell sorting. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This novel bicistronic lenti-viral vector was tested in mesenchymal stem cells. Testing of the reporter genes lead to a high transfection efficiency with no effect on cell proliferation or differentiation into 3 different lineages (adipogenic, chondrogenic and oestogenic) than non transfected cells. The reporter gene was initially tested in tumour cells lines previously used for tyrosinase expression (non bicistronic) in our lab. In these cell lines I saw similar expression to our previous tyrosinase reporter. However, when we moved to mesenchymal stem cells, although the luciferase was expressed and the cells could be seen by bioluminescence the mesenchymal stem cells did not express the melanin contrast. PCR confirmed expression of the tyrosinase gene, it was therefore concluded that these stem cells were lacking an enzyme further down the melanin synthesis pathway. I also looked at other stem cells and progenitor cells with my collaborators (including the UKRMP Safety Hub) and they found the same thing for these types of cells. I have therefore ceased work on this reporter gene and will focus on the gold direct labelling agents for photoacoustic imaging. 
URL http://www.nature.com/nphoton/journal/v9/n4/full/nphoton.2015.22.html
 
Title Magnetic targeting of stem cells 
Description The use of iron oxide cell labelling agents to direct or retain cells to a specific target site or organ. This project is funded by the UK Regenerative Medicine Safety Hub Partnership funds. Cells are labelled with superparamagnetic iron oxides and then injected via a specified injection route. The cells can then be targeted to a specific target site or organ of interest using either an external magnet or via the gradients in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner which is termed Magnet Resonance Targeting (MRT). 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Initial studies have been done to optimize which superparamagnetic iron oxide particles work well with which magnetic device. Preliminary in vivo imaging of mice injected with cells duel labelled with iron oxides and the PET tracer Zirconium-89 oxine show that cells can be targeted to a discrete area of the lung after intravenous injection compared to throughout the lung and liver when there is no magnetic targeting. The UCL Centre of Advanced Biomedical Imaging are also working with Tesla to produce a new gradient insert for their 9.4T Agilent MRI system that can be used specifically for magnetic targeting and imaging. The insert is due to arrive April 2017. I have recently written a review on the magnetic targeting of cells in Regenerative Medicine (2015). 
URL http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/abs/10.2217/rme.15.36?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref....
 
Title Nuclear direct labelling methods 
Description The use of Indium-111 oxine/tropolone for the labelling of white blood cells has been around since the late 1970's and is applied in the clinic. The technique although providing a rapid labelling strategy can be fairly toxic to cells at high doses. Replacing Indium-111 with the PET tracer Zirconium-89 (which also has a similar half life to Indium-111) allows us to use much lower doses of radioactivity due to the increased sensitivity and quantification that PET provides over SPECT imaging. This means that we can potentially also image lower numbers of cells without background uptake shown by nuclear reporter genes. This work is in collaboration with King's College London (Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre) and the UK Regenerative Medicine Platform Safety and Efficacy Hub. Cells expressing luciferase are labelled with Zirconium-89 oxine or tropolone and tracked in vivo. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2015 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Zirconium-89 labelled macrophages showed uptake in the lung directly after intravenous injection which then migrated to the liver and bone marrow at day 1. This was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging which showed proliferation of the cells over time. The Zirconium signal could be tracked for approximately 1 month. Zirconium-89 labelled mesenchymal stem cells also where shown to be in the lung directly after intravenous injection but did not migrate to any other region. Bioluminescence confirmed cell distribution but the signal decreased slowly over a period of 2 weeks indicating that cells did not proliferate but died over this time frame. Zirconium-89 is being considered for clinical translation for assessing the distribution of mechenchymal stem cells expressing TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) in stage 4 lung cancer patients, as part of the Phase II TACTICAL trial (April 2018). We have shown that at clinical doses of Zirconium-89, cell proliferation, metabolism, or therapeutic effect is not altered by Zirconium-89 labeling and there is no DNA damage. I am working with UCLH Nuclear medicine and Radiopharmacy to implement the labelling strategy as part of the trial. 
 
Title Ultrasound guided injections 
Description Ultrasound can be used to guide injections by utilizing an injection rig. We have developed this to be able to inject cells directly into the hepatic portal vein and renal artery without surgery. This is important for cell delivery as injecting cells as close to the organ of interest as possible increases the number delivered to the target organ enhancing therapeutic efficiency, limiting off target effects and reducing cell death for being in an in hostile microenvironment. Secondly ultrasound guidance negotiates the need for surgery in immunocompromised animals. Kidney's are notoriously difficult to target cells to; intravenous injection leads to the catchment of cells to the lung, and intra cardiac has uptake of cells in the brain and liver. This is therefore a very novel and needed strategy for cell delivery in this field. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - mammalian in vivo 
Year Produced 2014 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact I have developed the ultrasound guided hepatic portal vein and intra renal artery injection in collaboration with the CABI members of the UKRMP Safety Hub. This work is being presented a the European Molecular Imaging Meeting in Utrecht on the 8th May 2016 as an oral presentation (#PS01/05 see Gold nanoparticle section - Intra renal artery) and as a poster presentation on the 9th May 2017 (#163 - hepatic portal vein) http://esmi-insight.eu/emim2016/contxt/programme/default_session.asp?node=&day=tuesday&sessionID=11 
URL http://esmi-insight.eu/emim2016/contxt/programme/default_session.asp?node=&day=wednesday&sessionID=1...
 
Description GSK/EPSRC CDT PhD Studentship 
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Department GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I am the primary supervisor of this GSK supported 4 year PhD Studentship which is part of the EPSRC CDT in Medical Imaging based at UCL. The student's research will focus on the quantification and modelling of 89-Zirconium oxine labelled stem cells in normal and tumour or fibrotic lung tissue.
Collaborator Contribution GSK will contribute £60K in funding over the 4 years which will pay for consumables, imaging and animal costs, software and student stipend. GSK will also be involved in regular research meetings with the student and the student may spend up to 3 months at GSK over the 4 year time period if appropriate for the project.
Impact Not yet
Start Year 2019
 
Description UK Regenerative Medicine Platform Safety Hub 
Organisation UK Regenerative Medicine Platform
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution At present I provide technical expertise in preclinical imaging techniques, contrast mechanisms and the development of their genetic reporters for bioluminescence and photoacoustic imaging. I attend regular UKRMP Hub meetings and help oversea the developments of the UKRMP Safety Hub within my department (UCL Centre for Advanced Biomedical Imaging).
Collaborator Contribution The UKRMP Safety hub partners have provided expertise in stem cell biology (the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to specific lineages) , access to the UKRMP hub network and expertise, and access to clinically relevant models of organ fibrosis to evaluate my cell tracking developments.
Impact This collaboration is multi-disciplinary involving, chemists, stem cell biologists, safety scientists, nephrologists and hepatologists. There are no specific outcomes or outputs from this collaboration as yet.
Start Year 2013
 
Description Cancer Institute 10 year anniversary event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact The UCL Cancer Institute organised an event that was held at the Royal Institute for donors and potential new supporters to celebrate the 10 year anniversary of the Cancer Institute. The main objective for the event was to thank existing donors and charity stakeholders for their support are to introduce new donors to UCL's ambitious research plans and their impact on patients.

The event focused on a panel discussion to explore future research theories which was followed by a reception where sponsors could move through interactive stations one of which was based on my work in imaging cell therapies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition 2014 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The Centre for Advanced Biomedical Research stall was entitled Limits of Perception, where we demonstrated how animals have influenced imaging i.e. fluorescent proteins in fish and firefly bioluminescence genes can be used to image cells, how translucency such as in jelly fish has enabled whole organ imaging in a novel techniques known as light sheet microscopy, bat echo's and how this relates to ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging and lastly how sugar can be used in magnetic resonance imaging to detect cancer. The stall was well received by all ages and there was much discussion about the concepts of the imaging we were describing and their applications preclinically and clinically.

The CABI stall received many tweets to our twitter account from the public, the public also undertook a survey to state there interests in the sections of the stall with light imaging being the most popular across age groups. The general public were also in consensus that biological imaging was the way forward (science/clinic). The Royal Society covered by the press so there was increased press coverage. We have also had interest from schools asking for work placements and visits to the lab.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://sse.royalsociety.org/2014/limits-of-perception/
 
Description Royal Society summer exhibition - The mathematics of cancer 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Stall named "The mathematics of cancer" at the Royal Society Summer exhibition. The summer exhibition is open for a week to everyone and tourists and has selected times for school groups and media and general audiences. The event has over 30 different stalls that have been chosen via applications from university groups across the country. Our stall discussed the ability of imaging data of tumour vascular to be used by computer modelling and deep learning to investigate how tumour vasculature affects drug delivery and therefore therapeutic outcomes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2019/summer-science-exhibition/
 
Description UCL Scholarship reception 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Interactive stand selectively chosen to demonstrate the incredible work taking place across UCL. This was a high-level event to celebrate all that UCL scholarships have achieved, with the audience being made up of key alumni, academics, donors, as well as scholarship recipients to mark the launch of UCL's new scholarship strategy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019