Mathematical models and algorithms for allocating scarce airport resources (OR-MASTER)

Lead Research Organisation: Lancaster University
Department Name: Management Science

Abstract

Congestion at major airports in the UK and across Europe and the rest of the world is a serious and growing problem. Already Heathrow faces problems occasioned by serious congestion for a major part of the day while at Gatwick demand is expected to exceed capacity for 17 hours per day by 2025. According to a Eurocontrol study, planned capacity at the 138 Eurocontrol Statistical Reference Area (ESRA) airports is expected to increase by 41% in total by 2030, with demand exceeding airport capacity by as much as 2.3 million flights (or 11%) in the most-likely forecast growth scenario.

The development and deployment of airport capacity is a major societal issue engendering intense public debate in the UK and around the world.
Capacity at congested airports is expressed in slots. A slot identifies a time interval on a specific date during which a carrier is permitted to use the airport infrastructure for landing or take-off. Current slot allocation procedures suffer (inter alia) from the following limitations:

1)Simplistic modelling of the objectives and operational/regulatory constraints bearing on the multiple stakeholders involved in (and affected by) the slot allocation process.

2)Insufficient capture of the interactions encountered in airport networks.

3)The use of empirical or ad hoc processes for determining (rather than computing) declared capacity which address neither the uncertainties involved in airport capacity assessment nor the complexity and size of the real-world problem, even at the single-airport level.

Consequently, existing approaches to the allocation of airport capacity fail in a number of critical ways to reflect the complexities presented by the real world. This creates allocation inefficiencies which, in turn, result in poor airport capacity utilisation with significant negative impacts on airport revenues, airline operating costs, the level of service offered to passengers and the environment.

There is thus a pressing need to meet the major scientific challenge of developing novel mathematical models and solution approaches to transform the airport slot allocation process and its associated outcomes. The programme grant aims to do just that for a single airport and for a network of airports. Mathematical models will be developed and analysed which consider the objectives and requirements of all stakeholders and which take account of a wide range of operational and regulatory constraints. The intrinsic complexity of the proposed programme and its large scale (especially for the case of the network-wide slot allocation) will mean that it will provide an excellent test-bed for the development of new heuristics and hyper heuristics for large scale complex scheduling problems more widely. Algorithms that will be developed and tested by this project will provide essential support for the complex large scale capacity allocation problems that arise in other types of transportation networks, including rail networks. In addition, it could extend to other types of networks that share similar problem structures, such as those in energy and telecommunications.

The models and solution techniques developed will underpin the development of novel decision support systems which have the potential to make a major impact on airport operations. The research team has an internationally leading profile in the areas of mathematical modelling, heuristic development, stochastic optimization, airport slot allocation, airport management and performance assessment. It has an excellent track record of research cooperation with all categories of stakeholders. It will cooperate closely with an impressive array of leading industry stakeholders in order to make sure that the work is as cutting edge industrially as it is scientifically.

Planned Impact

This proposal is addressing an issue of great societal and scientific concern. It will have significant impact on i) the air transport industry, ii) policy makers and government, iii) associated scientific communities, iv) research training and v) the general public.

In what follows, we provide an overview of some of the key potential impacts of the proposed research programme on each of these stake-holding groups.

(i) Air Transport Industry: The optimization of slot allocation will bring major benefit to airports, the airline industry, and providers of air traffic and ground handling services. All of these industry sectors will benefit from the improved utilization of airport capacity which will result from improved slot allocation. The models and algorithms that will be developed will help air transport industry decision makers to reduce delays, increase schedule reliability, decrease operating costs, and increase revenues.

(ii) Policy Makers and Government: The results of the proposed programme will support decision makers to manage efficiently the available airport infrastructure and to improve the allocation of financial and other resources for developing additional capacity. The proposed programme will thus impact on issues of airport capacity management and development which are of central importance to the UK Government and across Europe.

(iii) Associated Scientific Communities: The proposed programme will have significant impact on the advancement of knowledge in a field that cuts across several scientific communities including operations research, mathematics, management science, computer science, air transport and engineering. It addresses challenges that lie at the interfaces of these fields. This programme will contribute substantially to our mathematical understanding of the modelling of complex large scale systems. It will also contribute to the development and theoretical understanding of innovative adaptive search methods for solving scheduling problems under uncertainty.

(iv) Research Training: This Programme Grant will provide a unique and valuable research training environment for our research associates and PhD students. They will have the opportunity to engage closely with international research centres and air transport industry organizations through short term visits and secondments. This international exchange and industrial exposure will underpin their inter-disciplinary research training experience.

(v) General Public: This programme has the potential to generate significant social, economic, and environmental impact. The development of models and systems for improved airport capacity management will substantially decrease congestion and reduce delays for the travelling public. Further, airport congestion generates a negative impact on air pollution, aircraft noise and safety, while delays cause significant economic damage. For example, related studies in the USA have estimated that the total economic impact of air transportation delays on the US economy for 2007 was $28.9 billion.
 
Description We have identified major literature gaps for the airport slot scheduling problem and we have identified the characteristics that should be incorporated in new airport slot scheduling models. We have investigated alternative fairness measures which can be incorporated in airport slot allocation models. We have used the identified fairness measures to develop bi-objective airport slot allocation models that consider simultaneously fairness and efficiency measures, and models that consider simultaneously the minimization of total schedule displacement (efficiency) and the maximum slot displacement or maximum acceptable slot displacement (acceptability) . We have used the e-constraint method to solve the resulting bi-objective models. Furthermore, we have developed and proposed a new fairness measures and a slot allocation mechanism that provides airlines the opportunity to express their preferences regarding slot schedule displacement. We have also developed heuristics for scheduling slots at network level. We have introduced new models which incorporate flexibility in allocating series of slots at congested airports, and demand based fairness. Furthermore, we have developed a mechanism for allocating slots at congested (coordinated) airports. We have also investigated developed time-efficient methods for minimizing operational delays at overly congested airports. The results we have generated have the potential to improve policy making and practice in airport slot scheduling and capacity management. We have participated actively in international scientific fora (2016 TRISTAN Symposium, 96th Annual Transportation Board Meeting, 97th Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, INFORMS 2017 Annual Meeting, 2017, Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications and Operational Research Society Meeting, European Conference on Stochastic Optimization, INFORMS 2018 Annual Meeting, OR60 Annual Conference, and Odysseus 2018 International Workshop) where we have presented twelve papers, two posters, and organized nine conference sessions. We have also published five papers in high quality scientific journals. We have participated in international policy fora with world-wide impact OECD/ITF round table, and we have interacted with all key stakeholders , (Airports Council International-ACI, International Air Transport Association-IATA, Airlines, Ground Handling agents, and slot coordination authority. We have raised public awareness regarding the role of mathematical modelling in solving airport capacity and delay problems. We have attracted additional resources and we have increased our research activity and cooperation (OptiFrame HORIZON 2020 project, Rolls Royce PhD Studentships, EPSRC Fellowship, ERASMUS traineeship, Lancaster University Management School and QMUL PhD studentships, Beihang University, Huazhang University, visiting researchers). We have stimulated research interest , we have developed significant research capability in the area of aviation Operational Research, and we have enhanced the skills of early career researchers (Post Doctoral Research Associates and post graduate students) through the organization of OR-MASTER related seminars, through peer to peer knowledge transfer and mentoring, and through our interaction with the STOR-i CDT, and through seminars organized by the Centre for Transport and Logistics.
Exploitation Route We have: 1) developed and solved new multi-objective single airport slot allocation models, 2) developed heuristics for solving the airport slot scheduling problem at network level, 3) developed a new slot allocation mechanism, and 4) time-efficient methods for minimizing operational delays at severely congested airport. We are working to :1) further enhance and improve single airport slot scheduling models, 2) develop network level slot scheduling models, 3) develop and improve exact and heuristic algorithms for solving large scale slot scheduling problems at single airport and network level, and, 4) develop models and solution algorithms for determining the optimum airport declared capacity by considering simultaneously operational and scheduling delays. Our findings can be used by: 1) policy makers in the aviation sector to inform potential slot scheduling policy changes, 2) slot coordinators, airport authorities, and airlines in making slot scheduling decisions. Currently airport slot scheduling decisions at overly congested airports are governed by the IATA World Scheduling Guidelines. Our participation and interaction with key stakeholders at international fora aims to communicate the potential impact of our findings and facilitate their use by the broader aviation community.
Sectors Transport

URL http://www.tinyurl.com/ormaster
 
Description Impact is a continuous process and it is expected to be demonstrated throughout the project life cycle. At this stage of the project development we have engaged with relevant stakeholders and we have raised their awareness regarding the potential impact of our results on their operations and on policy development. The presentation Slot Allocation: Alternatives, Strengths and Weaknesses given by Konstantinos G. Zografos (2015) at Mexico City's New Airport: International Conference on Aviation and Airport Services Reforms for the Next Generation, contributed to the public debate regarding the slot allocation and management issues associated with the development of the new Mexico City International Airport. The Presidential Address to the Mathematics Section of the British Science Association, entitled "Advanced Airports and On-Time Ambulances" given by Kevin Glazebrook at the 2015 British Science Festival, Bradford University, and the BBC Radio 4 interview of Konstantinos G. Zografos aimed to raise the awareness of the public regarding the contribution of operational research in solving real world problems like the airport capacity management. The OR-MASTER project findings reported in the paper " On the Development of a Fair and Efficient Slot Scheduling Mechanism at Congested Airports" (2017), have significant potential to influence airport slot allocation and capacity management internationally. This is due to the fact that the Transportation research Board has characterized this paper as a practice ready paper. The findings reported in the paper " Increasing airport capacity utilization through optimum slot scheduling: review of current developments and identification of future needs" (2017), were used at the OECD /ITF Round table on " Capacity Building through Efficient Use of Existing Airport Infrastructure" , this paper was also cited in the OECD/ITF Discussion Paper titled "Capacity Building through the Efficient Use of Existing Airport Infrastructure." The OR-MASTER contribution to the OECD/ITF round table discussion and the associated discussion paper has the potential to influence the regulatory environment and policy decisions regarding slot allocation and capacity management at congested airports internationally, to produce significant economic benefits, and to provide effective solutions to societal problems. Specifically, the OR-MASTER results have the potential to introduce policy and practice changes that will have a world-wide impact on the way that airport capacity is managed and scarce airport resources (slots) are allocated to airport users (airlines). Potential benefits include better utilization of existing airport capacity (economic benefit), improved level of service for the travelling public (societal benefit and economic benefit).
First Year Of Impact 2015
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Education,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description OECD - ITF Roundtable on "Capacity Building through Efficient Use of Existing Airport Infrastructure"
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Citation in other policy documents
Impact Potential policy changes they will have a world-wide impact on the way that airport capacity is manged and scarce airport resources (slots) are allocated to airport users. Potential benefits of this policy change include better utilization of existing airport capacity, improved level of service for the travelling public, and economic benefits for the airlines, travelers, and airports.
URL https://www.itf-oecd.org/sites/default/files/docs/capacity-building-efficient-use-existing-airport-i...
 
Description On the Development of a Fair and Efficient Slot Scheduling Mechanism at Congested Airports. This paper which was presented at the 97th , 2018 Annual TRB Meeting was characterized after peer review as a practice ready paper. According to TRB (a branch of the US Academy of Sciences.Engineering.Medicine) a paper is characterized as practice ready if: The paper must be recommended for presentation at the Annual Meeting. (Publication in the Transportation Research Record is not a requirement.) The research results presented and discussed in the paper should be ready for immediate implementation or with minimal additional research or implementation effort. The paper should contain guidance on additional effort required for implementation. The research should make a major contribution to the solution of current or future problems or issues.
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Potential practice changes will have a world-wide impact on the way that airport capacity is manged and scarce airport resources (slots) are allocated to airport users. Potential benefits of this policy change include better utilization of existing airport capacity, improved level of service for the travelling public, and economic benefits for the airlines, travelers, and airports.
URL http://www.trb.org/Publications/PubsPracticeReadyPapersBackground.aspx
 
Description An Optimization Framework for Trajectory Based Operations (OPTI-FRAME)
Amount € 727,501 (EUR)
Funding ID 669275 
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 03/2016 
End 02/2018
 
Description EPSRC Fellowship
Amount £264,933 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P003060/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2020
 
Description PhD studentships
Amount £330,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lancaster University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Rolls Royce Funding - Symbiotic Simulation in an Airline Operations Environment
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2019
 
Description Rolls Royce funding - Optimising Aircraft Engine Maintenance Scheduling Decisions
Amount £30,000 (GBP)
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2016 
End 10/2019
 
Title Displacement budget mechanism 
Description Implementation of displacement budget mechanism which adjusts a reference schedule to better match airline preferences for which flights should and shouldn't be displaced. The mechanism works by allocating to each airline a displacement budget, which airlines must distribute among its requests according to its preferences on how these should be displaced. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The mechanism was tested using real data from a medium sized airport. This demonstrated that a significant number of the airlines' suggested schedule adjustments could be made, and that this was particularly beneficial when airlines are more sensitive to large displacements. 
 
Title MODELLING FAIRNESS IN SLOT SCHEDULING DECISIONS AT CAPACITY-CONSTRAINED AIRPORTS 
Description Three fairness objectives for slot scheduling at capacity-constrained airports are proposed. The three objectives are integrated into a bi-objective modelling framework, which is solved by the e-constraint method using a hierarchical solution procedure. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The derived results provide information highlighting the trade-off between efficiency and fairness in airport slot allocation. Furthermore, the proposed decision making framework can support decision makers in selecting acceptable slot scheduling solutions. 
 
Title Model which allows flexible scheduling of request series 
Description Implementation of flexibility model which allows series of slots to be scheduled at different times subject to limits on how much the time slots allocated to a series can vary. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The mechanism was tested using real data from a medium sized airport. This demonstrated that allowing a little flexibility can significantly decrease the overall schedule displacement. Benefits in the fairness of schedules have also been observed. 
 
Title Modelling and Solving the Airport Slot Scheduling Problem with Efficiency, Fairness, and Accessibility Considerations 
Description The objective of this paper is to develop and solve a new class of airport slot scheduling models that consider simultaneously slot scheduling and fairness objectives. A fairness metric is introduced which postulates that the displacement allocated to an airline should be proportional to the number of slots requested by it. Two biobjective formulations considering both fairness and efficiency are introduced. Both models are solved by the e-constraint method using a row generation algorithm. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The proposed models have the potential to influence the airport slot allocation/scheduling process 
 
Title Models for optimizing airport schedule displacement and acceptability 
Description Two bi-objective scheduling models considering different combinations of total and maximum acceptable slot displacement objectives have been proposed and solved. The first model considers the minimization of total schedule displacement and the minimization of the maximum slot displacement, while the second model considers the minimization of total displacement and the minimization of the missed allocations (i.e the slot allocations that exceed a maximum acceptable displacement value). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The proposed models are applied to real-world scheduling data. Substantial improvements in schedule acceptability metrics are achieved without sacrificing a lot in terms of scheduling efficiency. Sacrifices in scheduling efficiency increase the capability of the airport coordinator to allocate slots that are eventually acceptable and hence more intensively used. 
 
Title Resource allocation in congested queueing systems with time-varying demand: An application to airport operations 
Description The objective of this paper is to develop approximate dynamic programming (ADP) methods for identifying optimal resource allocation policies in congested queueing systems. In an airport context, this can be interpreted as the allocation of runway capacity to competing sources of demand (departures and arrivals). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The proposed models can assist airport controllers in responding dynamically to observed events and operating conditions in order to maximise the efficiency of their operations. 
 
Title Slot allocation model with demand-based fairness 
Description Implementation of bi-objective scheduling model which uses demand-based fairness. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The proposed model was tested using real-world data from a medium sized airport. These demonstrated that this approach had better trade-off with schedule efficiency compared to the previous approach to fairness, and was also faster computationally. 
 
Description 1st Airport Stakeholders Workshop 
Organisation Athens International Airport
Country Greece 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution OR_MASTER models considering efficiency and fairness objectives were presented.
Collaborator Contribution Feedback on the proposed models and recommendations for incorporating stakeholders preferences were provided.
Impact We have received useful input from IATA, KLM/Air France, Athens International Airport, NATS, Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport
Start Year 2016
 
Description 1st Airport Stakeholders Workshop 
Organisation Gatwick Airport Limited
PI Contribution OR_MASTER models considering efficiency and fairness objectives were presented.
Collaborator Contribution Feedback on the proposed models and recommendations for incorporating stakeholders preferences were provided.
Impact We have received useful input from IATA, KLM/Air France, Athens International Airport, NATS, Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport
Start Year 2016
 
Description 1st Airport Stakeholders Workshop 
Organisation Heathrow Airport Holdings
Department London Heathrow Airport
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution OR_MASTER models considering efficiency and fairness objectives were presented.
Collaborator Contribution Feedback on the proposed models and recommendations for incorporating stakeholders preferences were provided.
Impact We have received useful input from IATA, KLM/Air France, Athens International Airport, NATS, Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport
Start Year 2016
 
Description 1st Airport Stakeholders Workshop 
Organisation International Air Transport Association
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution OR_MASTER models considering efficiency and fairness objectives were presented.
Collaborator Contribution Feedback on the proposed models and recommendations for incorporating stakeholders preferences were provided.
Impact We have received useful input from IATA, KLM/Air France, Athens International Airport, NATS, Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport
Start Year 2016
 
Description 1st Airport Stakeholders Workshop 
Organisation National Air Traffic Services Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution OR_MASTER models considering efficiency and fairness objectives were presented.
Collaborator Contribution Feedback on the proposed models and recommendations for incorporating stakeholders preferences were provided.
Impact We have received useful input from IATA, KLM/Air France, Athens International Airport, NATS, Heathrow Airport and Gatwick Airport
Start Year 2016
 
Description Athens International Airport 
Organisation Athens International Airport
Country Greece 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organization provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem.
Impact We have received useful input from Athens International Airport regarding the airport slot scheduling problem.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Euro Control 
Organisation European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (Eurocontrol)
Country Belgium 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organisation provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem and the validation of the resulting mdels.
Impact We have received useful input from Euro Control regarding the modelling of the airport slot scheduling problem and the validation of the resulting models.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Gatwick Airport 
Organisation Gatwick Airport Limited
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organisation provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem.
Impact We received useful input from Gatwick Airport regarding the airport slot scheduling problem.
Start Year 2016
 
Description GoldairHandling 
Organisation Goldair Handling
Country Greece 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organization provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem.
Impact We have received useful input from GoldairHandling regarding the airport slot scheduling problem.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Heathrow Airport 
Organisation Heathrow Airport Holdings
Department London Heathrow Airport
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organisation provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem.
Impact We have received useful input from Heathrow airport regarding the airport slot scheduling problem.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Huazhong University of Science and Technology 
Organisation Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution At the moment, our collaboration with Huazhong University is not directly related to the main research theme of the OR-MASTER project (allocation of airport slots). However, we have been invited to visit their University in March 2017, to contribute to their project funded by a Chinese airline on Schedule design.
Collaborator Contribution Until now, there has been no contribution of this partner to the OR-MASTER project. Contributions in the near future may include: recommendation of students funded by the CSC grant to work on the OR-MASTER project (2017/2018); joint application for future fundings (Global Challenge Research Fund).
Impact ----
Start Year 2017
 
Description IATA 
Organisation International Air Transport Association
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organisation provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem.
Impact We have received useful input from IATA regarding the airport slot scheduling problem.
Start Year 2016
 
Description KLM/AIR FRANCE 
Organisation Air France KLM
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organization provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem.
Impact We have received useful input from KLM/AIR FRANCE regarding the airport slot scheduling problem.
Start Year 2015
 
Description NATS 
Organisation National Air Traffic Services Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The OR-MASTER concept along with its potential impact in improving airport capacity management was presented to these stakeholders. These impacts will be societal (delay reduction), economic (better use of available airport capacity), and environmental (noise and air pollution).
Collaborator Contribution The collaborating organisation provided useful input for the modelling of the slot scheduling and declared capacity problem. and the validation of the resulting models.
Impact We have received useful input from NATS regarding the modelling of the airport slot scheduling problem and the validation of the resulting models. l.
Start Year 2016
 
Description National Key Laboratory of CNS/ATM 
Organisation Beihang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Signed an MOU with the Laboratory for future research collaboration in the area of Air Traffic Management.
Collaborator Contribution Signed an MOU with the Laboratory for future research collaboration in the area of Air Traffic Management.
Impact We are the early stages of the collaboration and there are no output yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description 17th Airline Marketing Workshop, Athens, Greece 2 March 2017 - Improving Airport Capacity Management through Collaborative Slot Scheduling 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Konstantinos G. Zografos (OR-MASTER PI) was an invited speaker at this event. The objective of his presentation was to inform industry/business (airlines, airports, ground handling service providers) about new airport slot allocation approaches proposed by the OR-MASTER project.The presentation was focused on how airport capacity can be better managed through collaborative slot scheduling. Issues related to the trade-off between fairness and efficiency in airport slot scheduling were discussed. Around 200 industry/business representatives became aware of the potential impact that OR-MASTER results may have on their operations. This is considered an activity of significant potential impact as it has raised the awareness of key stakeholders regarding the potential impact of the project results on their operations. Potential outcomes of this activity may include changes in airport slot allocation and capacity management decisions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.aia.gr/company-and-business/press-and-Media/press-office/press-releases/17o-synedrio-mark...
 
Description 97th Transport Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington DC, USA 7-11 January 2018 - On the Development of a Fair and Efficient Slot Scheduling Mechanism at Congested Airports 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Konstantinos G. Zografos (OR-MASTER PI) organized a session on Airport Capacity Management at the 97th Annual TRB Meeting, and presented a slot allocation mechanism which considers efficiency, fairness, and airline preferences. Around 50 professionals, academics, policy makers, and post graduate students participated in this talk and became aware of the findings of the OR-MASTER project and its impact on slot allocation policies and airport capacity management. This is an activity of significant potential impact that has the potential to influence practice. The paper on which this presentation was based was characterized as practice ready. TRB is using the following criteria to characterize a paper as practice ready: The paper must be recommended for presentation at the Annual Meeting. (Publication in the Transportation Research Record is not a requirement.) The research results presented and discussed in the paper should be ready for immediate implementation or with minimal additional research or implementation effort.The paper should contain guidance on additional effort required for implementation.The research should make a major contribution to the solution of current or future problems or issues. This engagement activity has the potential to stimulate increased research interest, and to influence professional practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.trb.org/AnnualMeeting/AnnualMeeting.aspx
 
Description 97th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., U.S.A. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Three fairness objectives for slot scheduling at capacity-constrained airports are proposed.

The three objectives are integrated into a bi-objective modelling framework, which is solved by the e-constraint method using a hierarchical solution procedure following existing IATA slot allocation rules.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2007,2017
URL http://www.trb.org/AnnualMeeting/AnnualMeeting.aspx,
 
Description Air Traffic Management.net (April) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The article "Slot Machining" appeared in Air Traffic Management.net magazine
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.airtrafficmanagement.net/2015/04/slot-machining/
 
Description Air Traffic Management.net (March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The article "Superbrain to offer big data capacity boost" appeared in Air Traffic Management.net magazine
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.airtrafficmanagement.net/2015/03/superbrain-to-crunch-big-data-for-capacity-boost/
 
Description Airport Focus International 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The article "The search for slots" appeared in Airport Focus International
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://airportfocusinternational.com/the-search-for-slots/
 
Description Airport Slot Allocation Processes (ASAP) kick off meeting on the 18th and 19th October 2018 in Lisbon, Portugal. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Konstantinos G. Zografos (OR-MASTER PI) gave a presentation on "Optimising airport slot scheduling decisions: The OR-MASTER project" was given at the Airport Slot Allocation Processes (ASAP) kick off meeting on the 18th and 19th October 2018 in Lisbon, Portugal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://citta.fe.up.pt/events/airport-slot-allocation-processes-asap-kickoff-meeting
 
Description Annual Conference STOR-i, Lancaster University, England 11-12 January 2018 - Strategic and Tactical Methods for Reducing Delays at Airports 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Rob Shone (OR-MASTER Research Associate) gave a presentation describing how airport resources can be managed dynamically in response to observed levels of congestion and weather conditions. This talk discussed how a hybridized queuing system formulation can be used within a stochastic dynamic programming framework in order to find an optimal policy for the dynamic control of airport resources. 100 people attended this conference.The objective of this activity was to stimulate research interests in aviation Operational Research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/stor-i/training/conferences--workshops/annual-conference/
 
Description CENTRAL Forum, Lancaster University, England, 3 October 2017 - Tactical Optimisation for the Management of Scarce Resources at Busy Airports 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Rob Shone (OR-MASTER Research Associate) presented a talk on how Airports can adapt to the increasing demand by improving the efficiency of their operations. This talk to 25 postgraduate students and academics lead to further discussion on tactical optimisation for the management of scarce resources at busy airports. The objective of this activity was to stimulate the research interests of the students in the area of aviation Operational Research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description E&T 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The article "£70m boost for UK science and engineering projects" appeared in Engineering & Technology Magazine
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://eandt.theiet.org/news/2015/mar/epsrc-funding.cfm
 
Description European Conference on Stochastic Optimization (ECSO), Rome , Italy 20-22 September 2017 - Tactical Optimisation for the Management of Scarce Resources at Busy Airports 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Rob Shone (OR-MASTER Research Associate) discussed how a hybridized queuing system formulation can be used within a stochastic dynamic programming framework in order to find an optimal policy for the dynamic control of airport resources. There were 20 people and a question and answer session afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://ecso2017.inf.uniroma3.it/
 
Description Getting it Right at Mexico City's New Airport: International Conference on Aviation and Airport Services Reforms for the Next Generation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Konstantinos G. Zografos (OR-MASTER PI) gave a presentation titled "Slot Allocation: Alternatives, Strengths and Weaknesses" in Mexico City, November 5-6, 2015
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.alianzaxcompetencia.com/getting-it-right-at-mexico-citys-new-airport-international-confer...
 
Description Institute for Operational Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) Annual Meeting, Houston, USA 22 to 25 October 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Jamie Fairbrother (OR-MASTER Senior Research Associate) described a new approach to fairness in slot allocation which takes into account taking into account the peaking characteristics of demand. 30 people participated in this session.The objective of this presentation was to contribute to the scientific dialogue regarding the development of policies and mechanisms for allocating slots at congested airports.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://meetings2.informs.org/wordpress/houston2017/
 
Description Institute of Mathematics and its Applications and Operations Research Society meeting, Birmingham, England 20 -21 April 2017 - A decision framework for allocating scare resources at congested airports 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Poster which gave a broad overview of the OR-MASTER project. This explained the context of airport congestion, the aims and structure of the project and work currently being undertaken. The session was attended by 200 people at the conference and several of them stopped for a one to one discussion.The objective of this activity was to stimulate research interests in aviation operational research, and to contribute to the scientific debate regarding airport slot allocation and capacity management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://ima.org.uk/1365/ima-society-conference-mathematics-operational-research/
 
Description Institute of Mathematics and its Applications and Operations Research Society meeting, Birmingham, England 20 -21 April 2017 - Airport and air traffic optimization session 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr. Michael Epitropakis (OR-MASTER affiliated researcher) gave a presentation titled "Airport slot scheduling decisions through evolutionary multi-objective algorithms: An initial study". 20 people attended this session.The objective of this activity was to stimulate research interests in aviation operational research, and to contribute to the scientific debate regarding airport slot allocation and capacity management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://cdn.ima.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Programme-IMA-and-OR-Society-Conference-on-Math...
 
Description Institute of Mathematics and its Applications and Operations Research Society meeting, Birmingham, England 20 -21 April 2017 - Modelling Operational Delays at Airports 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This OR-MASTER poster presented "Modelling Operational Delays at Airports" at the conference and there were questions and a discussion. The session was attended by 200 people and there were one to one discussions with people. The objective of this activity was to stimulate research interests in aviation operational research, and to contribute to the scientific debate regarding airport slot allocation and capacity management.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://ima.org.uk/1365/ima-society-conference-mathematics-operational-research/
 
Description International Airport Review (July) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The article " Improving airport capacity management with OR-MASTER" appeared in the International Airport Review (magazine and web)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.internationalairportreview.com/20035/past-issues/issue-4-2015/improving-airport-capacity-...
 
Description International Airport Review (March) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The article "Experts address UK airport congestion" appeared in International Airport Review
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.internationalairportreview.com/19129/airport-news/experts-address-uk-airport-congestion/
 
Description N8 Decarbonising Transport Workshop, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Rob Shone (OR-MASTER Research Associate) gave a presentation to develop an understanding of how the objectives of the OR-MASTER project are relevant to broader issues in transportation, and to raise awareness of the work being done on the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description NZHealthTec 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The article "Lancaster experts to lead new expostulate to clear airfield ability and tackle congestion" appeared on NZHealthTec.com
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.nzhealthtec.com/lancaster-experts-to-lead-new-drive-to-unlock-airport-capacity-and-tackle...
 
Description OR-MASTER project lead discusses airport congestion on BBC Radio 4 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Konstantinos G. Zografos (OR-MASTER PI) spoke on BBC Radio4 's "You and Yours" programme on 10th March 2016 about the reason why more and more flights arriving and departing from UK airports are ending in delays and his OR-MASTER research. The objective of this activity was to make the general public aware of the potential impacts of the OR-MASTER in reducing flight delays.Media monitoring shows that the programme was listened to by 3.28 Million people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b072hlw3
 
Description OR60 'Anniversary' Conference, 11-13 September 2018 - The Operational Research Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Fotis Katsigiannis (OR-MASTER Doctoral Student) gave a presentation to get feedback on a multi-criteria decision making hierarchy which will take into account stakeholders' preferences so as to elicit schedules from a number of equally efficient alternatives.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.theorsociety.com/Pages/conferences/OR60/OR60.aspx
 
Description OR60 'Anniversary' Conference, 11-13 September 2018 - The Operational Research Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Rob Shone (OR-MASTER Research Associate) gave a keynote presentation for the "Stochastic Processes" stream of the OR60 conference. A short question-and-answer session took place at the end. The talk covered methods for modelling queues of aircraft as stochastic processes, and related optimisation problems. The talk was aiming to inform audience members about the context of the OR-MASTER project and the modelling and optimisation challenges that we are planning to tackle in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.theorsociety.com/Pages/conferences/OR60/OR60.aspx
 
Description OR60 'Anniversary' Conference, 11-13 September 2018 - The Operational Research Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Jamie Fairbrother (OR-MASTER Senior Research Associate) gave a presentation entitled 'A slot allocation model with queuing constraints based on the server-always-busy approximation'. The talk was about a new model for allocation which incorporated operational delays and which was developed by Dr Fairbrother and Dr Shone.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.theorsociety.com/Pages/Conferences/OR60/OR60.aspx
 
Description Odysseus, 7th International Workshop on Freight Transport and Logistics, Cagliari, Italy 3 - 8 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Jamie Fairbrother (OR-MASTER Senior Research Associate) gave a presentation on "Introducing flexibility and demand-based fairness in slot scheduling decisions".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://convegni.unica.it/odysseus2018/
 
Description Presidential Address at British Science Association Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Kevin Glazebrook (OR-MASTER CoPI) A lecture entitled "Advanced Airports and On-Time Ambulances" was given to approximately 50 people at the British Science Association Festival, which sparked questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
 
Description Research presentation at INFORMS Annual Meeting 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Rob Shone (OR-MASTER Research Associate) gave a talk to an audience of academics and professional practitioners attending the INFORMS Annual Meeting in Phoenix, November 2018. The purpose was to raise awareness and interest in the work being done as part of the OR-MASTER project and obtain feedback on our research activities from experts in aviation applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.informs.org/Meetings-Conferences/INFORMS-Conference-Calendar/2018-INFORMS-Annual-Meeting...
 
Description Research presentation at INFORMS Annual Meeting 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr Jamie Fairbrother (OR-MASTER Senior Research Associate) gave a presentation of work on a slot allocation model with flexible scheduling of request series. The purpose was to disseminate our research and get feedback from other academics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.informs.org/Meetings-Conferences/INFORMS-Conference-Calendar/2018-INFORMS-Annual-Meeting...
 
Description STOR-I Problem Solving Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Jamie Fairbrother (OR-MASTER Senior Researcher Associate) ran a problem-solving day event for postgraduate students. The problem was about slot allocation and so highlighted the research on the project taking place in the Center for Transport and Logistics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description STOR-i Research Talk, Lancaster Univeristy, England 24 January 2018 - Fairness and Prioritization in Slot Scheduling 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Jamie Fairbrother (OR-MASTER Senior Research Associate ) presented a new slot allocation model which incorporated efficiency, fairness and airline preferences. 14 postgraduate students participated in this event and became aware of the OR-MASTER project results . The objective of this activity was to stimulate the research interest of STOR-i postgraduate students in the area of aviation Operational Research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description STOR-i Research Topics Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Shone (OR-MASTER Postdoctoral Researcher) delivered a presentation to postgraduate students enrolled on the STOR-i PhD programme at Lancaster University on "Slot Allocation and Stochastic Modelling at Airports", with particular reference to the activities of the OR-MASTER project. The students are expected to write academic reports on topics related to the application of statistics and/or operational research in industry, and it is hoped that they will consider the modelling and mitigation of congestion at airports as a potential subject for their reports.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description StochMod2018 - the biennial meeting of the EURO Working Group on Stochastic Modelling, Lancaster, UK 13 to15 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Rob Shone (OR-MASTER Research Associate) gave a presentation on "ADP strategies for resource allocation at congested airports"
In modern transportation systems there exists a need to develop fast, responsive and easily adaptable methods for computing optimal (or near-optimal) solutions to problems in which resources must be allocated dynamically in order to satisfy time-varying demands from multiple sources. In this talk we consider the case of a single airport which, in response to a pre-determined schedule of arrivals and departures, must use its runway capacity efficiently in order to minimise an objective function based on weighted second moments of aircraft queue lengths.
In keeping with a well-established convention in the literature, we model departures and arrivals as independent stochastic queues with time-varying arrival and service rates. Service times are assumed to follow Erlang distributions, whereas for the arrival distributions we consider two possible cases: non-homogeneous Poisson processes and pre-scheduled arrivals with random deviations. We discuss how to formulate the problem of optimising airport capacity usage as a Markov decision process (MDP), and introduce a "surrogate problem" which closely resembles our original problem during periods of heavy demand. We then show that, in our surrogate problem, the MDP value function can be represented as a quadratic function of the state variables, and use this principle to develop ADP strategies for optimising capacity utilisation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jacko/stochmod2018/
 
Description TRISTAN Symposium 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The objective of this paper is develop and solve a new class of airport slot scheduling models that consider simultaneously slot scheduling and fairness objectives. A fairness metric for the slot scheduling problem is introduced. Two bi-objective formulations considering both fairness and efficiency are presented. The first one adopts schedule displacement to express scheduling efficiency, while the second one weights the displacement by aircraft size. Both models are solved via the e-constraint method using a row generation algorithm,.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.globaleventslist.elsevier.com/events/2016/06/tristan-2016/
 
Description Technology.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The article "Lancaster experts to lead new drive to unlock airport capacity and tackle congestion" appeared on Technology.org
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.technology.org/2015/03/20/lancaster-experts-to-lead-new-drive-to-unlock-airport-capacity-...
 
Description Transport and Logistics Exchange, Lancaster University, England 31 October 2017 - Fairness in Slot Scheduling 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact In this talk Dr. Jamie Fairbrother (OR-MASTER Senior Research Associate) described a new approach to fairness in slot allocation which takes into account the whether demand for a slot is peak or off-peak. A characterisation of peak periods was given and then used to define a new fairness index, and numerical results demonstrating its superiority over a previous fairness index were presented. This was given at a weekly meeting of PhD students, and post-docs (14 people) who are members of the Centre for Transport and Logistics Research (CENTRAL). The talk increased the awareness of students regarding the application of mathematical modelling and optimization methods in solving complex real world problems, and stimulated their research interests in the area of aviation Operational Research. .
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description airport-technology.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The article "UK launches £2.8m project to address airport capacity congestion issues" appeared on airport-technology.com
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.airport-technology.com/news/newsuk-launches-28m-project-to-address-airport-capacity-conge...