Lubricating Channel and Tube Flows - Fluid Sheathing using Textured Walls

Lead Research Organisation: Northumbria University
Department Name: Fac of Engineering and Environment

Abstract

It is difficult to imagine a day going by without us benefiting from liquids transported by tubes or pipes. In the morning we turn on the taps in the bathroom to wash. At breakfast we use milk kept fresh in a fridge that uses an intricate network of cooling tubes. To go to work we use cars or buses whose engines rely on fuel pumped from a tank. The fuel itself is often transported in its crude form over vast distances, in pipelines. We do not transport just one type of liquid. It is hardly surprising that resistance to flow is a major industrial cost, and that finding ways to improve the flow rate could lead to increased efficiencies and new applications in a wide range of industries.

When water or other liquids flow down a channel or tube the liquid in the middle equidistant from each wall flows most easily. This is because of the frictional resistance that occurs at the boundary wall. This project uses insights from our research in fluid mechanics and materials science to reduce this resistance and therefore increase flow rate by sheathing the flowing liquid in a recirculating fluid of lower viscosity.

In recent work we showed that when a solid sphere is encased in a gas bubble the motion of the sphere through a liquid is lubricated due to a 'recirculating' flow in the bubble, and this can lead to lower frictional resistance. In a subsequent model, we showed that this idea could apply to the flow of a core liquid through a tube or channel, with a thin sheathing boundary layer having a recirculating flow. This reduces frictional resistance at the boundary and eases the flow of the core liquid (as highlighted by a recent Journal of Fluid Mechanics "Focus on Fluids" article, vol. 736 (2013) pp. 1-4).

In this project we suggest two ways of experimentally implementing flow in channels and tubes with recirculating boundary layer conditions as demonstrated theoretically in the models above. In both cases, we use boundary walls having a solid texture and the ability to self-repair and which should therefore be robust. In the first case, suitable for transport of water (and similar liquids), we use a thin vapour layer initially caused by a hydrophobic textured surface, but which can self-heal if the layer collapses locally. This self-healing can be achieved in two ways: i) by using a localised electrolysis technique to generate and refresh the layer of gas; ii) using instantaneous thin film boiling, also known as the 'Leidenfrost' effect. In the second case, suitable for transport of oils (and similar liquids), we use a thin (immiscible) liquid layer retained in an oleophilic surface texture; by designing the texture as a porous connected space the infused liquid can redistribute to self-heal.

The work of this project is multidisciplinary across fluids, materials science and engineering. A range of materials innovations will be used from lithographically produced structured channels to meshes and wrapped membranes. Channels and tubes will have embedded electrodes and heaters, or be infused with liquids to enable them to self-repair their boundaries. The project will provide the understanding needed to allow future development of novel containment walls to reduce frictional resistance to the flow of liquids. This will provide benefits in a range of industrial and domestic contexts, and may benefit applications we cannot yet imagine, but ones that our industrial partners may have the vision to imagine.

Planned Impact

(1) Knowledge and Techniques
Being able to transport liquids through channels, tubes and pipes using a core flow surrounded by a sheathing fluid, where the sheathing fluid has no net mass flow would establish a new method of fluid transport. This would be different to pure core annular flow, which has been attempted in the pipeline industry, but not widely adopted due to difficulties in restarting flow after interruptions. The techniques of recirculating boundary layer conditions described in this proposal hold the same potential as pure core annular flow for reducing friction. This may reduce the energy required for pumping and thereby increase efficiency. Self-repairing surfaces have generated interest in industrial contexts where having to take systems off-line for repair involves significant start-up costs and delays. Moreover, because the boundaries are essentially fluid (gas or liquid) boundaries, albeit within a surface texture, there is also the potential to suppress, or at least reduce, fouling. More broadly, any knowledge gained about how low friction boundaries can be created in channels or tubes has the potential to be translated into surfaces which move through liquids. There is therefore a potential relevance to the maritime/shipping and allied industries.

(2) Economic Impact (Direct and Indirect User Collaborations)
A key priority for the UK economy is the development of high-value and specialist manufacturing, underpinned by research which is often inherently multidisciplinary and disruptive. Our first industrial collaborator Schlumberger Cambridge Research is an example of a global company based on specialist knowledge with significant interests in oil and other pipelines. Their success, like the UK's, depends on identifying new ideas at an early stage. Our second industrial collaborator is the Reece Innovation Centre, part of Reece Group Ltd (including Pearson Engineering, Responsive Engineering Group and Velocity UK Ltd), and their focus is on developing innovatively engineered products for new markets. The companies in the wider Reece Group have interests in subsea, oil and gas, and defence technologies, all of which have products which depend on efficient pipeline flow. Reece Innovation Centre is based in Newcastle and develops long term engagements with Universities rather than single project collaborations. Our partners' global network of clients and suppliers will be critical to ensure the project has international reach and impact. Both collaborators will bring industrial insight to the project and ensure benefits from any IPR can be quickly identified and exploited. They are also potential partners for future spin-off projects funded directly (under non-disclosure agreements), via the Technology Strategy Board (via KTPs or otherwise) or with other partners in, for example, EU Framework projects. Where there are no concerns relating to IPR/NDAs, we will publicize and disseminate work via presentations at KTN events, publication of research, and presentation at national/international conferences.

(3) People Pipeline and Public Engagement
The training of two multidisciplinary postdoctoral researchers having skills relevant to high value manufacturing will benefit both the individuals and UK industry. The experience gained will include (i) clean-room techniques, (ii) materials methods, (iii) measurement and instrumentation, (iv) microfluidics, (v) heat and mass transfer, and (vi) device design and fabrication. They will receive training in public understanding and engagement, and will be involved in exhibition and outreach work through Nature's Raincoats (http://www.naturesraincoats.com/) from an early stage. This will benefit the individuals and also the wider interests of promoting STEM and STEM careers. A specific benefit will be the creation of a "Kit-in-a-Kase" (a portable schools/outreach demonstrator experiment) based upon the Leidenfrost effect for use with our Natures Raincoats activity.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description In this work we considered methods to create transport of liquids bounded by walls which could sheath the liquid by another fluid (gas/liquid) and so reduce drag.

One approach considered was to use a layer of vapour produced by the Leidenfrost effect. Normally the Leidenfrost effect involves heating the entire surface and this is energetically inefficient. Here we demonstrated that surface integrated microfabricated heaters can be used to produce the Leidenfrost effect. This is more efficient because heating can be produced at different spatial locations as and when needed. This provides the basis for further development of integrated fluid handling lubricated by a vapour layer at a wafer fabrication level. We also demonstrated that the Leidenfrost effect can be generated using more complex surfaces, such as metal meshes, which have the advantage of being flexible and conformable to curved surfaces.

In a complementary approach, we considered the development of surfaces capable of being infused with, and retaining, a lubricant oil. We developed textured surfaces and meshes with hydrophobic coatings which convert them to superhydrophobic. As part of this work we created a large area spray technique for producing a superhydrophobic surface as a coating method potentially relevant to industrial application. We were able to create lubricant infused surfaces using substrates, such as meshes shaped into tubes, and test them for drag reduction properties over a range of flow conditions. For comparison we performed experiments with both superhydrophobic surfaces and the same surfaces after lubricant impregnation. We developed and tested both flexible and conformable surfaces under turbulent flow conditions.

We also found that it was possible to use nanoparticle spray-coated superhydrophobic flexible materials shaped into channels to separate oil-and-water from mixtures during flow.
In summary, the most significant achievements from the award have been the generation of new knowledge related to the:

1. ability to reduce the energy input needed for the Leidenfrost effect and to programmably determine where and when heating occurs;
2. use of meshes to create surfaces for drag reduction which are superhydrophobic/lubricant infused superhydrophobic or which have Leidenfrost properties;
3. creation of flexible and conformable surfaces for possible drag reduction during turbulent flow; and
4. creation of nanoparticle spray-coatings for superhydrophobic flexible materials with oil/water separation capabilities.

The project has shown that it is possible to reduce the resistance to the motion of liquid across a surface by generating a vapour layer through instantaneous thin film boiling and that such an effect can be achieved using micro-engineered electrothermal heating units activated in a programmable manner at specific times and in specific locations. The work has also considered how lubricant impregnated surfaces may reduce friction.
Exploitation Route The research created new knowledge, which provides the basis for future academic work, particularly focused on long term stability of vapour layers. This has been communicated through conferences and journal publications with some of the work summarized within an invited book chapter "Wetting Properties of Surfaces and Drag Reduction".

Progress has been discussed with industrial project partners and invention disclosures filed with the lead University's enterprise office (relating to energy efficient Leidenfrost, a lubricant impregnated surface, a spray coating method for superhydrophobic surfaces and a low friction pipeline inspection gadget) although these did not result in patent applications. Further consideration could be considered within the context of a recent Research England Connecting Capabilities Fund "Northern Accelerator" award for developing proof-of-concept ideas for patents/commercialisation.

The project developed capability within the academic team which can be used in future work. This includes techniques on coatings and the creation of vapour layers which are more generally applicable. The postdoctoral staff developed research and technical skills which can be deployed in their subsequent employment.

Research-based projects developed for School and the teams' Outreach activities can be continued via the group's Natures Raincoats exhibition thereby communicating the research with a wider audience.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Environment,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL http://www.naturesraincoats.com/
 
Description This project has contributed to I) a new concept for energy efficient activation of a Leidenfrost friction reducing effect, and ii) a textbook on how textured surfaces may reduce drag (Chapter 9 "Wetting properties of Surfaces and Drag Reduction" in "Non-Wettable Surfaces: Theory, Preparation and Applications" by Robin H. A. Ras and Abraham Marmur (Royal Society of Chemistry, 25 Nov. 2016, ISBN-10: 1782621547). When a liquid is close to a hot surface where the temperature is significantly hotter than the liquid's boiling point, it produces an insulating vapour layer keeping that liquid from boiling rapidly and this is called the Leidenfrost effect. The temperature above which this occurs is called the Leidenfrost transition point (LTP). In "Leidenfrost transition temperature for stainless steel meshes" (doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2016.04.124) we demonstrated that the Leidenfrost transition point (LTP) for stainless steel can be increased by the use of a mesh rather than smooth surface. The increase in LTP was shown to correlate to the area between the strands of the mesh as would be expected from a simple heat transfer argument. This is important for heat transfer and cooling applications where a film boiling regime is the limitation to the cooling process. In "Low Friction Droplet Transportation on a Substrate with a Selective Leidenfrost Effect" (doi:10.1021/acsami.6b06738) we demonstrated the electroheating actuation of the Leidenfrost effect for three different liquids by applying voltages to heating units which selectively cover a substrate. This approach provided rapidly switchable and highly targeted low friction transportation of a droplet according to the design of the geometry and layout of the heating array on the substrate. By the selective heating of a sample to produce the Leidenfrost effect in a small area where needed rather than using a hot plate to heat the entire surface, the same effect can be achieved but with a much lower energy requirement. In "Low-friction self-centering droplet propulsion and transport using a Leidenfrost herringbone-ratchet structure" (Physical Review Applied, in press) we introduced the concept of negative feedback to enable Leidenfrost levitation and stable low friction droplet transportation along user defined paths. The greater droplet control from using a herringbone-ratchet leads to the ability to manoeuvre droplets around more complex paths and can now provide a viable droplet control mechanism. A superhydrophobic surface is one that is very water repellent which usually has a surface roughness that retains an air layer called a plastron. In "Drag reduction properties of superhydrophobic mesh pipes" (doi:10.1088/2051-672X/aa793b) we demonstrated a flow system which enabled the comparison of smooth glass pipes and glass pipes with an added stainless-steel mesh inner lining, in the turbulent regime. A simple technique was demonstrated for producing superhydrophobic mesh pipes and the friction factors for these were found over the Re range (4000
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Education,Other
Impact Types Economic

 
Description Reece Innovation Ltd 
Organisation Reece Innovation Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Delivery of EP/L026899/1 Lubricating Channel and Tube Flows - Fluid Sheathing using Textured Walls Research Delivery EP/R036837/1 Dynamic Dewetting: Designing and Breaking Novel Morphologies of Liquid Films Research
Collaborator Contribution Materials, test cells and substrates R&D meetings and exploitation advice
Impact Early stages of project
Start Year 2014
 
Description Schlumberger Cambridge Research Ltd 
Organisation Schlumberger Limited
Department Schlumberger Cambridge Research
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution delivery of EP/L026899/1 Lubricating Channel and Tube Flows - Fluid Sheathing using Textured Walls
Collaborator Contribution Review meetings and technical discussions Experimental time on flow test loop
Impact No specific outcome
Start Year 2014
 
Description 2015 Conference - 38th Meeting of the US Adhesion Society (Savannah, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Research Poster - "Lubricating flows by sheathing solid surfaces", McHale et al, 23rd February 2015
Research Talk (Keynote) - "Liquid in fluid dielectrowetting", McHale et al, 24th February 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.adhesionsociety.org/
 
Description 2015 Conference - Droplets 2015 (Twente, Netherlands) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poster - "Leidenfrost generation using non-uniform heat profiles", Geraldi et al, 7th October 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.droplets2015.com/
 
Description 2015 Conference - Nanjing Universities (Nanjing Normal University and Nanjing Institute of Technology) (Nanjing, China) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Research Talks to Undergraduates in China - "Engineering smart liquid surfaces", McHale, 19th and 21st October 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2015 Seminar - Kyushu University (Fukuoka, Japan) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar to undergraduate (and postgraduate) students - "Immersed superhydrophobicity, reconfigurable substrates and shaped liquid surfaces", McHale, 1st June 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2015 Seminar - Mechanical and Chemical Engineering at MIT (Boston, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar at MIT to McKinley, Varanasi and Cohen Groups - "Surface-fluid interactions", McHale, 16th November 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description 2015 Seminar - Physics Department (Durham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Research talk to Condensed Matter Physics at Durham University - "Surface-fluid interactions", McHale, 25th November 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.dur.ac.uk/xrdur/seminars/?seminar=4385
 
Description 2016 Conference - 11th European Fluid Mechanics Conference (EFMC11) (Seville, Spain)  
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2016 Conference - 11th European Fluid Mechanics Conference (EFMC11) (Seville, Spain) 12/09/2016 16/09/2016

Contributed Research Talk - Hydrophobic Conformable Surfaces for the Reduction of Drag
Nicasio R. Geraldi, Joseph C. Brennan, Linzi E. Dodd, Ben Xu, Gary Wells, Robert H. Morris, David J. Fairhurst, David Wood, Michael I. Newton and Glen McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/L026619/1 and EP/G057265/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.efmc11.org/q2/cgi.hrb?idexp=XWQ5B&main=homeen
 
Description 2016 Conference - ASME Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering , Nanochannels, Microchannels and Minichannels, Conference (HTFEICNMM) (Washington DC, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2016 Conference - ASME Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering , Nanochannels, Microchannels and Minichannels, Conference (HTFEICNMM) (Washington DC, USA) 10/06/16 14/06/2016

Contributed Research Talk - Using Micron-Scaled Heating Elements to Demonstrate a Selective Leidenfrost Effect
Linzi E. Dodd, Nicasio Geraldi, Ben Xu, Gary Wells, Simone Stuart-Cole, James Martin, Michael Newton, Glen McHale and David Wood
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, and EP/L026341/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.asme.org/events/htfeicnmm
 
Description 2016 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the East Midlands Big Bang Fair (Derby, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2016 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the East Midlands Big Bang Fair (Derby, UK) 30/06/ 2016

EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1, EP/K015192/1, EP/H000704/1, EP/E063489/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.thebigbangfair.co.uk/
 
Description 2016 Seminar - Materials Engineering Research Institute (MERI) at Sheffield Hallam University (Sheffield, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2016 Seminar - Materials Engineering Research Institute (MERI) at Sheffield Hallam University (Sheffield, UK) 13th June 2016

Surface-Fluid Interactions: From Slip Boundary Conditions to a Leidenfrost (Heat) Engine
Glen McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1, EP/K015192/1, EP/G057265/1, EP/E063489/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2016 Seminar - Process Intensification Group at Newcastle University (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2016 Seminar - Process Intensification Group at Newcastle University (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) 7th October 2016

Liquid Adventures with Smart Surfaces
Glen McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1, EP/K015192/1, EP/G057265/1, EP/E063489/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2016 Seminar - Schlumberger-Gould Research plc (Cambridge, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 2016 Seminar - Schlumberger -Gould Research plc (Cambridge, UK) 5th August 2016

Surface-Fluid Interactions: From Slip Boundary Conditions to a Leidenfrost (Heat) Engine
Glen McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1, EP/K015192/1, EP/G057265/1, EP/E063489/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2017 Conference - 24th Annual CSCST-SCI Conference (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2017 Conference - 24th Annual CSCST-SCI Conference (Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) 23/06/2017 24/06/2017
Contributed Research Talk - Facile method for the production of lubricant Impregnated surfaces on complex geometries
Nicasio Geraldi
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/L026619/1 and EP/G057265/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://cscst.org/Conference2017/
 
Description 2017 Conference - 3rd International Conference on Droplets 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Conference - 3rd International Conference on Droplets (University of California Los Angeles, USA) 24/7/2017 26/7/2017

Contributed Research Talk - Dewetting from a liquid film into a single droplet
Glen McHale, Rodrigo Ledesma-Aguilar, Andrew M. J. Edwards, Michael I. Newton and Carl V. Brown
EP/K014803/1 and EP/K015192/1

Contributed Research Poster - Droplet transportation using a selective Leidenfrost effect
Glen McHale, Ben B. Xu, Nicasio Geraldi, Gary G. Wells, Linzi E. Dodd, David Wood, Simone Stuart-Cole, James Martin and Michael I. Newton
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, and EP/L026341/1

Contributed Research Poster - Electrowetting and dielectrowetting on lubricant impregnated surfaces
Glen McHale, Zuzana Brabcova, Gary G. Wells, Michael I. Newton and Carl V. Brown
EP/K014803/1, EP/K015192/1, EP/E063489/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://droplet2017.seas.ucla.edu/
 
Description 2017 Conference - Bubble and Drop 2017 (Lyon, France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Conference - Bubble & Drop 2017 (Lyon, France) 26/06/2017 30/06/2017
Contributed Research Talk - Electrowetting and dielectrowetting on lubricant impregnated /SLIP surfaces
Zuzana Brabcova, Glen McHale, Gary G. Wells, Carl V. Brown, Michael I. Newton
EP/K014803/1 and EP/K015192/1

Contributed Research Poster - Facile method for the production of lubricant impregnated surfaces on complex geometries
N. R. Geraldi, J. H. Guan, P. Maiello, B. B. Xu, L. E. Dodd, D. Wood, M. I. Newton, G. G. Wells, G. McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, and EP/L026341/1

Contributed Research Talk - Dewetting from a liquid film into a single droplet
Carl V. Brown, Glen McHale, Rodrigo Ledesma-Aguilar, Andrew M. J. Edwards and Michael I. Newton
EP/K014803/1, EP/E063489/1 and EP/E063489/1

Contributed Research Talk - Drop transport and positioning on lubricant impregnated surfaces
Jian Hui Guan, Elfego Ruiz-Gutierrez, Ben Bin Xu, David Wood, Glen McHale, Rodrigo Ledesma-Aguilar, Gary George Wells
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.bd2017-lyon.fr/
 
Description 2017 Conference - Hydrogenius and I2CNER Joint Research Symposium (International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research ( I2CNER), Kyushu University, Japan) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Conference - Hydrogenius and I2CNER Joint Research Symposium (International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research ( I2CNER), Kyushu University, Japan) 03/02/2017

Invited Research Talk - Capillarity, Wetting and Smart Surfaces: "From Droplets to a Sublimation Heat Engine
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1, EP/K015192/1, EP/G057265/1, EP/E063489/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://i2cner.kyushu-u.ac.jp/en/team/team_detail.php?code=4
 
Description 2017 Conference - XXVI International Materials Research Congress (IMRC 2017) (Cancun, Mexico) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Conference - XXVI International Materials Research Congress (IMRC 2017) (Cancun, Mexico) 24/8/2017-8/9/2017

Invited/Keynote Research Talk - Motion and reconfiguration of droplets on lubricant impregnated surfaces
G. McHale, G.G. Wells, B.B. Xu, J.H. Guan, Z. Brabcová, N.R. Geraldi, É. Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Y.Q. Fu, J.T. Luo, M.I. Newton and C.V. Brown
EP/K014803/1 EP/K015192/1, EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, and EP/L026341/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.mrs-mexico.org.mx/imrc2017/
 
Description 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at Science in the Park (Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at Science in the Park (Nottingham, UK)
Event - 2017 Public Understanding - Science in the Park, 2017
What - Natures Raincoat's - High-throughput interactive table-top activity
How many - Estimated 500+ individuals, all ages
Reach - Nottinghamshire
Who - General Public
Date - 18th March, 2017
Description - A family day of science at Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire, attended by individuals of all ages and all levels of knowledge. The activity ran from 09:00 until 15:30 and was constantly busy with engaged members of the public, both young and older. The British Science Association, who ran the event, said that feedback was excellent and all enjoyed the day. We have been invited back this year.
Outcome - Communication of the research and promoting science to younger members of the public
Digital ID - http://nottsbsa.org/science-park-2017/
Assorted EPSRC related to smart surfaces research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://nottsbsa.org/science-park-2017/
 
Description 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the Bluecoat STEM Festival (Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the Bluecoat STEM Festival (Nottingham, UK)
Event - 2017 Public Understanding - Bluecoat STEM Festival, 2017
What - Natures Raincoat's - High-throughput interactive table-top activity
How many - Estimated around 200 individuals, mostly young
Reach - Nottingham
Who - General Public/School Children
Date - 8th July, 2017
Description - A STEM festival at a local Nottinghamshire school attended by young school pupils and their families. The activity ran from 09:00 until 15:30 and was constantly busy with engaged young people. We have been invited back this year.
Outcome - Communication of the research and promoting science to younger members of the public
Digital ID - https://www.facebook.com/events/1719896088312672/
Assorted EPSRC related to smart surfaces research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.facebook.com/events/1719896088312672/
 
Description 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the East Midlands Big Bang Fair (Derby, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the East Midlands Big Bang Fair (Derby, UK) 29/06/ 2017

Assorted EPSRC related to smart surfaces research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://nearme.thebigbangfair.co.uk/regions/
 
Description 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the NTU Global Councillors Conference (Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the NTU Global Councillors Conference (Nottingham, UK)
Event - 2017 Public Understanding - NTU Global Councillors Conference, 2017
What - Natures Raincoat's - 40 minute interactive presentation
How many - 43 international delegates, all adult
Reach - Global (Kenya, China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Nigeria, Sudan, Mauritius, Malawi, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Korea, India, Bangladesh, Jordan, Egypt, Oman)
Who - Supporters/Charitable donors
Date - 29th November, 2017
Description - 43 international delegates attended a 3 day conference, to which Nature's Raincoats was invited to present a 40 minute interactive show on the first day. All members of the audience engaged with the activity, volunteering and answering questions. It was provided that the demonstration was "the star of the show", and was reported to have been talked about until the last day. We have been invited back this year.
Outcome - Communication of the research and raising of contributing establishments profile globally.
Assorted EPSRC related to smart surfaces research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the North East Big Bang Fair (Newcastle, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the North East Big Bang Fair (Newcastle, UK) 14/07/ 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://nearme.thebigbangfair.co.uk/regions/
 
Description 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the St Paul's Church Fete (Nottingham, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the St Paul's Church Fete (Nottingham, UK)
Event - 2017 Public Understanding - St Paul's Church Fete, 2017
What - Natures Raincoat's - High-throughput interactive table-top activity
How many - Estimated 150 individuals, all ages
Reach - Nottingham
Who - General Public
Date - 15th July, 2017
Description - A well-attended church fete, from 14:00 to 16:00 in a collaboration with the Institute of Physics, East Midlands Branch, which was well received and well engaged. Indicators suggest that about 150 members of the public directly engaged with the Nature's Raincoats stand, which was alongside an IoP stand. All visitors were vocally impressed by the activity.
Outcome - Communication of the research and promotion of science among the wider community.
Assorted EPSRC related to smart surfaces research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2017 Seminar - Department of Civil Engineering at University of Hong Kong (University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2016 Seminar - Department of Civil Engineering at University of Hong Kong (University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong) 09/01/2017

Liquid Adventures with Smart Surfaces: "From Extreme Water Repellency to Drag Reduction and Slippery Surfaces"
Glen McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/H000704/1, EP/G057265/1, EP/E063489/1, EP/D500826/1, EP/C509161/1, GR/R02184/01
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description 2017 Seminar - Department of Mechanical Engineering at City University Hong Kong  
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2017 Seminar - Department of Mechanical Engineering at City University Hong Kong (City University, Hong Kong) 11/01/2017

Liquid Adventures with Smart Surfaces: "From Slip Boundary Conditions to a Leidenfrost (Heat) Engine"
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1, EP/K015192/1, EP/G057265/1, EP/E063489/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description 2017 Seminar - Department of Mechanical Engineering at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2017 Seminar - Department of Mechanical Engineering at Colorado State University (Fort Collins, USA) 11th August 2017

2017 Seminar - From Superhydrophobic to Super-Slippery Surfaces
Glen McHale

Survey of wide range of EPSRC work
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.physics.colostate.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2017/08/McHaleSeminar_Flyer.pdf
 
Description 2017 Seminar - Huntsman (Brussels, Belgium) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 2017 Seminar - Huntsman (Brussels, Belgium) 22nd September 2017
2017 Seminar - Wetting, Dewetting and Slippery Surfaces
Glen McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1 and EP/K015192/1 and previous electrowetting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.huntsman.com/polyurethanes/a/Locations/Europe%20%20Middle%20East%20%20Africa%20%20%20Indi...
 
Description 2017 Workshop - UK Fluids Network, Drop Dynamics Special Interest Group (Oxford University, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact UK Fluids Network, Drop Dynamics Special Interest Group (Oxford University, UK) 3/4/2017

Contributed Research Talk - Smart and Bio-Inspired Surfaces
Drag plus EP/K014803/1 EP/K015192/1, EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, and EP/L026341/1
Glen McHale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://fluids.ac.uk/
 
Description 2017 Workshop - UK Fluids Network, Droplet and Flow Interactions with Bio-Inspired and Smart Surfaces Special Interest Group (Northumbria University, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2017 Workshop - UK Fluids Network, Droplet and Flow Interactions with Bio-Inspired and Smart Surfaces Special Interest Group (Northumbria University, UK) 12/4/2017

Contributed Research Talk - Droplet and Flow Interactions with Bio-Inspired and Smart Surfaces
Glen McHale
EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1 and EP/K015192/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://fluids.ac.uk/
 
Description 2018 - 42nd Annual Meeting of the US Adhesion Society (Hilton Head, USA) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Contributed Research Talk - Manipulating Droplets on Slippery Lubricant Impregnated Surfaces 18/2/19
G. McHale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description 2018 Institute of Physics NE Branch Public Understanding Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2018 Institute of Physics NE Branch Public Understanding Talk

Nature's Raincoats - Surface Inspiration from Lotus Leaves to Pitcher Plants (Northumbria University, UK) 26/10/18

Glen McHale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2018 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the East Midlands Big Bang Fair (Derby, UK) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2018 Public Understanding - "Nature's Raincoats" at the East Midlands Big Bang Fair (Derby, UK) 28/06/ 2018
Physical exhibition with demonstrations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2018 SWS - Superhydrophobicity and Wetting Symposium (Aalto University, Finland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Contributed Research Poster - Leidenfrost Transport Using Selective Heating 17/5/18
Glen McHale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://msw2018.aalto.fi/static/
 
Description 2018 Seminar - Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of Bath (UK) 27th November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2018 Seminar - Smart Super-Slippery Surfaces
Glen McHale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2018 Seminar - Department of Mechanical Engineering at University of Glasgow (UK) 9th March 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2018 Seminar - From Superhydrophobic to Super-Slippery Surfaces
Glen McHale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2018 Seminar - Oxford Centre for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Oxford University) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact 2018 Seminar - Oxford Centre for Industrial & Applied Mathematics (Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Oxford University) 22nd February 2018

2018 Seminar - Smart Slippery Surfaces
Glen McHale
Superhydrophobicity, Liquid Marbles, New Leidenfrost Engine and EP/L026899/1, EP/L026619/1, EP/L026341/1, EP/K014803/1 and EP/K015192/1
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/node/26965
 
Description 2019 Seminar - Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials at University of Minnesota (Minneapolis, USA) 15th February 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 2019 Seminar - From Superhydrophobic to Super-Slippery Surfaces
Glen McHale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Public Engagement Materials ("Think Physics") 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Two undergraduate summer projects (Caitlin Pugh and Imogen Foote) working with the HEFCE Catalyst Funded "Think Physics" STEM Outreach project at Northumbria University. Four presentations for Schools were developed based on the underlying principles of two current EPSRC funded research projects:

KS2: Surface Tension (Bubble Template)
KS2: Surface Tension (Think Physics Template)
KS3: Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and surface tension
KS4: Bubble architectures

Experiments for Schools were also developed:

Antibubble
Equal and unequal forces experiment
The bubble experiment
The pepper experiment
Why are bubbles spherical?
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://thinkphysics.org