Temperature and Alkali Stable Polymer Electrolytes for Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Alkaline Electrolysers

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: Chemistry

Abstract

The project aims to develop innovative polymer electrolyte based electrolysers with lower life cycle costs (achieved by enhanced efficiency) utilising enhanced materials and components. This proposal is based on adopting alkaline anion-exchange membrane (AEM) and ionomer (AEI) technology to open up the opportunity for low cost electrolysers systems with: i) low cost polymer electrolytes, catalysts (sustainable i.e. non-Pt), and bipolar plate materials; ii) higher energy efficiency; iii) durable long life operation; and iv) flexibility to respond to dynamic load operation. We target electrolysers involving hydrogen production from water electrolysis and involving carbon dioxide reduction for low overpotential (high value) organic chemical synthesis. A major aim is to produce the next generation of AAEMs and AEIs that can be supplied to (current and future) project partners in bulk quantities (including AEIs in a solubilised form).

Hydrogen is an excellent storage medium for renewable and sustainable energy systems. Hydrogen has several advantages as an energy carrier including highly efficient reversible conversion between hydrogen and electricity, good gravimetric energy density of compressed gas compared to most batteries and scalability of hydrogen technologies for grid scale applications. Water electrolysis is a safe option for production of pure hydrogen at point of use as it does not require substantial storage requirements.
Currently, the cost of hydrogen produced by electrolysis is greater than that of other methods such as steam reforming. Two major reasons for this is the capital cost of the cells and the electrical energy consumption. Commercial hydrogen production by water electrolysis is based on one of two technologies: aqueous alkaline (potassium hydroxide) electrolytes and proton exchange membrane electrolytes. Alkaline cells use lower cost electrode materials than acid polymer systems but current densities (and efficiency) are typically lower. The capital cost of proton exchange membrane electrolysers is higher (largely dictated by the high material costs of membranes [perfluorinated polymers] and precious metal [Pt, Ir, Ru] based catalysts) but their production rates (per unit electrode area) are higher based on the higher current densities. We thus seek to transform the latter technology by combing the advantages of alkaline and polymer electrolytes using low cost materials with the aim of improving energy efficiencies. Realistically there is a minimum energy consumption that can be achieved by electrolysis (based on thermodynamic potentials and voltage losses in the cell) and thus we set our target at a voltage of 1.75 V at 1 A cm-2 (based on geometric electrode area).
To maximise the potential impact of the materials being developed, carbon dioxide reducing electrolysers will also be studied (involving the field of carbon dioxide utilisation). The reduction of carbon dioxide into useful chemicals is of great potential value from a sustainability, environmental and societal context. Such syntheses require a significant energy use and thus using renewable electrical energy in such applications could play a major part in their development. Consequently we seek to develop electrochemical technology whereby we synthesis small molecules (formate, synthesis gas, and/or methanol) based on anion exchange membrane electrolyser materials and architectures (including the involvement of carbonate anion conducting electrolytes - which inherently yield higher chemical stabilities compared to hydroxide conducting analogues).
The project aims to deliver a step change in uptake of ultra-low carbon, green-hydrogen production and carbon dioxide reduction systems. This will be based upon the application of the applicants previous technology breakthroughs of alkaline polymer electrolyte materials and non-precious metal catalyst for galvanic and electrolytic electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description Identified key new head-group chemistries (piperidinium, pyrrolidinium and a C4-spacer type) for alkali stable anion-exchange membranes and ionomers for use in alkaline membrane fuel cells and alkaline membrane alkaline water electrolysers.

Identified that non-commercially-available 3-isomer of vinylbenzyl chloride produces more alkali stable anion-exchange membranes than the commercially available 4- and mixed-3/4-isomers.
Exploitation Route Key findings are being used in EPSRC project EP/M014371/1 Fuel Cell Technologies for an Ammonia Economy as well as in a collaboration with AFC Energy plc. (who are looking into incorporating Surrey's anion-exchange membranes and ionomers into their own commercial systems).

Key findings have led to new ideas on improving the chemical stabilities of anion-exchange membranes and ionomers: these are forming the basis of a new EPSRC grant proposal to be submitted in Early 2019 (with Newcastle University and AFC Energy LoS) as well as 3 bids to EU (H2020 and Fuel Cell and Hydrogen JU) programmes in 2019.
Sectors Energy,Environment

 
Description Multiple new international collaborations started (USA, EU, China, Brazil). Materials and knowledge now being used by AFC Energy for possible future production of a UK-based anion-exchange membrane fuel cell system for stationary back-up power applications. This is potential future economic impact.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Energy,Environment
Impact Types Cultural

 
Description Design and Regulation of Anion Exchange Membranes for Alkaline Polyelectrolyte Fuel Cells (collaboration with USTC Hefei)
Amount ¥2,430,000 (CNY)
Funding ID 21720102003 
Organisation National Natural Science Foundation of China 
Sector Public
Country China
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2022
 
Description HAPEEL: collaboration with SINTEF (Trondheim)
Amount kr 10,427,000 (NOK)
Funding ID 268019 
Organisation Research Council of Norway 
Sector Public
Country Norway
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description High Spec Raman Spectrometer Regional Facility (Equipment Business Case)
Amount £350,780 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/M022749/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2015 
End 08/2018
 
Description ISIS BeamTime Application - RB1620449 (SANS2D 1 day)
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RB1620449 
Organisation Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2017 
End 02/2017
 
Description Muon Level Crossing Resonance Studies of Anion-exchange Membranes under Different Humidities
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RB1520483 
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Department ISIS Neutron and Muon Source
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2015 
End 10/2015
 
Description Prof Mustain Fulbright Scholarship
Amount $12,000 (USD)
Funding ID Prof William Mustain Scholarship 
Organisation US-UK Fulbright Commission 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2016 
End 08/2016
 
Description RAEng Distinguishing Visiting Fellowship (Round 5)
Amount £4,495 (GBP)
Funding ID Prof Mohamed Nasef DVF 
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 10/2016
 
Description REDAEM: Anion-Exchange Membranes for Reverse Electrodialysis
Amount £779,015 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R044163/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 09/2021
 
Description Ana-Laura Biancolli (FAPESP) 
Organisation University of Sao Paulo
Department Institute of Chemistry
Country Brazil 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosted Ana-Laura Biancolli as a visiting research student (PhD) at Surrey (Department of Chemistry).
Collaborator Contribution FAPESP provided the funds to allow the visit.
Impact Paper published: A. L. Gonçalves Biancolli, D. Herranz, L. Wang, G. Stehlikova, R. Bance-Soualhi, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, P. Ocon, E. A. Ticianelli, D. K. Whelligan, J. R. Varcoe, E. I. Santiago, "ETFE-based anion-exchange membrane ionomer powders for alkaline membrane fuel cells: a first performance comparison of head-group chemistry", J. Mater. Chem. A, 6, 24330 (2018).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration iwith STFC (ISIS) 
Organisation STFC Laboratories
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of membranes for testing on ISIS SANS and Muon facilities
Collaborator Contribution Experimental design, membrane testing and results analysis.
Impact SANS and Muon data to date (results being analysed).
Start Year 2015
 
Description Collaboration with AFC Energy 
Organisation AFC Energy Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supply of anion-exchange membranes and ionomers to AFC Energy
Collaborator Contribution Testing of Surrey materials in AFC Energy small alkaline fuel cell test set-ups.
Impact AFC Energy and Surrey have signed a non-exclusive agreement. Two Innovate UK applications submitted (2017 and 2018): Both unsuccessful so a consultancy agreement is currently being discussed and planned to move things forward. AFC Energy employed a the PDRA from grant EP/M005933/1 in Jan 2018. She is helping AFC Energy take Surrey's current AEM technologies forward and trying to integrate into their systems for a future commercialisation opportunity. AFC to provide letter of support for an EPSRC proposal that will be submitted in early 2019.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with ICCOM at CNR (Italy) 
Organisation National Research Council
Country Italy 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supplied anion-exchange membranes and ionomer powders to ICCOM
Collaborator Contribution Supply of anode and cathode catalysts (developed at ICCOM) to test in Surrey Alkali Membrane Fuel Cells
Impact Led to a Royal Society - CNR International Exchange programme grant award in Jan 2018 (grant IES\R3\170134). Joint papers published: L. Wang, M. Bellini, H. A. Miller, J. R. Varcoe, "A high conductivity ultrathin anion-exchange membrane with 500+ h alkali stability for use in alkaline membrane fuel cells that can achieve 2 W per square cm at 80 degC", J. Mater. Chem. A, 6, 15404 (2018). More papers submitted and planned for 2019-2020. Research exchanges completed in 2018 and more planned for 2019.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Dekel (Technion) 
Organisation Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Department The Wolfson Department of Chemical Engineering
Country Israel 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of anion-exchange membranes and ionomer powders to Technion.
Collaborator Contribution Testing of Surrey materials in Technion systems (including humidity controlled degradation set-up).
Impact Joint paper published: Y. Zheng, U. Ash, R. P. Pandey, A. G. Ozioko, J. Ponce-González, M. Handl, T. Weissbach, J. R. Varcoe, S. Holdcroft, M. W. Liberatore, R. Hiesgen, D. R. Dekel, "Water Uptake Study of Anion Exchange Membranes", Macromolecules, 51, 3264 (2018). More joint papers planned.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Prof Nasef (UTM) 
Organisation University of Technology, Malaysia
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Scientific discussion on Radiation-grafted. Testing of UTM materials in Surrey's fuel cells and Raman Instrument. Hosted Prof Nasef at Surrey (see outputs)
Collaborator Contribution Discussion of Surrey results and input into a paper on Surrey's materials.
Impact L. Wang, E. Magliocca, E. L. Cunningham, W. E. Mustain, S. D. Poynton, R. Escudero-Cid, M. M. Nasef, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, R. Bance-Souahli, R. C. T. Slade, D. K. Whelligan, J. R. Varcoe, "An optimised synthesis of high performance radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes", Green Chem., 19, 831-843 (2017). Prof Nasef being awarded a RAEng Distinguished Visting Fellowship in May 2016 for his 1 month research visit to Surrey in Aug 2016.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaboration with Swansea University 
Organisation Swansea University
Department College of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of Surrey anion-exchange polymer electrolyte powders to Dr Paolo Bertoncello's group.
Collaborator Contribution Testing Surrey's ionomer powders in electrochemical sensor applications.
Impact None to date. A possible joint grant is envisaged if initial results look promising.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaboration with Universidad Autónoma de Madrid  
Organisation Autonomous University of Madrid
Department Department of Applied Physical Chemistry
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Hosted UAM students and postdocs for joint reserch projects at Surrey.
Collaborator Contribution Paid for some of the costs for student and postdoc visits to Surrey.
Impact A. L. Gonçalves Biancolli, D. Herranz, L. Wang, G. Stehlikova, R. Bance-Soualhi, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, P. Ocon, E. A. Ticianelli, D. K. Whelligan, J. R. Varcoe, E. I. Santiago, "ETFE-based anion-exchange membrane ionomer powders for alkaline membrane fuel cells: a first performance comparison of head-group chemistry", J. Mater. Chem. A, 6, 24330 (2018). L. Wang, E. Magliocca, E. L. Cunningham, W. E. Mustain, S. D. Poynton, R. Escudero-Cid, M. M. Nasef, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, R. Bance-Souahli, R. C. T. Slade, D. K. Whelligan, J. R. Varcoe, "An optimised synthesis of high performance radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes", Green Chem., 19, 831-843 (2017). S. D. Poynton, R. C. T. Slade, T. Omasta, W. E. Mustain, R. Escudero Cid, P. Ocón, J. R. Varcoe, "Preparation of radiation-grafted powders for use as anion exchange ionomers in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells", J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 5124 (2014).
Start Year 2014
 
Description Collaboration with Wuhan University 
Organisation Wuhan University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supplied polymer electrolyte membranes and powders to Wuhan University for testing in their fuel cell systems with their ionomers.
Collaborator Contribution Testing Surrey membranes in their alkaline fuel cell systems. Obtained Chinese funding to allow John Varcoe (Fellow) to visit Wuhan in 2015.
Impact J. Ponce-Gonzalez, D. K. Whelligan, L. Wang, R. Bance-Soualhi, Y. Wang, Y. Peng, H. Peng, D. C. Apperley, H. N. Sarode, T. P. Pandey, A. G. Divekar, S. Seifert, A. M. Herring, L. Zhuang, J. R. Varcoe, "High performance aliphatic-heterocyclic benzyl-quaternary ammonium radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes", Energy Environ. Sci., 9, 3724 (2016). J. R. Varcoe, P. Atanassov, D. R. Dekel, A. M. Herring, M. A. Hickner, P. A. Kohl, A. R. Kucernak, W. E. Mustain, K. Nijmeijer, K. Scott, T. Xu, L. Zhuang, "Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems", Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 3135 (2014).
Start Year 2013
 
Description Colloboration with Colorado School of Mines (Golden, CO, USA) 
Organisation Colorado School of Mines
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Membrane supply and CSM conducting experiments on membranes
Collaborator Contribution Extensive specialist testing of Surrey membranes and ionomers (DSC, dielectric, IR microscopy, SAXS, specialist NMR)
Impact Joint papers: J. Ponce-Gonzalez, D. K. Whelligan, L. Wang, R. Bance-Soualhi, Y. Wang, Y. Peng, H. Peng, D. C. Apperley, H. N. Sarode, T. P. Pandey, A. G. Divekar, S. Seifert, A. M. Herring, L. Zhuang, J. R. Varcoe, "High performance aliphatic-heterocyclic benzyl-quaternary ammonium radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes", Energy Environ. Sci., 9, 3724 (2016). M. A. Vandiver, B. R. Caire, J. R. Carver, K. Waldrop, M. R. Hibbs, J. R. Varcoe, A. M. Herring, M. W. Liberatore, "Mechanical characterization of anion exchange membranes by extensional rheology under controlled hydration", J. Electrochem. Soc., 161, H677 (2014). J. R. Varcoe, P. Atanassov, D. R. Dekel, A. M. Herring, M. A. Hickner, P. A. Kohl, A. R. Kucernak, W. E. Mustain, K. Nijmeijer, K. Scott, T. Xu, L. Zhuang, "Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems", Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 3135 (2014). T. P. Pandey, A. M. Maes, H. N. Sarode, B. D Peters, S. Lavinia, Ki Vezzu, Y. Yang, S. Poynton, J. R. Varcoe, S. Seifert, M. Liberatore, V. Di Noto, A. Herring, "Interplay between water uptake, ion interactions, and conductivity in an e-beam grafted poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) anion exchange membrane", Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 17, 4367 (2015).
Start Year 2011
 
Description Elisabete Santiago FAPESP 
Organisation Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (IPEN)
Country Brazil 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Hosted Dr Elisabete Santiago as visiting postdoc for 1 year research visit at Surrey (Department of Chemistry)
Collaborator Contribution FAPESP provided the funds to allow the research visit.
Impact Paper published: A. L. Gonçalves Biancolli, D. Herranz, L. Wang, G. Stehlikova, R. Bance-Soualhi, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, P. Ocon, E. A. Ticianelli, D. K. Whelligan, J. R. Varcoe, E. I. Santiago, "ETFE-based anion-exchange membrane ionomer powders for alkaline membrane fuel cells: a first performance comparison of head-group chemistry", J. Mater. Chem. A, 6, 24330 (2018).
Start Year 2016
 
Description Exploratory discussions between Apple Inc (USA) and University of Surrey 
Organisation Apple
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution NDA signed between Apple and Surrey. MTA now being discussed so Apple can evaluate Surrey Anion-Exchange Membrane technologies in a confidential system.
Collaborator Contribution Apple paid for a trip by Prof John Varcoe (via consultancy agreement) to visit them to present their openly available results to date and to discuss further steps.
Impact None
Start Year 2018
 
Description NREL collaboration 
Organisation U.S. Department of Energy
Department National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of anion-exchange membranes and ionomers powders.
Collaborator Contribution NREL is conducting some performance and durability testing on Surrey materials.
Impact John Varcoe visit to NREL April 2019. Joint paper being planned.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Parajito Powder 
Organisation Pajarito Powder, LLC
PI Contribution Supply of anion-exchange polymer electrolytes.
Collaborator Contribution Testing of Surrey materials in electrochemical systems like alkaline electrolysers.
Impact None to date but joint papers planned.
Start Year 2017
 
Description SINTEF 
Organisation SINTEF
Country Norway 
Sector Multiple 
PI Contribution Letter of support written for SINTEFs grant application. Surrey is currently testing SINTEF catalysts in their anion-exchange membrane fuel cells.
Collaborator Contribution SINTEF to apply for a grant to Norwegian Research Council for a joint project on anion-exchange membranes for hydrogen electrolysers.
Impact Grant application submitted and funded. The award includes funds for travel and testing of Surrey's anion-exchange polymer electrolytes in SINTEF electrolyser systems.
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Surrey - University of Connecticut (USA) 
Organisation University of Connecticut
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Development of low temperature carbonate fuel cells containing anion-exchange membranes. Materials exchange; Planned future researcher exchange; Testing UConn catalysts in Surrey fuel cell systems
Collaborator Contribution Testing of Surrey materials in fuel cells and electrochemical devices for the electroreduction of carbon dioxide.
Impact Prof Mustain (lead collaborator at the University of Connecticut) has been awarded a Fulbright Scholarship and will be working at Surrey for 4 months in 2016. L. Wang, E. Magliocca, E. L. Cunningham, W. E. Mustain, S. D. Poynton, R. Escudero-Cid, M. M. Nasef, J. Ponce-Gonzalez, R. Bance-Souahli, R. C. T. Slade, D. K. Whelligan, J. R. Varcoe, "An optimised synthesis of high performance radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes", Green Chem., 19, 831-843 (2017). J. R. Varcoe, P. Atanassov, D. R. Dekel, A. M. Herring, M. A. Hickner, P. A. Kohl, A. R. Kucernak, W. E. Mustain, K. Nijmeijer, K. Scott, T. Xu, L. Zhuang, "Anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical energy systems", Energy Environ. Sci., 7, 3135 (2014).
Start Year 2011
 
Description University of Surrey - University of Science and Technology of China (Hefei, PR China) 
Organisation University of Science and Technology of China USTC
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Developing new membrane chemistries for alkaline anion-exchange membrane fuel cells. Exchange of materials. Testing of USTC Hefei membranes in Surrey Fuel Cell Test Stations
Collaborator Contribution Supply of USTC Hefei membranes to test in Surrey Fuel Cell Test Stations
Impact NSFC joint grant awarded (NSFC grant 21720102003). Joint papers published: L. Wu, Q. Pan, J. R. Varcoe, D. Zhou, J. Ran, Z. Yang, T. Xu, "Thermal Crosslinking of an Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane Bearing Unsaturated Side Chains", J. Membr. Sci., 490, 1 (2015). Y. Zhu, L. Ding, X. Liang, M. A. Shehzad, L. Wang, X. Ge, Y. He, L. Wu, J. R. Varcoe, T. Xu, "Beneficial use of rotatable-spacer side-chains in alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells" Energy Environ. Sci., 11, 3472 (2018). X. Lin, X. Liang, S. D. Poynton, J. R. Varcoe, A. Ong, J. Ran, Y. Li, Q. Li, T. Xu, "Alkaline anion exchange membranes containing pendant benzimidazolium groups for alkaline fuel cells", J. Membr. Sci., 443, 193 (2013). X. Lin, J. R. Varcoe, S. D. Poynton, X. Liang, A. Ong, J. Ran, Y. Li, T. Xu, "Alkaline polymer electrolytes containing pendant dimethylimidazolium groups for alkaline membrane fuel cells", J. Mater. Chem. A, 1, 7262 (2013). X. Lin, Y. Liu, S. D. Poynton, A. Ong, J. R. Varcoe, L. Wu, Y. Li, X. Liang, Q. Li, T. Xu, "Cross-linked anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells synthesized using a solvent free strategy", J. Power Sources, 233, 259 (2013). Z. Zhang, L. Wu, J. Varcoe, C. Li, A. Ong, S. Poynton, T. Xu, "Aromatic polyelectrolytes via polyacylation of pre-quaternized monomers for alkaline fuel cells.", J. Mater. Chem. A, 1, 2595 (2013). X. Lin, L. Wu, Y. Liu, A. L. Ong, S. D. Poynton, J. R. Varcoe, T. Xu, "Alkali resistant and conductive guanidinium-based anion-exchange membranes for alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells", J. Power Sources, 217, 373 (2012). J. Ran, L. Wu, J. R. Varcoe, A. L. Ong, S. D. Poynton, T. Xu, "Development of imidazolium-type alkaline anion exchange membranes for fuel cell application", J. Membr. Sci., 415-416, 242 (2012). Y. Wu, C. Wu, J. R. Varcoe, S. D. Poynton, T. Xu, Y. Fu, "Novel silica/poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) hybrid anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells: effect of silica content and the single cell performance", J. Power Sources, 195, 3069 (2010).
Start Year 2010
 
Description University of Surrey - University of South Carolina (USA) 
Organisation University of South Carolina
Department Department of Physics and Astronomy
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Surrey has supplied anion-exchange membranes and powder ionomers for Prof William Mustain's group at USC to evaluate performance and durability in alkaline membarne fuel cells.
Collaborator Contribution Produced durability data that cannot be done at Surrey.
Impact Several joint papers have been produced and several more planned for 2019/2020: Published to date: X. Peng, T. J. Omasta, E. Magliocca, L. Wang, J. R. Varcoe, W. E. Mustain, "Ndoped Carbon CoOx Nanohybrids: The First Precious Metal Free Cathode to Achieve 1.0 W/cm2 Peak Power and 100 h Life in AnionExchange Membrane Fuel Cells" Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed., 58, 1046 (2019). T. J. Omasta, A. M. Park, J. M. LaManna, Y. Zhang, X. Peng, L. Wang, D. L. Jacobson, J. R. Varcoe, D. S. Hussey, B. S. Pivovar, W. E. Mustain, "Beyond Catalysis and Membranes: Visualizing and Solving the Challenge of Electrode Water Accumulation and Flooding in AEMFCs", Energy Environ. Sci., 11, 551 (2018). T. J. Omasta, L. Wang, X. Peng, C. A. Lewis, J. R. Varcoe, W. E. Mustain, "Importance of balancing membrane and electrode water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells", J. Power Sources, 375, 205 (2018). Travis J. Omasta, Yufeng Zhang, Andrew M. Park, Xiong Peng, Bryan Pivovar, John R. Varcoe,4 and William E. Mustain, "Strategies for Reducing the PGM Loading in High Power AEMFC Anodes", Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165, F710 (2018). Travis J. Omasta, Xiong Peng, Hamish A. Miller, Francesco Vizza, Lianqin Wang, John R. Varcoe, Dario R. Dekel, and William E. Mustain, "Beyond 1.0Wcm-2 Performance without Platinum: The Beginning of a New Era in Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells", Journal of Electrochemical Society, 165, J3039 (2018). Submitted: Lianqin Wang, Xiong Peng, William .E. Mustain, and John R. Varcoe, "Radiation-grafted anion-exchange membranes: the switch from low- to high-density polyethylene leads to remarkably enhanced fuel cell performance": submitted to Energy & Environmental Science in Jan 2019.
Start Year 2017
 
Description A talk to the sixth form of the Oratory School (Reading) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A talk on "Chemistry's role in future clean energy technologies".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Departmental Colloquia at UClan (Jan 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on the use of anion-exchange membranes in electrochemical devices.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Guildford College Talk (June 2016) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Discussion on what studying Chemistry is like at University as well as discussing various forms of electrochemical clean energy technologies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Latest developments in radiation-grafted anion-exchange polymer electrolytes for application in alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (CARISMA 2014, Cape Town) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talked sparked Q&A.

This talk let to the discussions that led to the work on Muons and SANS (at ISIS, RAL, UK).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2014
URL http://www.carisma2014.com/
 
Description Radiation-Grafted Anion-Exchange Polymer Electrolytes for Clean Energy Applications (Invited Lecture - Electrochemical Society Meeting Glasgow July 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked Q&A.

Increased international awareness of current EPSRC programmes: EP/M014371/1 Fuel Cell Technologies for an Ammonia Economy, EP/M005933/1 Temperature and Alkali Stable Polymer Electrolytes for Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Alkaline Electrolysers, and EP/M022749/1 High Spec Raman Spectrometer Regional Facility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.electrochem.org/meetings/satellite/glasgow/speakers/
 
Description Radiation-grafted anion exchange membranes for alkaline water electrolysers (Postdoc Julia Ponce Poster, RSC Recent Appointments in Materials Science Meeting Warwick Sept 2015) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation poster presentation
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster stimulated Q&A

Training for postdoc and increasing her awareness of other materials science in the UK outside of her field.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://rams2015.org/
 
Description Radiation-grafted polymer electrolyte materials for electrochemical energy technologies (18th Chinese Electrochemical Society Meeting) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation paper presentation
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked questions.

Possible UK-China joint applications to the Royal Society International Exchange Scheme.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Radiation-grafted polymer electrolytes for electrochemical energy technologies (Invited Talk - 7th International Fuel Cell Workshop, Kofu Japan) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Type Of Presentation keynote/invited speaker
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk sparked Q&A.

Nothing to date.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://fc-nano.yamanashi.ac.jp/english/ifcw/index2015.html