Mathematical fundamentals of Metamaterials for multiscale Physics and Mechanics

Lead Research Organisation: Imperial College London
Department Name: Dept of Mathematics

Abstract

Metamaterials are materials that are man-made and can have properties that no natural material could have, for instance light entering a metamaterial slab can be bent in the opposite manner to that which one would usually expect. This is not merely a scientific curiosity, it can have profound implications leading to sub-wavelength imaging, focusing, invisibility cloaks amongst other effects and this, in turn, can lead to materials with unexpected and novel properties. Much of the interest in metamaterials has thus far been in optics and electromagnetism, but it is clear that the underlying ideas should be applicable in other contexts such as elasticity, diffusion, structured materials, acoustics and even water waves. There is an abundance of important applications: designing thermal cloaks for keeping sensitive electronics cool, creating acoustic metamaterials for underwater stealth, wave by-pass systems for structural protection of buildings or key components, all of which are outside the optical context of metamaterials as they currently exist.
A key issue in creating a metamaterial is its design, normally as a periodic medium with a precise micro-structured geometry, and the frequency at which it operates.
As Metamaterials are beginning to achieve a certain maturity in optics the time is ripe to move this knowledge coherently into other fields, it is also timely to enrich Mathematics with the exciting conceptual problems created in Metamaterials and enrich the Metamaterials toolkit with sophisticated Mathematical techniques. This proposal aims to use the transformative tools and unifying ideas of Mathematics to move the physics of Metamaterials into research areas such as Elasticity, Acoustics, Structural Mechanics and Diffusion where Metamaterials have barely been investigated, but where there will undoubtedly be impact and applications. By working closely with Physicists it will enrich and empower the existing Metamaterials community by bringing sophisticated numerical and theoretical methods to the fore.

Planned Impact

The potential impact of Metamaterials outside Optics is very broad, for instance in cloaking buildings from ground vibration: Menard (a French Civil Engineering company) is constructing trial sites using ideas (based upon work by our visiting Fellow, Guenneau, that draws upon his joint work with two of the proposers) and this UK Mathematics-led science is currently leading to French Engineering impact. All three groupings have a strong track-record of impact. As an exemplar: Craster has had a decade-long collaboration with the RCNDE at Imperial which has led to algorithms being incorporated into DISPERSE (the world's-leading software modelling tool for guided stress waves, licensed by Imperial Consultants) and by Rolls-Royce amongst others and a similar relationship with MoD DSTL.

Our approach to impact will be pro-active: We have deliberately incorporated an industry transfer Fellow into our research team, Professor Ian Jones from Liverpool John Moores University; he is the Director of the Mechanical Engineering and Materials Research Centre and brings invaluable modelling experience from his time in industry with links that he has maintained in academia through contract research and consultancy assignments with UKAEA, AEA Technology, Serco Assurance and AMEC. We will develop these existing strategic partnerships in NDE, using the links of Jones, with the nuclear industry (Rolls Royce and AMEC) where elastic multi-scale media is a key issue. Other members of the research team have contacts with MoD DSTL, BAE Systems, Rolls-Royce and utilising the well established Imperial College Industry Clubs, focused industry workshops will be run. A dedicated website will be created and we will actively engage in EngD and CASE doctorate programmes. Importantly both BAE Systems and MoD DSTL have expressed strong interest in playing an active role in this grant by sitting on the advisory board; MoD DSTL have offered additional support through a funded PhD studentship.

Additionally, research findings will be disseminated widely through journal publications, national and international conference talks, a dedicated website, public engagements and through the focused workshops that we propose to run. The development of strategic international partnerships is also a key element of our approach to impact, we will develop and leverage the existing strong links with the CNRS and CUDOS by funded joint Phd positions (using Phd students leveraged from our institutions) and through visitor exchanges. We will be active in public engagement and outreach activities, the subject of Metamaterials is fascinating and appealing outside academia, and a program of external public lectures, school visits etc will be incorporated into the work programme.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description 1) We have designed, and with collaborators built, metamaterial devices that can be used to redirect vibration and elastic waves around or beneath surface structures. In layman's terms these can be seismic devices to redirect ground vibration. 2) A major and significant contribution to the advancement of metamaterials has been the development of a theoretical and computational framework for atomistic active hyperbolic metamaterials based on graphene and/or hexagonal boron nitride. We've identified the possibility of realising gain in graphene based hyperbolic metamaterials. Moreover, we analysed active gain-enhanced hyperbolic metamaterials and discovered that in the strong coupling regime both emission and absorption lines may cause a distortion of the plasmonic modes due to Rabi splitting and a PT-symmetry broken phase, with generation of exceptional points at loss-gain compensation frequencies.
Exploitation Route They have already been implemented by a geophysics group in France for the METAFORET project, and by a group in Nottingham experimentally.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/plasmonics-metamaterials/research/elastic-seismic/
 
Description Metamaterials and metasurfaces are permeating into industrial applications and further from low TRL work into devices. Our work has led, together of course with work from others, to the KTN setting up a Metamaterials special interest group. Industry interest is growing, our research has, for instance, led to the initiation of seismic materials as a sub-field and there is much activity going in in that field. Similarly active metamaterials using gain have seen advancement as a result of our work. Two patent applications. One granted and the other submitted.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Economic

 
Description EPSRC Centre for New Mathematical Sciences Capabilities in Healthcare Technologies, EP/N014499/1
Amount £2,005,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N014499/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2015 
End 11/2019
 
Description EU Marie-Curie Fellowship for Andrea Colombi
Amount € 184,000 (EUR)
Funding ID 653285 
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 10/2015 
End 10/2017
 
Description French National Research Agency Projet ANR
Amount € 300,000 (EUR)
Organisation National Agency for Research 
Sector Public
Country France
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2019
 
Description Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant
Amount $525,000 (USD)
Organisation Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United States
Start 05/2017 
End 07/2021
 
Description Industry Funding
Amount £49,000 (GBP)
Organisation Multiwave AG 
Sector Private
Country Switzerland
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Leverhulme Trust Research Fellowship
Amount £45,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2019
 
Description Leverhulme Trust Research Grant
Amount £270,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 05/2020
 
Description Marie Curie Fellowship
Amount € 185,000 (EUR)
Funding ID EU project 798475 - METAQUAKENG 
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description Stochastic ultrasonic scattering from the tips of rough cracks
Amount £415,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P01951X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description UK Acoustics Network
Amount £561,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R005001/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 11/2020
 
Description Collaboration with Engineering Department of Liverpool John Moores University 
Organisation Liverpool John Moores University
Department Astrophysics Research Institute
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The work involved a highly productive collaboration with Professor I.S. Jones of Liverpool John Moores University on problems of failure propagation in micro-structured materials, with applications in the design and analysis of new types of metamaterials.
Collaborator Contribution Research collaboration, joint publications.
Impact publications are included in the portfolio
 
Title A 3-dimensional spherical cloak for prolonged delayed diffusion of a therapeutic peptide drug and a small chemical compound used as anti-cancer agents. Antibody structures provide targeted therapy 
Description A metamaterial inspired cloak for diffusion 
IP Reference EP3448406 
Protection Patent granted
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed No
Impact Collaboration & ongoing research /efforts with experiments.
 
Title Seismic defence structures 
Description Seismic defence structures 
IP Reference GB1617808.9 
Protection Patent application published
Year Protection Granted 2016
Licensed Commercial In Confidence
Impact .
 
Description Metamaterials European School - Marseille 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The event on ``Chiral elastic metamaterials and directional localisation'' was delivered at the Metamaterials European School - Modelling of metamaterials:
numerical methods and homogenization techniques held in Marseille, 1-2 September 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://congress2017.metamorphose-vi.org/files/Doctoral_School_final.pdf
 
Description European Acoustic and Mechanical Metamaterials meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A largescale workshop jointly organised with the French CNRS on metamaterials. Industry, ONR, DARPA and many others present and in the end had 120+ participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.imperial.ac.uk/plasmonics-metamaterials/european-workshop/
 
Description Imperial Waves Day 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact An event for industry and Imperial College, mainly, but it also involved external partners and speakers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Industrial engagement (MAKUNET) event at Aalborg (Denmark) on Waves in elastic multi-scale systems: chirality, wave trapping and dynamic anisotropy 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was a productive industrial engagement event in the framework of the international MAKUNET network, in the form of a workshop and research discussions with designers of wind turbines. The date was 16 January 2019. Off-shore wind farms include periodic clusters of wind turbines, with each turbine producing a gyroscopic action leading to vibrations. The combined effect is important and has never been addressed. Industry is very interested to reduce the environmental impact produced by large clusters of wind turbines. The event was attended by around 40 participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.vibroacoustics.m-tech.aau.dk/makunet/seminars/
 
Description Industrial meeting with BAE team (Warton) in February 2018. The meeting was organised and held in Liverpool and attended by BAE staff and researchers from the University of Liverpool 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Techincal meeting between Applied Maths at Liverpool and industrial colleagues at BAE Warton was held in Liverpool in February 2018. It was based on the research of metamaterials modelling and a range of industrial applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description International school on light sciences and technologies (John Pendry) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This school is envisioned to be a worldwide top International forum (every fourth week of June) on Light Sciences and Technologies in the framework of a "special top university" that is recognized as the "university of universities" and in a privileged environment "the Royal Magdalena Palace" in Santander, Cantabria, Spain. Each edition of this international school will have an intensification or main core in a specific application area and additional current hot topics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.teisa.unican.es/ISLiST/
 
Description KTN/ Innovate UK /BIS meeting on Metamaterials 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact KTN/ Innovate UK /BIS meeting on
Metamaterials with representatives from Southampton, Exeter, Queen Mary,
Thales, BAE, QinetiQ, DSTL
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Liverpool Mathematical Society public lecture for School students and general public in Liverpool and Merseyside area, 18 April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was a Liverpool Mathematical Society public lecture for Schools on the topic of ``Wave Cloaking and the Millennium Bridge Problem''. It was also attended by members of the general public, with more than 50 people attending. The lecture generated a lot of interest in the area of wave modelling and in particular suppression of vibrations elongated elastic systems such as the Millennium Bridge.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Organised a RESEARCH DAY ON MODELLING OF METAMATERIALS AND WAVES IN MULTISCALE SYSTEMS - Liverpool, with the keynote lecture by Prof G.W. Milton and a series of presentations from postgraduate students and researchers at Liverpool University and Imperial College London 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The event on the 2nd March 2015 in Liverpool was an exciting engagement activity on modelling of metamaterials which featured a series of interdisciplinary modelling presentations, with the keynote lecture of Prof G.W. Milton
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://fp7.imaps.aber.ac.uk/parm_data/modelling_of_metamaterials.pdf
 
Description Paint Branch Distinguished Lecture (John Pendry) university of Maryland 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Paint Branch Distinguished Lecture in Applied Physics was established and endowed by a generous gift to the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics in 2014 with the intention to bring luminaries in the field of Applied Physics to speak to our community. It is our hope that this lecture will significantly raise the visibility of Applied Physics on our campus and beyond, and will grow to be an annual tradition that is anticipated, celebrated and widely attended.



About The Name

Paint Branch is a 14-mile stream that brings water from small streams and tributaries throughout the region, flowing south through our campus on its way to the Anacostia River. Many of us pass it, by car, bicycle, or on foot each day on our way to and from work. Like the Paint Branch, we anticipate that this new lectureship will serve as a confluence that draws together the many talented and active researchers, faculty and students in Applied Physics in our community, and will remind us of our common goals and principles.



Each year, we will identify and invite a distinguished scientist to visit our campus and address our faculty, students and colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://ireap.umd.edu/paintbranch
 
Description Public lecture, Cambridge society for the aplication of research by Sir John Pendry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public lecture
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Quantum Plasmonics meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact EVENTS
Workshop
Wednesday 24th - Friday 26th August, 2016
Quantum Plasmonics Workshop
Venue: Lecture Room G20, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London
Contact: Ms Hafiza Bibi
Tel: 020 759 47252
Email: tyc-administrator@imperial.ac.uk

The main goal of QUPLA is to initiate a discussion and an exchange of ideas between researchers who model plasmonic systems, but work in different subfields of nanophysics. Specifically, the workshop will focus on light-matter interactions involving small metal nanoparticles and regimes when quantum effects are relevant and give rise to novel phenomena with potential for technological applications and advances in basic science.

QUPLA will bring together scientists from the following exciting fields: plasmonics, many-body physics, electronic structure theory, quantum optics, and nonlinear optics. We will discuss the latest progress, shape future directions and facilitate the formation of a community driven by the shared interests.

The duration of the workshop will be three days. On each day, we will have a number of talks given by leading theorists and experimentalists that will highlights capabilities and achievements as well as shortcomings and challenges of current state-of-the-art approaches. After these talks, we will have extended panel discussions where the presenters will compare approaches, discuss connections to current experiments, seek to identify promising routes to overcome current challenges and answer questions of the audience.

In addition to the official program, the workshop will have ample time for informal discussions during coffee breaks and social dinners.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.thomasyoungcentre.org/events/quantum-plasmonics-workshop/
 
Description Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting "New horizons in nanophotonics" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Royal Society Theo Murphy scientific meeting "New
horizons in nanophotonics"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description School visit, Winstanley College Wigan, June 2017, with the lecture on ``The Millennium Bridge Problem and Wave Cloaking'' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact This was a visit to the 6th form Winstanley College at Wigan on the 22 June 2017, with the lecture on ``The Millennium Bridge Problem and Wave Cloaking''. More than 50 school students and teaches attended the event, and the lecture has attracted a lot of interest in the area of metamaterials modelling and waves.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Third Workshop on Seismic Metamaterials Bologna 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The workshop brought together researchers from several institutions, representing the state of the art in the field of seismic metamaterials, to share and discuss their results with colleagues.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Trento PhD course 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 20 PhD students attended a course on "Metamaterials and seismic risk analysis for structural and mechanical systems", held at the University of Trento (Italy). The lectures were used in particular to spread the recent research achievements of the grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://webmagazine.unitn.it/evento/dicam/41642/metamaterials-and-seismic-risk-analysis-for-structur...
 
Description Trinational research day 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A meeting organised to discuss metamaterials. It involved scientists from the UK, US, Israel and various industry representatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Workshop (ICMS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The aim of this meeting are to keep the UK at the forefront of developments in this rapidly developing field and to enable young researchers to meet and interact with established international experts. The workshop will bring together mathematicians, physicists and engineers to exchange ideas and contrast their different approaches to the theoretical and practical challenges that metamaterials present.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.icms.org.uk/workshop.php?id=384
 
Description academic meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Modelling Metamaterials and waves in Multiscale systems with a guest lecture by Graeme Milton
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description pint of science outreach 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact an outreach event by John Pendry
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018