FLOW AND FRICTION OF THIN LUBRICANT FILMS IN HIGH PRESSURE CONTACTS

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Mechanical Engineering

Abstract

A key and urgent challenge in mechanical engineering is to increase the efficiency of machine components and thereby reduce energy consumption. Nationally this is needed to meet CO2 emission limits, to help cope with rising fuel costs, and to reduce dependence on imported energy supplies. In global terms, the environmental impact of increased machine use in countries such as China and India as these become prosperous can only be mitigated by large increases in machine efficiency.

One of the main ways to increase machine efficiency is to reduce friction between moving surfaces. A very important source of friction in machine components originates in elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubricated contacts. These occur in components based on elements that both roll and slide together, including in all rolling bearings, gears and cam/follower systems. EHD friction is of growing importance since, in combination with churning losses, it controls the efficiency of mechanical transmissions. It thus contributes directly to vehicle efficiency but also to the efficiency of many other machines, such as wind turbines and industrial gearboxes. We need to understand EHD friction both to predict it (during machine design) and to reduce it significantly via lubricant and surface design.

The conditions within an EHD lubricant contact are extraordinarily severe; the pressure is usually > 1 GPa; the shear rate is typically 106 to 108 s-1; film temperature can rise by > 100 degree Celcius within the contact. Under these conditions even the simplest liquids are piezoviscous and highly non-Newtonian, exhibiting both viscoelastic behavior and extensive shear thinning. The EHD friction is determined by this non-Newtonian response. Hence, to predict EHD friction and thus the efficiency of machine components, rheological equations are needed that describe the way that shear stress depends on strain rate for lubricant films in EHD contacts. Unfortunately there is currently a fundamental disagreement in the tribology community as to the form of these constitutive equations. The uncertainty arises because we are unable to probe in any detail the shear stress/strain rate behavior of thin lubricant films under the very severe conditions present in EHD contacts. This disagreement and confusion about the flow behavior of lubricants in EHD contacts is unfortunate and damaging since it has impeded the development and acceptance of computer-based models to predict EHD friction of engineering components, as well as diverting attention from the challenge of devising molecular structures that minimize this friction.

It is thus clear that we need an experimental method of studying and quantifying the local flow behavior of thin lubricant films at the extreme conditions present in EHD contacts. The research team has very recently developed a laser-induced imaging approach to obtain the through-thickness velocity profiles of confined viscous fluids and has shown that the rheology of such fluids in EHD contact is non-Newtonian and highly complex. The proposed project builds on research experience in the previous work and the goal of the current proposal is to develop such a new methodology to examine the rheology of realistic, low viscosity lubricants in high stress, high shear rate EHD contacts. The newly developed method will then be applied to explore the impact of lubricant molecular structure, experimental conditions and surface conditions on EHD flow behaviour. Fluorescence spectroscopy will also be used to measure local viscosity, pressure and temperature in EHD contacts. These results will be combined to check the validity of existing EHD rheological models will be tested and new models developed if necessary.

Planned Impact

1. Academic Impact: The proposed work will have direct impact on our understanding of and on future directions of research in elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication but also extends beyond this into other areas of tribology and fluid dynamics in general. This is fully described in 'Academic Beneficiaries'.

2. Economic and Societal Impact: The proposed work will resolve current confusion about the rheology of EHD lubricants (as present in gears, rolling bearings and cams). This will directly impact the development and application of reliable models to predict friction and identify how low friction can be obtained via lubricant and surface design in EHD contacts . These will contribute to industry and the national economy by enabling design of energy efficient machine systems and components. These will benefit the Society by reducing both CO2 emissions and the consumption of expensive energy resources. It has been estimated that a 10% reduction in friction in passenger cars world-wide would reduce global CO2 emissions by 160M tonnes (with a saving in fuel cost of 100 billion Euros) per annum.

The project will provide essential input and validation to molecular dynamic simulation of thin lubricant films under EHD conditions. Such models have the potential in future to enable the a-priori molecular design of low (and high) friction lubricants, which will be of immense value in lubricant design.

As well as lubrication and tribology, the proposed work and the methodology developed therein will have economic and societal impact on other areas of application such as polymer and food processing, crude oil extraction, microfluidics, micro-/nano-reactors, and 3-D printing. A few examples are as follows.
Co-extrusion of multi-layer polymer films: These films can consist of tens of layers, each of which is extruded through a sub-micron orifice under high shear rate. The interest in producing co-extruded multi-layer films lies on its superior mechanical and more importantly barrier properties, which are crucial for food and medicine preservation. The proposed work will provide information on how the structure and rheology of complex fluids are affected by the shear process and confinement. This will aid establishment of the process-structure-property relationships necessary for successful product production.

Crude oil extraction: Oil is now being extracted in more extreme conditions than ever and the transport of oils from reservoir involves changes in pressure which can lead to formation of aggregates. The fluorescence methods developed in this proposed project can be used to study confinement and pressure-induced morphological changes, such as phase inversion, and micro- and nano-phase separation, which should lead to better dispersants for crude oil.

Foam forming and food processing: Foams are frequently used to create lightweight materials. Snacks, such as cheese puff, are also made of foam. The structure of the foams determines the density and mechanical properties/crunchiness of the materials. It has been shown that foams have peculiar rheology under the application of shear stress. Hence the knowledge obtained from proposed work can be transferred to understand how processing controls foam formations.

3. People Impact: Tribology is interdisciplinary by nature, and this is very much the case in this proposed project. During this project the PDRA will develop advanced skills in tribology, rheology, complex fluids, surface engineering and materials science and hence become very versatile and employable. Many industries will find the availability of such a trained expert of great value. These include the oil and gas, lubricants and additives, manufacturing automotive, aerospace, pharmaceuticals and healthcare and food etc. The PDRA will also work closely with other PDRAs and students in the Tribology Group and hence members of the Group will learn and benefit from the PDRA's own initial and developing expertise.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description It has always been assumed that lubricants in an engineering contacts have linear through-thickness flow profiles. This assumption is commonly used for friction prediction even though there is increasing indirect evidence to suggest that the assumption may not always hold. In this work, a novel in-situ method is developed which allows lubricant flow in a rubbing contact to be tracked directly. Using a model lubricant, we have shown that significant deviation from the linear flow profile may occur under high pressure condition. This is the first work that shows such phenomenon in thin lubricant films. This deviation is likely to be more evident, and thus more important, for lubricant whose rheology is highly pressure sensitive. Deviations from linear flow profile can also occur when frictional heating cannot be removed efficient, as such localised hot zone within the lubricant in the contact is formed. This can occur more readily when one or both surfaces have low thermal conductivity. This shows that the material selection of rubbing surfaces, as well as, rheology of the lubricant, governs lubricant flow in the rubbing contact.
Exploitation Route We intend to use this technique to validate commonly used rheological models. The outcome can be used to guide practitioners on which models are appropriate for friction predictions.
Sectors Chemicals,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

 
Description Friction reduction is probably one of the most important functions of a lubricant. In cases when there is sufficient lubricant to separate the two rubbing surfaces, the rheology and the flow of the lubricant in the contact significantly influence the resulting friction. The work has increased the awareness of the industry on the importance of knowing the flow behaviour of lubricant in the contact and its potential impact on the friction and lubricant film thickness prediction. The method developed in this work has, through the industrial support of a PhD project, now been further developed to allow temperature in the contact to be estimated. This will allow a better correlation between materials selection of surfaces and lubricant flow in a contact.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Chemicals,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport
Impact Types Economic

 
Description 2015 TTRF Second Research Grant
Amount $24,110 (USD)
Organisation The Taiho Kogyo Tribology Research Foundation 
Sector Private
Country United States
Start 02/2016 
End 02/2017
 
Description iCASE studentship topup
Amount £26,800 (GBP)
Organisation Shell International Petroleum 
Department Shell UK Ltd
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2016 
End 01/2020
 
Description An event to discuss technical challenge in BP (Upstream Hackathon, 29/11/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact A panel discussion on BP upstream technical challenge and how we can help based on our expertiese
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BASF Visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact College visit from the company where presentations and laboratory tours were arranged to showcase our research capability
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BASF visit _ 20180910 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Follow up discussion on research related to lubricants and additives
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BP - 11th Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting was held to discuss projects funded by BP and also EPSRC funded projects that could be of potential interest to BP. BP showed interests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description BP Annual meeting (09/01/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An event where academic and research group working with BP gets together.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BP lab tour to our lab (29/06/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Lab tour of our facilitate and showcase of research relevant to BP.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description BP visit 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Laboratory visit from the industry which involved presentation and lab demonstration on state-of-the art research tools
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description BP-ICAM annual conference (30/10/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A conference where academics that work with BP get together to share learning with each other and BP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description City U visit (06/12/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented our latest results and has spared questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Company visit - Baker Hughes _ 20181101 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion on Baker Hughes on the research progress in the area of lubricant, additives and coatings and the potential applications to the industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Company visit - Edwards Vaccuum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact To give a presentation to a company on recent progress in work related to additives and lubricants
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Company visit - Shell (20181031) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A workshop to discuss current research advances in lubricant rheology and research methodology and how the industry can benefit
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Company visit_EV_20190626 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation and discussion session that showcase our research on nanoadditives and lubricant flow to engineer from all parts of the company. It sparked a very lively discussion and follow up discussions were discussed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Croda - 21st Dec 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We presented our current work. A discussion was held to see how we can apply our knowhow on what Croda is interested.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Discussion on choke value, BP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion of our expertise and how we can help BP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with BP (11/5/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion with BP on possible future work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with BP (16/11/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion among academics and industrial representatives from BP
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with CRRC_20190329 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion of the group activities which are relevant to future transportation needs. Lots of questions were entertained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with CRRC_20191009 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation, laboratory demonstration and lab tour show casing how our work can help developing of future transportation systems. A lively discussion was held.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with Exxon_20191205 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A detailed discussion on our research on lubricant flow and how that can be applied to the development of base fluid.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with FTI (25/01/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Supporters
Results and Impact The discussion of current research and possible future work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Discussion with FTI_20190305 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation and discussion on the latest development in our understanding on lubricant flow and how this knowledge is relevant to the development of coating. The company showed strong interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with Lubrizol_20190317 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation, discussion and lab tour to highlight the research activity in the group. And NDA was signed as a result to facilitate further discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with Oleon 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An update on the recent progress in research related to lubricants and discussion potential applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Discussion with Shell (13/09/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion of current work and how they can be applied.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Discussion with Shell Houston (24/10/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A discussion of potential future project
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Evonik - 3 March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I held discussion with the technical manager from Evonik about potential collaborations. I showed him my research through a short presentation and we held discussed on how I can apply my research knowhow into questions that Evonik interested in. We are identified areas of common interest. He will passed on the information he has received and we shall hold further discussions in the near future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Exxon Mobil discussion - 9th Aug 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation was provided on our research and a discussion was held on how we can help the company with their area of interest
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Gordon conference (27-30/06/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A presentation of research findings to researchers in tribology, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Hoerbiger - 8th Dec 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A discussion was held to present our current research and potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description IMechE Event - 50th Anniversary of Jost Report 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The event was for celebration of 50th anniversary of Jost Report. We held a stand to showcase our research with posters, powerpoint slide shows and also held general discussion with participants. We have made contacts with potential sponsors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description ITC_20190918 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Multiple presentation in one of the largest tribology conference, showcasing our research to both practioners, students and researchers. All presentations drew large crowds and lively discussions follows
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Imperial research showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An event with presentations and poster from research groups are Imperial
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International Tribology Symposium (20/3/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An international conference held in South Korea with participant main from the Asia-pacific region. Participants are interested in my work and they have asked for more info.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Lab tour for president and vice chancellor of Imperial (22/11/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Presentation and lab tour of our facilities to increase awareness of our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Laboratory demonstration_SKF_20190308 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A laboratory demonstration of our work, showing our latest experimental development and how knowledge obtained can be applied to the industry. Lots of questions from the audience were entertained.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Meeting with BP (04,05/01/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting involves researchers working on the oil-and-gas industry to discuss their latest findings and working to solve problem in this area. The presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with BP (05/07/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion on our research interest and capability and how we can serve the company's needs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with BP (09/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and discussions on our latest research findings and
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with BP (10/02/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented our latest findings and discussed on how we can help the industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with BP (26/09/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The meeting involves researchers working on the oil-and-gas industry to discuss their latest findings and working to solve problem in this area. The presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with BP company (27/03/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting between BP and academics/researchers from 4 universities on recent research progress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Meeting with Shell (12/10/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation and discussion of our latest findings and how we can help the industry.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with Shell (20/07/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation of our latest results and discussion was held.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with Shell (27/04/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting to present our work and constructive discussion were carried out.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Meeting with Shell (31/05/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We shared our latest research in area the industry is interested in and sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Nanofriction workshop (07/07/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation of our latest research output and their importance. Constructive discussions was held.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Oleon - 4th Dec 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We presented our research. A discussion was held about potential collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Participation in APPEAL meeting (5/4/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation and discussion of possible collaboration with companies representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation (21/3/2016 BP) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The meeting involves researchers working on the oil-and-gas industry to discuss their latest findings and working to solve problem in this area. The presentation sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation and discussion with Dalian Dianqian and Yongji Dainji_20190628 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation and panel discussion on how our research can be helpful in the development of drive train of future transportation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation and discussion with company on high speed bearing_20190828 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation and a lively discussion on our research in nanoadditives and how this can be applied to high speed bearing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation in ACS meeting (3/4/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentations on research work funded by EPSRC, which has sparked questions and discussion afterward.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation in BP _ 20180928 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation on how research tools developed can benefit the industry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation in Esslingen Conference (10/01/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation on current work that has sparked interest and questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation in Leeds-Lyon conference (4/9/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of current research work which has spark interesting in our work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation to Shell (22/6/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussion of our current research and on how we can help.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Research discussion with BP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The discussions with people from the industry and also academics/postgraduate students on the recent progress in the research area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Rheology Meeting (19/04/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Our work was presented and it has sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SKF lab visit (26/01/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Arrange lab tour for Technical VP and R&D stuff from SKF
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description SKF lab visit - 9th June 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation of our research and also a lab visit were provided. SKF showed interest in our work and request more information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description STLE conference (Chicago, 13/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation of our research findings, which sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description STLE conference_Nashville_20190520 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Multiple presentations were done in STLE meeting (one of the largest professional lubrication engineering conference). They are have attracted large crowds and smaller groups discussion were held on various topics of our research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Shell - 2nd March 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We held a meeting with Shell with 4 participants. We discussed projects that we currently hold with Shell and EPSRC.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Shell - Lab visit _ 25th Feb 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The new VP and also a technical manager from Shell visited our research facilities. Both showed strong interests in our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Shell - lab visit - 10th Feb 2015 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A lab visit to showcase our research capability was provided. They showed interested in our work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Shell dinner (11/10/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A dinner even that allow academic and representative from Shell to discuss research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Shell gasoline group - lab visit (27/02/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Lab tour for Shell Houston Gasoline R&D team
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Total Visit (7/2/2018) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation of current work and discussion of possible future work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2018
 
Description Tribology showcase_20190708 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Participation in an event that showcase the research in the group both present and future. A laboratory demonstration followed. A lively discussion were conducted after.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Visit BP at Naperville (16/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation and a discussion of our latest research findings and how we can help the company.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit Shell (Houston, 17/11/2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presented our research and held panel discussions on how we can help the company.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Visit Yeungnam Univeristy (24/01/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presented our latest work and sparked questions and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop presentation_Viscous liquids_20190509 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A panel discussion that discuss the latest development in the theory of viscous fluid flow. We presented our latest experimental development on how we can bridge developed theories to engineering applications. Lots of interest were generated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description World Tribology Congress Beijing (18/09/2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation of Current research work and discussion with potential sponsors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017