In Situ Nanoparticle Assemblies for Healthcare Diagnostics and Therapy

Lead Research Organisation: University of Strathclyde
Department Name: Pure and Applied Chemistry

Abstract

There is a growing need for clinicians to be able to diagnose and prescribe therapy according to an individual's healthcare needs and potential responses. To allow this personalised medicine approach to be fulfilled, new technologies allowing rapid and accurate detection of biomarkers indicative of specific diseases are needed and to be available to clinicians to aid in their management of disease. This proposal aims to bring together physical scientists working on nanoparticles capable of detecting biomarkers at ultralow concentrations with information technologists capable of interpreting and presenting data from these complex assays to the clinical partners who are interested in how best to utilise this new information in improved healthcare practice. The basis of the proposal is to create an in vitro diagnostic assay at first which is capable of detecting multiple biomarkers in a patient's sample which allows the clinician to produce a risk profile of the patient. A second aspect of the research is to investigate in vivo imaging by SERS for specific biomarkers and in a multiplexed manner. The disease we are targeting is cardiovascular disease which covers atherosclerotic plaques. Risk of atherosclerosis is identified by increased levels of specific biomarkers, however, atherosclerosis is characterised by a localised rather than a systemic immune response. Therefore the measurement of biomarkers for in vitro prediction will be investigated in parallel to quantification of vascular inflammation and the development of a therapeutic approach to convey treatments directly to the affected vessel. The assays will be based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and use metallic nanoparticles. The output will be in the form of a vibrational spectrum which will contain a high degree of information relating to the relative quantitation of each of the specific biomarkers being investigated. Two types of in vitro assay will be investigated with one of them carrying forward for in vivo imaging. The in vivo assay will recognise the target and through interpretation of the signal allow a decision to be made whether to induce a therapeutic action. The action we are proposing is a photothermal response from an assembly of the nanoparticles triggered by the specific biomarker being interrogated. This makes the response highly specific to that biomarker and will offer a new way to manage atherosclerosis.

Planned Impact

There are a number of different communities who will benefit from the research outputs and improved capacity from this research and again this grouping of communities will be included in our User Engagement Strategy. The most immediate beneficiaries will be the general public who will ultimately be exposed to improved capability in terms of healthcare diagnostics and management. We are proposing to integrate physical sciences, data interpretation and clinical utilisation. The end result from this will be an improved opportunity for clinicians to manage the disease types we are concentrating on and in turn pass on these benefits and improved capability to the patients. This will result in shortened hospital time with more appropriate administration and prescription of therapeutic drugs which in turn minimises potential side effects to the patient and also improves the economics of healthcare by reducing the amount of drugs necessary for prescription. That is of course assuming that the prognosis from the analysis is that minimal drug intervention can be employed. We also see this as a significant benefit in terms of quality of life and in terms of health and wellbeing for the general public. The clinical partners are influential in terms of medical research and medical policy making. e.g McInnes is chair of the newly created Arthritis Research UK New Agents Committee, leader of the CSO/Pfizer co funded Scottish Early Arthritis Research Programme and has strong links with the pharmaceutical industry serving as chair or participant in a range of Industry drug development programmes at the global level. These examples provide evidence of the potential for significant impact. In addition to specific healthcare outcomes we also see opportunities for engagement with a range of industry partners who will be interested in different aspects of the impact from this research. This will include manufacturers who are capable of producing systems necessary for the combined measurements we are proposing (project partner), reagent suppliers who are interested in the specific chemistries employed, software developers who are looking to implement new software approaches to medical problems and also to the pharmaceutical companies who are interested in more efficient prescription of their medicines. We see impact in all of these sectors and will look to engage with these different areas of exploitation as we implement our Impact strategy. Three of the investigators have direct experience of spin-out which is a benefit to both the project and also the end user community. We are uncertain whether there are spin-out opportunities directly arising from any of the intellectual property which will be created during the project however this is something which we will regularly review and use our experience to inform our decision making process on as we progress.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have demonstrated that antibody functionalised metallic nanoparticles can be used to detect adhesion markers indicative of atherosclerosis in vivo and in a semi-quantitative manner. We have also demonstrated we can detect tagged nanoparticles at depth in tissue using a new light scattering approach. We have also achieved targeted detection of three biomarkers in vivo relating to inflammation. These results have all been published. We have further data on the photo thermal properties of various nanoparticles which will be published in due course.
Exploitation Route We'd expect this to be the foundation for further studies into in vivo use of nanoparticle for studying cardiovascular disease.
Sectors Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description 2018-19 Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF)
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 06/2019
 
Description BHF Centre for Excellence Award in Vascular Science and Medicine
Amount £2,995,151 (GBP)
Funding ID RE/13/5/30177 
Organisation British Heart Foundation (BHF) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2014 
End 12/2019
 
Description Follow-on Innovation Voucher Scheme AY2016/17
Amount £40,000 (GBP)
Organisation Government of Scotland 
Department Scottish Funding Council
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Description Industry money
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Canon 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start 07/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Description Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions Individual Fellowships
Amount € 183,500 (EUR)
Funding ID NUMBER - 661369 - NanoMATe 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 08/2015 
End 07/2017
 
Description NC3Rs
Amount £19,567 (GBP)
Funding ID 'Assessment of immune-inflammatory biomarkers in the serum/plasma of all the mice from the proposal' 
Organisation National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Description Tenovus Scotland Small Research Grant
Amount £11,000 (GBP)
Organisation Tenovus 
Department Tenovus Scotland
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2016 
End 01/2017
 
Description Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund (ISSF) Catalyst Grant
Amount £30,748 (GBP)
Organisation Wellcome Trust 
Department Wellcome Trust Bloomsbury Centre
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2016 
End 12/2016
 
Title Data for: "Bayesian Modelling and Quantification of Raman Spectroscopy" 
Description A new algorithm to fit spectral line shape, given TD-DFT predictions of peak locations. SERS spectra for eosin, rhodamine B, FAM and TAMRA were collected to validate the Bayesian method. The algorithm was also used for quantification of concentration studies of FAM and TAMRA. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact
 
Title Data for: "Multiplex Imaging of Live Breast Cancer Tumour Models Through Tissue Using Handheld Surface Enhanced Spatially Offset Resonance Raman Spectroscopy (SESORRS)" 
Description "The purpose of this dataset was to image nanotags, uptaken into ex vivo tumour models, through 10 mm of tissue. Then, using principal component analysis (PCA), differentiate spectrally between the single nanotags and a triplex of the three nanotags. All data can be found in the database file Â"handheldDBÂ". The database can be opened using custom software from cobalt light systems. The customized software was purpose wrote and confidential however all data used is shown in the excel spreadsheets with respect to the corresponding figures. Further details on the data can be found in the readme file provided. " 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact
 
Title Detection of Cortisol in Serum Using Quantitative Resonance Raman Spectroscopy 
Description The dataset comprises of excel files containing the raw and processed data for Figures 2-7 in the manuscript. Figure 2 dataset is the excel spreadsheet that contains data that was analysed for the purpose to show the difference between using two different microtitre plates, known as Fluorotrac200 and Fluorotrac600. Figure 3 is broken down into 3 datasets for the three rows (C, D and E) that were analysed using the Fluorotrac200 microtitre plate. Data used for Figure 4 is also conatined in the file 'Figure 3 Row C Data...'. This data represents the results when using the Fluorotrac200 to detect free cortisol in a sample. Both figures were to show the results obatined when detecting free cortisol in a sample. Figure 5 dataset has been saved as a zip file and contains three spreadsheets for the three rows analysed, to show the results obtained for the total cortisol quantitation assay. Figure 6 dataset included the raw and processed data for the total cortisol assay, showing two rows (C and D) using the Fluorotrac200 plate detecting the total cortisol present in a sample. Figure 7 dataset contains the results obatined from using the Aushon chemiluminescence assay to form the basis of a comparison between this and the Raman method, all presented in an excel spreadsheet. Data embargo until 10/08/17 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact n/a 
 
Title Point and Shoot Â- The Benefit of Resonant Raman Reporters for Probing Through Plastic and Tissue Barriers Using Handheld Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) 
Description "Point and Shoot Â- The Benefit of Resonant Raman Reporters for Probing Through Plastic and Tissue Barriers Using Handheld Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) The purpose of this data set was to detect nanotags through varyign thicknesses of plastic and tissue and to image a 3D tumor model through 5 mm of tissue using handheld surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy. By using this technique it is possible to image at depths using Raman spectroscopy. All data was transferred from the raw excel files into matlab where it was processed using customized scripts. Further details on the data can be found in the Readme file provided. " 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact
 
Title Preferential attachment of specific fluorescent dyes and dye labelled DNA sequences in a SERS multiplex 
Description "Chemometric analysis was performed on collected SERS spectra of fluorescence dyes and dye labelled DNA sequences to gain an insight on any form of preferential attachment that could occur in a multiplex SERS sample. Experimental parameters were altered to determine if these would effect any form of preferential attachment that was present. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Not recorded 
 
Title Surface-enhanced Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SESORS) in Tissue Analogs 
Description This dataset contains Raman spectra (.txt and .xls files) and dark-field images (.tif and .jpg) pertinent to the investigation of surface-enhanced, spatially-offset Raman spectroscopy for analysis of nanoparticles in tissue analogs. Nanoparticles are spin coated on glass slides, and Raman spectra are used to validate a proposed methodology of recovering NP signal from beneath layers of tissue. Data files included represent data collected relevant to the characterization of a in-house SESORS instrument with PDMS cured in a cuvette, a nanoparticle spin-coating technique, a single-probe vs 2-probe experiment with spin coated NPs and a fixed thickness of tissue, and experiments with spin coated NPs and tissue of varied thickness. Data embargo until 31/12/17 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Unknown 
 
Description Collaboration with Antony Vinh - Monash University, Clayton, Australia 
Organisation Monash University
Country Australia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Together we investigate dynamics of immune cells in hypertensive arteries
Collaborator Contribution See above
Impact A MS in preparation
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with David Harrision - Vanderbilt, US 
Organisation Vanderbilt University
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In collaboration with David Harrison we are investigating the interactions between monocytes and endothelial cells
Collaborator Contribution See above
Impact A manuscript in preparation
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Giuseppina Caligiuri - INSERM (U698), Paris, France 
Organisation Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital
Department INSERM U698
Country France 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution In collaboration with Giuseppina Caligiuri we are investigating the mechanism of neutrophil extravasation.
Collaborator Contribution See Above
Impact A manuscript in preparation.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Johan Kuiper - University of Leiden, The Netherland 
Organisation Leiden University
Department Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (LACDR)
Country Netherlands 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In collaboration with Johan Kuiper and Ilze Bot we have investigate the antigen presentation capacity of mast cells in atherosclerosis (J Immunol. 2019 Jan 25. pii: ji1800648. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1800648. [Epub ahead of print]).
Collaborator Contribution See above
Impact We published the following MS: J Immunol. 2019 Jan 25. pii: ji1800648. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1800648. [Epub ahead of print].
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with Tomasz Guzik - University of Glasgow, UK 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In collaboration with Tomasz Guzik we are investigating the role of immune response(s) in hypertension.
Collaborator Contribution See above
Impact Two manuscripts in preparation.
Start Year 2016
 
Description 'Explorathon' night at the Glasgow River Museum 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 1000 members of the public attended the events. Our station interacted with 300 kids and adults. Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both children and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.explorathon.co.uk/glasgow
 
Description 'Explorathon' night at the Glasgow Science Centre 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Over 3000 members of the public attended the events. Our station interacted with 500 kids and adults. Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both children and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.


All the children are now aware of the main risk factors leading to CVD.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.explorathon.co.uk/glasgow
 
Description 'Explorathon' night at the Glasgow Science Centre 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Over 2000 members of the public attended the events. Our station interacted with 400 kids and adults. Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both children and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.explorathon.co.uk/glasgow
 
Description A talk to the Forum of Claims and Underwriting Scotland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact On Thursday 14th June 2018 a presentation was given in Edinburgh to the Forum of Claims and Underwriting Scotland, with a specific focus on the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis and how we can improve current diagnosis and treatment. The audience was interested in how new developments in cardiovascular medicine may change the insurance business and what challenges may impact them from an underwriting perspective.

The audience gave me a £250 cheque donation for the British Heart Foundation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.focuscotland.co.uk/
 
Description British Science Festival 2017 - Brighton 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both students and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://nanomatescience.weebly.com/
 
Description Cell Block Science - Visit to the HM Prison Shotts 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Cell Block Science workshop runs once a week as part of the prison educational program which prisoners choose to attend - The programme takes different researchers in every week from various fields in to engage with the prisoners. Nanomate attended for one session and engaged very closely with 7 of the prisoners. During this session we were able to relay important information regarding cardiovascular disease. This included up-to-date statistics for global, national, regional and local cardiovascular burden. We explained the proportion of cardiovascular disease burden which relates to atherosclerosis. This lead into an overview of the disease initiation and progression, including the involvement of the immune system and inflammation. This pathology was related to the clinical manifestations ie stroke, MI. This was aided visually with simple diagrams and illustrations including images of real atherosclerotic arteries. We also used 3D models of the heart and vessels with plaques at different stages of pathology. We then discussed risk factors and how this relates to disease pathology, particularly those which the prisoners themselves can change - smoking, exercise, diet. There was also discussion about the different research projects we ourselves are currently involved in the lab, and how we go about answering these questions through various techniques, with human samples from transplants/bypasses and also with the use of animal models. The audience was highly engaged. They were particularly interested in understanding exactly how exercise, diet and smoking affect the pathology of the disease. Rather than just being told "exercise is good, smoking is bad, eat healthy" they understood why these things were important - which made them enthusiastic about changing their behaviour.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.epea.org/cell-block-science/
 
Description Cheltenhan Science Festival 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Our station interacted with over 13000 people (9500 adults and 3500 kids/educators) in 6 days. Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both students and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://nanomatescience.weebly.com/
 
Description Glasgow Academy Health Week - Visit to the Glasgow Academy Secondary School 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Format: 3 x 30 min classes on Heart disease as part of the school's health week
Audience: 3 x S2 classes (13/14 years old) of about 20 pupils each.
Activity: Interactive presentation which introduced the cardiovascular system and its importance, leading onto discussion of burden of the disease globally, in Europe, in the UK and finally in Scotland - this included a "game" of guessing top 5 cities in UK for highest occurrence of CV death from the BHF annual report. Explanation of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis pathology and how this is driven by "bad cholesterol" and immune-inflammatory processes. The talk was then concluded with describing ways in which they could prevent CVD through healthy eating, exercise and not smoking.
This was accompanied with props - 3D heart and artery models depicting different stages of atherosclerosis development.
The slides comprised mostly of images with very little text to act as a rough guide/ visual aids - this allowed the pupils to be engaged in the session as it was more of a discussion than a presentation.
Outcomes: The pupils were very engaged in the sessions, particularly upon learning about the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the central belt of Scotland, compared to other parts of the UK. They were all very keen to understand what they could do themselves to prevent cardiovascular disease. This was aided by their comprehension of the disease pathology - as they could now understand how bad diet etc. actually caused the disease.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Glasgow Science Festival 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On 11th-12th June 2016, we portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'Nanomate science stall' with hands-on activities at the Glasgow Science Festival. The team aim to investigate how nanoparticles could be used to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. The two exciting days of science took place at the Kelvingrove Museum in Glasgow with activities supported by supported by Glasgow Polyomics (Wellcome Trust grant 105614/Z/14/Z) and the British Heart Foundation.
The 'Nanomate' stall interacted with over 1000 people in 2 days, with 11 researchers involved, 14 kg of clay used, 300 gift boxes distributed and over 250 'I like it' stickers on the evaluation boards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.polyomics.gla.ac.uk/event-nanomate.html
 
Description Green Man Festival 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Our station interacted with over 2000 people in 3 days. Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both kids and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://nanomatescience.weebly.com/
 
Description Midlothian Science Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Midlothian Science Festival, Newtongrange Library, Dalkeith, UK (14.10.2015) - We organized a stand with hands-on activities on 'Atherosclerosis: In SERS we trust' (Total attendees: 150 - Our stand engaged with approximately 67 children and 40 adults, including some individuals with severe ADHD). Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both children and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://midlothiansciencefestival.com/event/mini-gala-day-newtongrange-library/
 
Description Nanomate at "At home with LIFE SCIENCES, University of Glasgow visits IKEA" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Over 5000 people participated in the event. Our station interacted with 300 kids and adults. Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Both children and adults were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.gla.ac.uk/news/headline_620953_en.html
 
Description Panto Science: The Periodic Fable 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? Yes
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Our station interacted with 90 kids. My group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children prior to the performance. Children were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery. Children were also invited to play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.

All the children are now aware of the main risk factors leading to CVD.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://m.eveningtimes.co.uk/news/14136701.What_s_behind_pantomime__Science_show_will_reveal_all/?ref...
 
Description STEM in the Gorbals - Visit to St Francis' Primary School Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Audience: Mainly primary school-aged children and their parents. Also, people of various age-groups from the local community in the Gorbals.
Activity: Our station interacted with approximately 150-175 people in 3 hours. Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children and adults. The focal points of our exhibit were model atherosclerotic arteries used to explain atherosclerotic disease and demonstrate SERS/nanoparticle detection of specific inflammatory biomarkers. Visitors were able to select nanoparticles (marbles), and insert them into our models. They can then interactively demonstrate specificity of the nanoparticles, as a mixture of magnetic and non-magnetic marbles is used with only magnetic marbles binding to the plaque.
An arcade style computer game we developed ("AtheroBlaster") was used so that players could identify unknown cells within atherosclerotic plaques by "shooting" them with nanoparticles, the type of cell being revealed when the player matches the correct nanoparticle with the correct cell, simulating diagnosis of inflammation.
Children were also invited to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Outcomes: Children thoroughly enjoyed making their "bad" and "good" immune cells. They were interested to find out that immune cells are involved in heart disease and were excited to hear about nanoparticles as a potential diagnosis/ therapy.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://pbscotland.scot/blog/2018/2/5/spirit-of-the-gorbals-february-2018
 
Description School Visit (Gavinburn Primary School - Old Kilpatrick, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact School Visit to the Gavinburn Primary School, Old Kilpatrick, UK (02.03.2016) - We organized a stand with hands-on activities on 'Atherosclerosis' (Total attendees: 104 children P4-P7). Our group portrayed the importance of studying cardiovascular disease running a 'science stall' with hands-on activities for children. The team aim to investigate how to improve the diagnosis and treatment of vascular inflammation. Children were invited to interact with a hyper-realistic artery, play a specifically-designed computer game, and to create their own "good" or "bad" immune cell from clay, paint it and take it home as a souvenir.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016