Multi-objective performance-based design of tall buildings using energy harvesting enabled tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) devices

Lead Research Organisation: City University London
Department Name: Sch of Engineering and Mathematical Sci

Abstract

This project focuses on wind and/or earthquake excited buildings whose oscillatory motion is controlled via, the commonly used, tuned-mass-damper (TMD): an additional free-to-vibrate mass mounted to the top of buildings via springs and viscous dampers. TMDs are optimally designed (tuned) such that kinetic energy is transferred from the building ("primary structure") to the TMD mass and dissipated by dampers. In general, larger TMD mass achieves better vibration suppression, but this is limited by architectural and structural (weight) constraints. Control of wind induced vibrations require TMD mass of 1%-5% of total building mass and this ratio can reach up to 15-20% or more for severe earthquake excitations.

The project:
-exploits the mass amplification effect of flywheel-based mass amplification devices (MADs) to achieve different apparent mass for the TMD+MAD configuration without changing the TMD weight;
-explores the potential of energy harvesting from wind-induced building vibrations by containing the MAD's flywheel within a magnetic field such that rotational kinetic energy is transformed into electric energy;
-establishes a "pro-active" control paradigm within a multi-objective performance-based structural design framework: the apparent mass of the TMD+MAD changes through gearing according to pre-set "optimally" tuned values for different objectives such as optimal vibration suppression at serviceability state for user comfort- "medium" apparent mass; maximization of energy harvesting during off-hours in office buildings- "low" apparent mass; minimisation of potential for structural damage at ultimate state {extreme wind fronts/downbursts or earthquakes}- "large" apparent mass). These changes can be "programmable" and informed by weather forecast and/or by early warning earthquake systems achieving "smart"/adaptive, energy efficient and resilient structures.

The proposed research idea is potentially transformative because it:
1)will allow for ever-more slender, taller, cost-effective, and aesthetically pleasing tall buildings in congested urban environments (e.g., London, Tokyo, NY, etc. where land use optimisation is essential) through the ability to control wind-induced (and/or earthquake) oscillations by more lightweight TMDs compared to the ones used today. These buildings will also be safer in more aggressive climate environments and with lower CO2 footprint through effective energy harvesting from large amplitude oscillations.
2)will change the "purpose" and functionality of building structures. Through the pro-active control framework, an office building can be designed to ensure absolute comfort to occupants during work hours even under future ever extreme climate change-induced winds for which
it has not been initially been built for. During off-hours the same structure becomes a flexible cantilever producing renewable energy from wind.

The potential ultimate impact ot the project is:
-TECHNOLOGICAL: sparkling considerable new technological R&D and commercialisation opportunities for UK and international manufacturers of vibration suppression and energy harvesting equipment for civil and mechanical/automotive applications globally. SOCIETAL: enhancing infrastructure users' comfort, aesthetics, and structural safety and resiliency under future aggressive environments due to climate change. ECONOMICAL: stimulating the manufacturing sector, the construction industry, and the engineering consultancies towards world-class structures optimally designed for energy harvesting and vibration control; enhancing existing and future infrastructure value and economic life-cycle. ENVIRONMENTAL: reducing energy use and CO2 footprint of buildings through optimum wind energy harvesting, less material usage, and better land usage since more tall buildings can be built in a cost-effective manner.

Planned Impact

This project develops (analytically and computationally) an innovative energy harvesting-enabled lightweight flywheel-based mass amplification mechanical device (inerter) and uses it to optimally design tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) equipped tall structures following a novel pro-active control approach within a multi-objective performance-based framework. This new technology and structural design approach will:
1)allow for ever-more slender, taller, cost-effective, and aesthetically pleasing high-rise buildings in congested urban environments through the ability to control wind-induced (and/or earthquake) oscillations by more lightweight tuned mass dampers (TMDs) compared to the ones used today. These buildings will also be safer in more aggressive climate environments and with lower CO2 footprint through effective energy harvesting from large amplitude oscillations.
2)potentially transform the "purpose" and functionality of other civil engineering structures incorporating TMDs for vibration suppression such as (foot-) bridges, off-shore platforms, and wind turbines.
To this end, it is anticipated that, apart from the academic research community (being both a beneficiary and a short-term critical facilitator in achieving the anticipated economic and societal impact), the main beneficiaries of this research project will be:
a) in the short-term, (i) manufacturing companies/industry of vibration suppression/isolation and energy harvesting equipment for civil and mechanical/automotive applications. In particular, this project sparks considerable new technological R&D and commercialisation opportunities for such companies and manufacturers to address the world market needs for customized, lightweight, cost-effective electro-mechanical based vibration absorbers and energy harvesting devices. An expanding market for this device is foreseen as the World's needs for resilient and sustainable tall buildings in congested City centres of developed and developing countries increases together with wind-induced demands for new and existing structures due to climate change. (ii) Structural design offices, consultants, and practicing engineers undertaking analysis and design of tall structures.
b) in the mid-term, owners, asset managing agencies and maintenance contractors of tall buildings and of other civil infrastructure incorporating TMDs for vibration suppression such as (foot-) bridges, off-shore platforms, and wind turbines. The use of lightweight energy harvesting enabled TMDI systems will reduce the overall construction/erection cost of buildings yielding smart, resilient, and sustainable structures better equipped to face future climate change-related challenges. Thus, it will add value to structured assets by reducing insurance costs, enhancing occupants' comfort, and reducing structures' carbon footprint.
c) in the long-term, everyday users of civil engineering structures incorporating the TMDI technology and communities of major city centers and metropolitan areas.
Nevertheless, upon completion of the project, the following additional step is required to realise the aforementioned potential technological, economical, and societal impact to the above beneficiaries: to prototype/manufacture and to validate experimentally the new energy harvesting-enabled flywheel-based mass amplification device (inerter) to be developed in this project. This requires further multi-disciplinary experimental research undertaken by consortia of industrial partners and academic research groups of different fields (including full-scale hybrid testing and scaled-down wind tunnel and shaking table testing). To this end, focus will be given during the lifetime of this project to facilitate impact to the academic community and to the short term beneficiaries identified above which, in turn, will ensure that further experimental research will be conducted exploiting/applying, building on, and expanding the outcomes of this project.

Publications

10 25 50

 
Description This research project pursued the development, through analytical/mathematical and numerical/computational work, of novel passive vibration control configurations to suppress undesirable wind-borne and/or earthquake-borne oscillations in high-rise building structures causing occupants' discomfort or structural damage, respectively. The novel configurations couple the widely-used for wind-induced vibrations control in tall buildings tuned mass-damper (TMD) with an inerter device in various tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) configurations. Note that the TMD is an additional free-to-oscillate mass attached towards the top of buildings via dampers and stiffeners or hangers and tuned to counterbalance the motion of the building, while the inerter is a two-terminal device resisting the relative acceleration of its terminals currently used in vehicle suspension systems.
Moreover, this project explores the opportunity of generating energy from large amplitude low frequency oscillations of wind-excited tall buildings by considering energy-harvesting enabled TMDI (EH-TMDI) topologies. The EH-TMDI involves the incorporation of an additional electromagnetic motor enabling the transformation of part of the kinetic energy of the attached TMDI mass to electric energy which can be stored for further use.
Focusing on vibration suppression in wind-excited tall/slender buildings, it is found through pertinent numerical/computational work involving tall benchmark buildings and detailed wind forcing fields that:
1) The incorporation of the inerter to the TMD is rather beneficial in reducing floor accelerations up to 30% or more for a fixed attached mass. Note that containing floor accelerations within certain thresholds is the critical criterion to ensure occupants' comfort in high-rise building dominating the design of such structures. Therefore, it is found that inerter devices can be readily used to upgrade the performance of existing TMD-equipped tall buildings in terms of floor accelerations (i.e., human comfort) without increasing the attached oscillating mass and, therefore, with minimum structural modifications. This consideration leads to downtime reductions rendering existing structures more resilient or to high wind loads whose frequency of occurrence is expected to increase in the near future due to climate change effects.
2) The TMDI achieves the same performance as the TMD using significantly smaller attached mass while reducing appreciably the motion amplitude of the attached mass. It therefore enables lighter construction leading to more sustainable and cost-effective new tall buildings as well as it reduces the required space/clearance to accommodate the attached mass.
3) Turning the attention to the use of the TMDI for the seismic protection of buildings, it is found that the inclusion of the inerter is quite beneficial when added to TMDs with relatively small attached mass while the TMDI is more robust to uncertainties to the host structure properties and to the seismic excitation attributes than the TMD. A case-study for the particular seismo-tectonic environment of Chile where TMDs are heavily used for the seismic ptoection of structures demonstrate significant benefits of the TMDI over the TMD in minimizing the life-cycle building cost accounting for downtime as well as risk-aversion attributes.
4) A novel EH-TMDI topology was found amenable to robust multi-objective optimization for simultaneous vibration minimization and energy harvesting maximization relying on re-settable inerter and electromechanical damping devices and on adjusting performance demands for the structure. For example, higher energy can be harvested for the same wind forces at times of minimum structure occupancy.
Exploitation Route The TMDI along with other types of inerter-based vibration suppression device assemblies has already been studied and used by several International research groups in the fields of structural dynamics and vibration control making an impact to the academic community. They focus on exploring its potential for the seismic protection of civil engineering structures as well as in vibration control in various mechanical engineering applications. It is foreseen that in the short-term the TMDI will be taken forward by (i) manufacturing companies/industry of vibration suppression/isolation and energy harvesting equipment for civil and mechanical/automotive applications, and (ii) Structural design offices, consultants, and practicing engineers undertaking analysis and design of tall buildings and of other civil infrastructure incorporating TMDs for vibration suppression such as (foot-) bridges, off-shore platforms, and wind turbines.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Electronics

 
Description City, Impact funding
Amount £4,500 (GBP)
Organisation City, University of London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2017 
End 07/2017
 
Description International Exchange Research Programme
Amount ฿100,000 (THB)
Organisation Government of Thailand 
Sector Public
Country Thailand
Start 11/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Description Knowledge Exchange and Impact Fund
Amount £16,000 (GBP)
Organisation City, University of London 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 07/2019
 
Description Research Visiting Professor
Amount € 9,000 (EUR)
Organisation Sapienza University of Rome 
Sector Academic/University
Country Italy
Start 06/2017 
End 09/2017
 
Title TMDI 
Description The tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) topology/assembly of mechanical elements/devices is a novel configuration for passive control of wind-excited tall buildings. The topology and associated mathematical/analytical model has been developed and applied to particular benchmark computer (finite element) models of tall buildings. Its potential and superior performance compared to the classical TMD has been computationally verified using state of the art wind excitation models. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact It is too early to identify impact, but by extrapolating the interest the the TMDI has generated in the scientific community as well as among manufacturers/specialist companies of vibration control devices and structural engineering consultancies, it is expected that the TMDI will find its way to be implemented in real-life tall buildings in the next 5-10years. 
URL https://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29ST.1943-541X.0001863
 
Description Alex Taflanidis 
Organisation University of Notre Dame
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided the tuned mass damper inerter (TMDI)-equipped models of benchmark structures to the partner in state-space to input in their stochastic optimisation algorithms for optimal desing of linear passive control devices. We interpreted the results of the analyses and contributed to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Collaborator Contribution The partner contributed state of the art algorithms on optimal design of linear passive vibration control and applied them to achieve optimal TMDI design accounting for higher modes vibration. The partner further contributed the required computational time in the High-Performance Computer "Persephone" that he owns and manages at University of Notre Dame to execute the optimum design algorithms applied to the TMDI-equipped benchmark building models provided by the PI. The partner aided in the interpretation of the results and contributed to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Impact Giaralis A, Taflanidis AA. (2015). Reliability-based Design of Tuned Mass-Damper-Inerter (TMDI) Equipped Multi-storey Frame Buildings under Seismic Excitation. Giaralis A, Taflanidis AA. (2016). Reliability-based design of tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) equipped MDOF structures under stochastic seismic excitation and parametric uncertainty. Ruiz R, Giaralis A, Taflanidis AA, Lopez-Garcia D (2017). Risk-informed optimization of the tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) for seismic protection of buildings in Chile. Giaralis A, Taflanidis AA (2018). DOI: 10.1002/stc.2082.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Application of the TMDI for seismic protection of Chilean buildings 
Organisation Pontifical Catholic University of Chile
Country Chile 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed the idea of assessing the potential of the tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) for the seismic protection of mid-rise buildings in Chile. We provided the TMDI topology, model, as well as expertise coming from previous years research on the topic. We interpreted the results of the analyses and contributed to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Collaborator Contribution The partner at University of Notre Dame contributed state of the art algorithms on life-cycle optimal design of linear passive vibration control and applied them to achieve reliability-based optimal TMDI design accounting for life-cycle cost analysis and assessment for a particular model of an actual building in Santiago, Chile provided by the second Chilean partner (Prontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile). The University of Notre Dame partner further contributed the required computational time in the High-Performance Computer "Persephone" that he owns and manages to execute the optimum design algorithms applied to the TMDI-equipped real building model. The second partner contributed the finite element model of an actual 21-storey building in Santiago, Chile which was used as a benchmark in the numerical study to assess the potential and economic feasibility of the TMDI compared to the conventional TMD already used in the considered building. The Chilean partner also contributed 2 months of time to modify the code and do the post-processing of the analysis data. All partner contributed to the interpretation of the results and to the writing-up of scientific publications. aided in the interpretation of the results and contributed to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Impact Ruiz R, Giaralis A, Taflanidis AA, Lopez-Garcia D. (2017). RISK-INFORMED OPTIMIZATION OF THE TUNED MASS-DAMPER-INERTER (TMDI) FOR SEISMIC PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS IN CHILE
Start Year 2016
 
Description Application of the TMDI for seismic protection of Chilean buildings 
Organisation University of Notre Dame
Department Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering & Earth Sciences
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We contributed the idea of assessing the potential of the tuned mass-damper-inerter (TMDI) for the seismic protection of mid-rise buildings in Chile. We provided the TMDI topology, model, as well as expertise coming from previous years research on the topic. We interpreted the results of the analyses and contributed to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Collaborator Contribution The partner at University of Notre Dame contributed state of the art algorithms on life-cycle optimal design of linear passive vibration control and applied them to achieve reliability-based optimal TMDI design accounting for life-cycle cost analysis and assessment for a particular model of an actual building in Santiago, Chile provided by the second Chilean partner (Prontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile). The University of Notre Dame partner further contributed the required computational time in the High-Performance Computer "Persephone" that he owns and manages to execute the optimum design algorithms applied to the TMDI-equipped real building model. The second partner contributed the finite element model of an actual 21-storey building in Santiago, Chile which was used as a benchmark in the numerical study to assess the potential and economic feasibility of the TMDI compared to the conventional TMD already used in the considered building. The Chilean partner also contributed 2 months of time to modify the code and do the post-processing of the analysis data. All partner contributed to the interpretation of the results and to the writing-up of scientific publications. aided in the interpretation of the results and contributed to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Impact Ruiz R, Giaralis A, Taflanidis AA, Lopez-Garcia D. (2017). RISK-INFORMED OPTIMIZATION OF THE TUNED MASS-DAMPER-INERTER (TMDI) FOR SEISMIC PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS IN CHILE
Start Year 2016
 
Description Cacciola iVIBA 
Organisation University of Brighton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided expertise on inerter device modelling and configuration on how it can be coupled with the vibrating barrier to protect structures against earthquakes.
Collaborator Contribution The partners contributed data and expertise on the vibrating barrier. They run all numerical analyses and reported results.
Impact Cacciola P, Tombari A and Giaralis A. (2018) A vibrating barrier with grounded inerter for non-invasive seismic protection of existing structures. In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering- 16ECEE (June 18-21, 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece), paper #12056, p.12.
Start Year 2018
 
Description De Angelis 
Organisation Sapienza University of Rome
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided/proposed to the partner the novel idea of using the tuned mass damper inerter (TMDI) for vibration control of base-isolated structures to earthquake excitations. We provided pertinent mechanical and numerical models of TMDI-equipped base isolated benchmark structures to the partner in state-space. We interpreted results of numerical/computer-based analyses as well as exprimental results/data. We equally contributed to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Collaborator Contribution The partner contibuted experience in computer modelling base isolated structures. The partner provided a trained PhD student to work on the proposed topic by us for 1.5years. The student undertook comprehensive numerical/computational work under the co-supervision of us and of the partner Professor. The partner further contributed access/time to a unique experimental facility: a shaking table at Sapienza, University of Rome. The partner designed and manufactured a prototype small-scale specimen of a TMDI-equipped base-isolated structure and, in consultation with us, performed a large series of dynamical testing at the shaking table to characterize the prototype and to provide experimental proof-of-concept results. The partner contributed equally to interpreting exprimental and numerical results and to the write-up of the scientific papers.
Impact 2 journal papers have been submitted and are under review to high-impact journals one reporting outcomes on the computational work undertaken and one reporting outcomes on the experimental work undertaken.
Start Year 2017
 
Description 16ECEE- Special Session 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Co-Organised a Special Session on " Advances and applications of inertial, viscous, and regenerative damping devices for the seismic protection of structures", within the 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, June 18-21, 2018, Thessaloniki, Greece, together an International collaborators: Associate Prof. A. Taflanidis, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA. The special session attracted more than 20 full technical papers from University-based research groups as well as from R&D departments of major manufacturers of vibration control devices. This is the second biggest International Conferece/event on the field of Earthquake Engineering organised every 4 years: this time it attracted more than 2000 delegates. More than 500 delegates in total are expected to attend this special session. Discussions during the sessions and throughout the conference and raising awareness among participants (academics, professionals, and PhD/MSc students) on new trends in research and in applications on inerter-based vibration control for civil engineering structures under earthquake loads will take place. Several new collaborations are expected to be fostered as spinouts of this EPSRC funded project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.16ecee.org/programme/special-sessions
 
Description AKT-II workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A half-day workshop was organized upon invitation at the headquarters of AKT-II in London on performance-based design of tall buildings for wind focusing on the use of the tuned mass-damper-inerter and its practical benefits as have been assessed and verified in our research. AKT-II is the largest London-based civil/structural engineering consultancy undertaking the design of challenging and landmark projects/structures World-wide. The workshop was attended by more than 50 design engineers and technical staff of AKT-II, as well as by 2 technical directors. The workshop was followed by Q&A session and meetings with the technical directors during which AKT-II showed a great interest in the TMDI and committed to act as a project partner to support a follow-up EPSRC proposal contributing consultation time and expertise to facilitate impact on using inerter-based vibration control devices for civil engineering structures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description EURODYN mini-symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Co-Organised a minisymposium on " Performance-based design of dynamically excited structures", within the 10th International Conference on Structural Dynamics, EURODYN 2017, September 10-13, 2017, Rome, Italy, together with 2 International colleagues and collaborators: Associate Prof. P. Franchin, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, Dr. F. Petrini, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. The mini-symposium attracted more than 34 abstracts, 17 full papers, and is going to be made spanning 3 sessions in one full day out of the total 3 days of the conference. This prestigious World conference which will attract more than 700 delegates and occurrs every 4 years. More than 200 delegates in total are expected to attend the various sessions. Discussions during the sessions and throughout the conference and raising awareness among participants (academics, professionals, and PhD/MSc students) on new trends in research and in applications for structuralPerformance-Based Design will take place. Several new collaborations are expected to be initiated related to this EPSRC funded projects as a result of these discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://eurodyn2017.it/minisymposia/
 
Description Eurodyn 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Oral presentation at the 10th International Conference on Structural Dynamics- EURODYN 2017 (September 10-13, 2017, Rome, Italy). The presentation was on optimum design of the tuned mass-damper-inerter for serviceability limit state performance in wind-excited tall buildings. The presentation was well received by the audience, followed by questions and discussion. Representatives by Gerb (World-leading manufacturer of vibration control devices) attended and requested further information and extended an open invitation to visit their headquarters and share more information about the TMDI.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ICASP mini-symposium 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact Co-Organised a minisymposium on "Stochastic dynamics and simulation based techniques for Performance-based Earthquake Engineering" within the 12th International conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, July 12-15, 2015, Vancouver, Canada, together with 3 International colleagues and collaborators:
Assist. Prof. I. Kougioumtzoglou, Columbia University, NY, USA
Assoc. Prof. A. Taflanidis, University of Notre Dame, IN, USA
Assist. Prof. D. Vamvatsikos, National Technical University of Athens, Greece

The symposium was in the top 3 most popular symposia of this prestigious World conference which attracted more than 700 delegates and occurring every 4 years. The mini-symposium attracted more than 25 abstracts, 15 oral presentations were made spanning 3 sessions in one full day out of the total 3 days of the conference. More than 200 delegates in total attended the various sessions sparkling extended discussions during the sessions and throughout the conference and raising awareness among participants (academics, professionals, and PhD/MSc students) on new trends in research and in applications for structural seismic vulnerability mitigation. Several new collaborations were initiated related to two EPSRC funded projects as a result of these discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://icasp12.ubc.ca/papers-by-session/
 
Description Maurer @ETH 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A seminar/lecture was delivered upon invitation at Maurer SE branch in Zurich, Switzerland (ETH- hub) on the tuned mass-damper-inerter for wind-induced vibration suppression in tall buildings as has been assessed and verified in our research. Maurer SE is a World leader in designing, manufacturing, testing, and installing vibration control devices for civil engineering structures and infrastrcucture facilities. The seminar was attended by design engineers and R&D members of Maurer, as well as by researchers at ETH. The seminar was followed by a series of meetings with the technical R&D staff during which Maurer showed interest and committed to future collaboration on inerter-based vibration control devices.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar in FIP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A seminar/lecture was delivered upon invitation at the headquarters of FIP Industriale at Padova, Italy on the tuned mass-damper-inerter and its practical benefits as have been assessed and verified in our research. FIP is a World leader in designing, manufacturing, testing, and installing vibration control devices for civil engineering structures and infrastrcucture facilities. The seminar was attended by 15 control device design engineers of FIP, as well as by the 3 technical directors. The seminar was followed by a series of meetings with the technical directors during which FIP showed a great interest in the TMDI and committed to act as a project partner to support a follow-up EPSRC proposal contributing consultation time and expertise to facilitate the design of the next generation of inerter -based vibration control devices for civil engineering structures.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017