Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance: An Interdisciplinary Approach

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Chemical Engineering

Abstract

The proposal aims to facilitate and encourage multidisciplinary research at Loughborough University (LU) into the healthcare environment (air, water and surfaces) and in community settings (e.g. nursing and care homes, low income countries with high population densities) as potential reservoirs for the transmission of antimicrobial resistant infectious agents. Hospital surfaces are a reservoir for transmission of antimicrobial resistant infectious agents, typically via contamination of the hands of healthcare workers. Staphylococci, C. difficile and Acinetobacter species have been shown to survive many months on high touch near-patient surfaces in healthcare environments. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that patients admitted to rooms previously occupied by colonised patients have a higher probability of acquiring (i.e. is a risk factor for colonisation or infection) the same pathogen. Other studies have shown aerial dissemination of infectious agents, e.g. C. difficile spores, making it particularly difficult to eradicate infectious agents in hospitals. Despite a recent focus on performance management to improve the efficacy of cleaning and disinfection processes, published studies have demonstrated the presence of culturable indicator organisms (e.g. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci) post conventional "terminal disinfection" (i.e. upon patient discharge). Bacterial endospores (e.g. Clostridium difficile) are particularly resilient to routine disinfection treatments due to a variety of factors including use of insufficient, low concentration disinfectant, inadequate contact times etc .The Chief Medical Officer's report highlights issues such as poor design that limits cleaning, poor ventilation and poor water-supply management (risk of Legionella species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). One of the problems of AMR is the length of time taken to identify pathogens (1-3 days) resulting in (i) potential spread of infectious agents; (ii) antibiotics given to patients unnecessarily 'just in case'. Rapid diagnostics would aid early detection and isolation of patients that would otherwise spread contamination. Photocatalytic self-cleaning surfaces could inactivate infectious agents landing on surfaces thereby breaking the link between contaminated surfaces and transmission through contact. Barriers and levers could be identified to improve hand-hygiene compliance whilst monitoring compliance in real-time using teletracking technology. Novel surface, air and water disinfection systems could be developed e.g. using atmospheric plasma technology. Natural ventilation systems could be designed to improve air quality and reduce dispersal of infectious agents in multi-bed wards. The proposal aims to focus on the following three AMR research themes: (i) Accelerating therapeutic and diagnostics development - Alternative approaches to treat resistant bacteria; New technologies for identifying resistant bacteria to underpin diagnostics development; Scale-up and manufacture of biotherapeutics; The effective delivery of existing antimicrobial agents (ii) Understanding the real world interactions - Understanding the role of the environment as a reservoir for AMR microorganisms and the transmission of infections in community and healthcare environments; Ways to manipulate the environment to prevent transmission (iii) Behaviour within and beyond the healthcare setting - Elucidate underpinning motivations for human behaviours relating to the spread of AMR infectious microorganisms in the healthcare environment and the community; Evaluate interventions to control/prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

Planned Impact

The proposed Bridging the Gaps bid aims to bring together highly relevant broad academic expertise in the identified AMR research themes : the focus of the project will be on the environment in healthcare and the community, as a reservoir for the transmission of infections. Through cross-sector engagement multidisciplinary research teams will focus on solving clinically-relevant problems. Strong involvement of clinical partners will ensure critical oversight of problem definition so that the ideas that receive funding have the potential to address real-world problems. Problem-led research will be fed through to clinical partners to work jointly on implementation and behaviour change within healthcare organisations. The potential for policy change within public health will be addressed through collaboration with national organisations (e.g. Public Health England). The programme will have strong clinical and industrial steer using its advisory board chaired by Peter Ellingworth (CEO, ABHI) with high level representatives drawn from the NHS (e.g. The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust), Charities (e.g. Infection Prevention Society), regional bodies (e.g. East Midlands Infectious Diseases Research Network, EMIDRN) and Industry (e.g. Smith & Nephew, Hygiene Solutions etc). Industrial partners supporting the project will bring a commercial edge to the activities to ensure opportunities for commercialisation are not overlooked. There will be considerable potential for development of new Intellectual Property around innovative technologies, equipment and techniques, and the added benefit of developing these innovations from a multidisciplinary perspective focusing on AMR. The LU Enterprise Office will be engaged at an early stage in the AMR BtG activities to help facilitate knowledge transfer e.g. through 'Innovate UK' funded 'knowledge transfer partnerships', and with intellectual property protection (e.g. early exploration of intellectual property potential of new research ideas through patent applications). The Advisory/Management Group will ensure continued benefit and impact by representing the voices of all stakeholders and guiding the research, as well as providing a path to addressing problems facing healthcare providers in particular. The network will be further developed using the already established network of contacts of the collaborating organisations and their members e.g. leveraging Medilink (EMIDRN), Infection Prevention Society (IPS), ABHI and targeting other related networks e.g. Hospital Infection Society (HIS).

Publications

10 25 50

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Clemente A (2019) Staphylococcus aureus resists UVA at low irradiance but succumbs in the presence of TiO2 photocatalytic coatings. in Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology

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Granja C (2020) A quartz crystal resonator for cellular phenotyping in Biosensors and Bioelectronics: X

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Malik DJ (2017) Formulation, stabilisation and encapsulation of bacteriophage for phage therapy. in Advances in colloid and interface science

 
Description We have developed scalable approaches to manufacture new antibiotics based on bacteriophages and bacteriocins. We have developed processes for the micro- and nanoencapsulation of novel antibiotics for controlled release and targeted delivery for treatment of pulmonary, wound and gastrointestinal infections. We are working with a number of international companies (in confidence) in the pre-clinical phase to develop novel phage based therapeutics for treating bacterial infections and diseases related to disorders of the microbiome.
In addition, we have developed novel diagnostic technologies by particle trapping and using nonlinear acoustic methods integrated with microfluidic platforms.
Exploitation Route We are working with international companies directly undertaking further related research as well as undertaking consultancy projects related to development of bacteriophages and other advanced biologicals as therapeutics. We have applied for a patent on research arising from the work. We have secured funding for a PhD studentship from a company to further develop the findings of research funded through this grant on microencapsulation of bacteriophages.
Sectors Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

URL http://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/amr/
 
Description We have applied for a patent in the field of nanoencapsulation. We are working with a number of international companies to translate the methods and tools developed during the project related to formulation and encapsulation of biological therapeutics to treat bacterial infections and microbiome related disorders.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Agriculture, Food and Drink,Healthcare,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Phage Therapy to Reduce AMR Enterobacteria Spread from a One Health Perspective
Amount £482,880 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/W031248/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2022 
End 04/2025
 
Description The development of a phage food additive with the aim to control Salmonella in swine and poultry
Amount £535,882 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R012822/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 04/2021
 
Title Dataset for "Reversible Trapping of Colloids in Microgrooved Channels via Diffusiophoresis under Steady-State Solute Gradients" 
Description Experimental and simulated particle concentration fields used to generate the results shown in Fig.1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 of "Reversible Trapping of Colloids in Microgrooved Channels via Diffusiophoresis under Steady-State Solute Gradients" by N. Singh, G. Vladisavljevic, F. Nadal, C. Cottin-Bizonne, C. Pirat, G. Bolognesi. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/dataset/Dataset_for_Reversible_Trapping_of_Colloids_in_Micro...
 
Title Dataset for "Reversible Trapping of Colloids in Microgrooved Channels via Diffusiophoresis under Steady-State Solute Gradients" 
Description Experimental and simulated particle concentration fields used to generate the results shown in Fig.1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 of "Reversible Trapping of Colloids in Microgrooved Channels via Diffusiophoresis under Steady-State Solute Gradients" by N. Singh, G. Vladisavljevic, F. Nadal, C. Cottin-Bizonne, C. Pirat, G. Bolognesi. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/dataset/Dataset_for_Reversible_Trapping_of_Colloids_in_Micro...
 
Title Supplementary Information Files for Reversible trapping of colloids in microgrooved channels via diffusiophoresis under steady-state solute gradients 
Description Supplementary Information Files for Reversible trapping of colloids in microgrooved channels via diffusiophoresis under steady-state solute gradients
The controlled transport of colloids in dead-end structures is a key capability that can enable a wide range of applications, such as bio-chemical analysis, drug delivery and underground oil recovery. This letter presents a new trapping mechanism that allows the fast (i.e., within a few minutes) and reversible accumulation of sub-micron particles within dead-end micro-grooves by means of parallel streams with different salinity level. For the first time, particle focusing in dead-end structures is achieved under steady-state gradients. Confocal microscopy analysis and numerical investigations show that the particles are trapped at a flow recirculation region within the grooves due to a combination of diffusiophoresis transport and hydrodynamic effects. Counterintuitively, the particle velocity at the focusing point is not vanishing and, hence, the particles are continuously transported in and out of the focusing point. The accumulation process is also reversible and one can cyclically trap and release the colloids by controlling the salt concentration of the streams via a flow switching valve. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/dataset/Supplementary_Information_Files_for_Reversible_trapp...
 
Title Supplementary Information Files for Reversible trapping of colloids in microgrooved channels via diffusiophoresis under steady-state solute gradients 
Description Supplementary Information Files for Reversible trapping of colloids in microgrooved channels via diffusiophoresis under steady-state solute gradients
The controlled transport of colloids in dead-end structures is a key capability that can enable a wide range of applications, such as bio-chemical analysis, drug delivery and underground oil recovery. This letter presents a new trapping mechanism that allows the fast (i.e., within a few minutes) and reversible accumulation of sub-micron particles within dead-end micro-grooves by means of parallel streams with different salinity level. For the first time, particle focusing in dead-end structures is achieved under steady-state gradients. Confocal microscopy analysis and numerical investigations show that the particles are trapped at a flow recirculation region within the grooves due to a combination of diffusiophoresis transport and hydrodynamic effects. Counterintuitively, the particle velocity at the focusing point is not vanishing and, hence, the particles are continuously transported in and out of the focusing point. The accumulation process is also reversible and one can cyclically trap and release the colloids by controlling the salt concentration of the streams via a flow switching valve. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/dataset/Supplementary_Information_Files_for_Reversible_trapp...
 
Title Supplementary information files for A quartz crystal resonator for cellular phenotyping 
Description Supplementary files for article A quartz crystal resonator for cellular phenotyping. Cell therapy manufacturing is limited by lack of online tools capable of realtime in-process monitoring, particularly of simultaneous changes in multiple orthogonal (mutually independent) parameters. Here, we studied changes in CD36 expression, number density and size (area) of erythroblasts through different stages of erythropoiesis in vitro using a quartz crystal resonator (QCR), integrated with a microscope, and flow cytometry in parallel. An analytical model was developed extending the Kanazawa-Gordon theory. Based on this model, independent correlations were established between changes in each QCR parameter, dissipation (?G) and resonance frequency (?-?f?_0), and CD36 expression (from flow cytometry) and cell area (from microscope). The correlation functions were used to derive an acoustic signature (-?G/??f?_0) of the differentiation process that uniquely mapped the relative changes in CD36 expression and late-stage enucleation-related deviations. A method to quantify relative changes in cell area purely from the acoustic parameters was also proposed. This work demonstrated for the first time the potential of an electromechanical tool for online monitoring of concurrently varying orthogonal phenotypic parameters in cell therapy manufacturing.
 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/dataset/Supplementary_information_files_for_A_quartz_crystal...
 
Title Supplementary information files for A quartz crystal resonator for cellular phenotyping 
Description Supplementary files for article A quartz crystal resonator for cellular phenotyping. Cell therapy manufacturing is limited by lack of online tools capable of realtime in-process monitoring, particularly of simultaneous changes in multiple orthogonal (mutually independent) parameters. Here, we studied changes in CD36 expression, number density and size (area) of erythroblasts through different stages of erythropoiesis in vitro using a quartz crystal resonator (QCR), integrated with a microscope, and flow cytometry in parallel. An analytical model was developed extending the Kanazawa-Gordon theory. Based on this model, independent correlations were established between changes in each QCR parameter, dissipation (?G) and resonance frequency (?-?f?_0), and CD36 expression (from flow cytometry) and cell area (from microscope). The correlation functions were used to derive an acoustic signature (-?G/??f?_0) of the differentiation process that uniquely mapped the relative changes in CD36 expression and late-stage enucleation-related deviations. A method to quantify relative changes in cell area purely from the acoustic parameters was also proposed. This work demonstrated for the first time the potential of an electromechanical tool for online monitoring of concurrently varying orthogonal phenotypic parameters in cell therapy manufacturing.
 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://repository.lboro.ac.uk/articles/dataset/Supplementary_information_files_for_A_quartz_crystal...
 
Description A novel platform for rapid and direct detection of diarrheagenic pathogen combining nonlinear acoustic technique with molecular imprinted polymer 
Organisation University of Leicester
Department Department of Cardiovascular Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Loughborough academic (Dr. Sourav Ghosh) has expertise in anharmonic (nonlinear) acoustic technique which is being used to develop a novel platform for rapid and direct detection of diarrheagenic pathogens
Collaborator Contribution Professor Sergey Piletsky (University of Leicester) is a leading expert in the synthesis of molecular imprinted polymers which are being developed to sense bacterial and viral epitopes.
Impact Project is currently underway, outputs will arise over the next 12 months. The project is multidisciplinary. The disciplines are Mechanical Engineering and Polymer Chemistry.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Collaborative partnership with two NHS Trusts, for proof-of-concept study title 'Reducing misdiagnosis and antibiotic prescribing practices in hospitals: a case series review and qualitative study of diagnosis, management and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults aged over 70 years' 
Organisation Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I am PI for the proof of concept study (£25,000 award through the EPSRC Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance Award), and study coordinator in the NHS protocol. I took responsibility for designing the study, submitting the application for NHS ethics approval and involving Patient Public Involvement Groups.
Collaborator Contribution Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust have acted as study sponsor, and this is a multi-site study. At each of the two NHS Trust sites, a consultant microbiology is on the research team. The consultant microbiologist at BCHC is the PI for the purposes of the NHS protocol. Through BCHC NHS Trust, we have employed a NIHR network clinical research nurse to work on the study.
Impact Data collection started in November 2016 and is still ongoing. The collaboration is multidiscplinary with epidemiologists, social scientists, microbiologists and physicians.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Collaborative partnership with two NHS Trusts, for proof-of-concept study title 'Reducing misdiagnosis and antibiotic prescribing practices in hospitals: a case series review and qualitative study of diagnosis, management and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults aged over 70 years' 
Organisation Royal Wolverhampton Hospitals NHS Trust
Department Renal Unit
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution I am PI for the proof of concept study (£25,000 award through the EPSRC Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance Award), and study coordinator in the NHS protocol. I took responsibility for designing the study, submitting the application for NHS ethics approval and involving Patient Public Involvement Groups.
Collaborator Contribution Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust have acted as study sponsor, and this is a multi-site study. At each of the two NHS Trust sites, a consultant microbiology is on the research team. The consultant microbiologist at BCHC is the PI for the purposes of the NHS protocol. Through BCHC NHS Trust, we have employed a NIHR network clinical research nurse to work on the study.
Impact Data collection started in November 2016 and is still ongoing. The collaboration is multidiscplinary with epidemiologists, social scientists, microbiologists and physicians.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Isolation and analysis of bacteria from whole blood for rapid sepsis diagnostics 
Organisation Royal Institute of Technology
Department Clinical Microfluidics Laboratory
Country Sweden 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Loughborough academics have expertise in label-free nonlinear acoustic detection technique which is being used in this collaborative project for the analysis of bacteria from whole blood for rapid sepsis diagnosis.
Collaborator Contribution Dr Aman Russom's group at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, has demonstrated selective cell lysis of whole blood cells which is key to the coupling of the microfluidic blood handling part of the project and the detection.
Impact Project is currently underway - outputs will arise in 12 months time. This project is multidisciplinary. Dr Sourav Ghosh, Lecturer in Healthcare Engineering, Loughborough University: an acoustic sensor expert, who will lead the overall project and the ADT sensor development. Dr Aman Russom#, Associate Professor and Head of the Clinical Microfluidics lab at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm: a clinical sample processing expert, who will lead the selective cell lysis work. Dr Volkan Özenci#, Senior Consultant and Associate Professor, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm: a clinical microbiology expert, who will provide the clinical supervision in the project and host the researcher for the clinical work.
Start Year 2017
 
Description To characterize the volatile metabolites for bio-profiling infecting organisms in chronic wounds 
Organisation Cardiff Metropolitan University
Department School of Heath Sciences
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Loughborough has expertise in the field Volatiles profiling using mass spectrometry. This expertise is being used to identify volatile signatures arising from bacteria colonisation and infection in wounds.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wound microbiology and clinical chronic wound management and surgical treatment.
Impact Recent collaboration still ongoing. Outputs will arise in 12 months time. Project is multidisciplinary involving analytical sciences, microbiology and wound specialists.
Start Year 2017
 
Description To characterize the volatile metabolites for bio-profiling infecting organisms in chronic wounds 
Organisation Cardiff University
Department School of Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Loughborough has expertise in the field Volatiles profiling using mass spectrometry. This expertise is being used to identify volatile signatures arising from bacteria colonisation and infection in wounds.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in wound microbiology and clinical chronic wound management and surgical treatment.
Impact Recent collaboration still ongoing. Outputs will arise in 12 months time. Project is multidisciplinary involving analytical sciences, microbiology and wound specialists.
Start Year 2017
 
Description To characterize the volatile metabolites produced by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Organisation August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
Department Hospital Clinic of Barcelona
Country Spain 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Loughborough brings expertise in analytical sciences related to measuring volatiles in exhaled breath using mass spectrometry.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in host infection and inflammation biomarkers and clinical expertise related to pneumonia.
Impact No outputs as yet as project has recently started. Project is multidisciplinary involving analytical sciences, immunology and clinical expertise in pneumonia.
Start Year 2017
 
Description To characterize the volatile metabolites produced by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
Organisation University of Birmingham
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Loughborough brings expertise in analytical sciences related to measuring volatiles in exhaled breath using mass spectrometry.
Collaborator Contribution Expertise in host infection and inflammation biomarkers and clinical expertise related to pneumonia.
Impact No outputs as yet as project has recently started. Project is multidisciplinary involving analytical sciences, immunology and clinical expertise in pneumonia.
Start Year 2017
 
Description VAS vacular independent research and education European organisation 
Organisation Vascular Independent Research and Education European Organisation
Country Italy 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Membership of statistics committee
Collaborator Contribution Overall administration of VAS organisation
Impact None as yet
Start Year 2013
 
Description AMR Workshop Hosted at Loughborough 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Engaging interdisciplinary researchers/clinicians/industry/policy makers to map needs and challenges associated with AMR. Mapped clinical need and identified potential research projects to address this need. Held a series of invited seminars for clinicians and industry relevant to AMR.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.lboro.ac.uk/research/amr/
 
Description Consultation with Patient Public Involvement Group 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact The research team and a representative from our study sponsor attended the Leicestershire and Rutland Frail and Older Adults Patient, Public Involvement group. We wanted to discuss the acceptability of our proposed research design, and we also asked for the opinion of the group about a particular issue surrounding ethics. Following feedback from the group, we modified some of the language in our recruitment materials for the study, we also made some important notes about the concerns of the group regarding ethical procedures, and these went into the considerations of our proposal submitted to the NHS Health Research Authority. We found the engagement with the group very valuable.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Diagnostics Workshop, 21st June 2016, Loughborough University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop focused on specific clinical theme (diagnostics) to identify clinical needs and opportunities where Loughborough with its partners could make impact. The workshop resulted in building of Interdisciplinary research teams around specific project ideas developed in workshops to address specific challenges within the clinical theme where we are best placed to make significant impact. We have successfully encouraged early career researchers to engage with the AMR research challenges by inviting them to workshops and encouraging them to take on roles as project leads. Workshops have included 'clinical problem champions' with strong support from our 'Advisory Board' to help the network better understand specific AMR challenges that we as an organisation can engage with but also to impress upon the network the national and global importance of these challenges. We have reached out to international external collaborators with a view to positioning our network to target funding through the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF); this will allow us to extend further research supported through the AMR network working in partnership with international institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Presentation, Federation of Infection Societies Annual Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation: Misdiagnosis and antibiotic prescribing practices related to asymptomatic bacteriuria in the elderly: a case series review.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Research Engagement, Leicester Academy for the Study of Ageing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We reported findings of proof-of-concept study and qualitative interviews on UTI in older adults, and in turn, sought advice and guidance on developing a new research proposal which will build on the preliminary studies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Wound & Biofilms Workshop 13 & 14 December 2016, Loughborough University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Workshop focused on specific clinical theme (wounds and biofilms) to identify clinical needs and opportunities where Loughborough with its partners could make impact. The workshop resulted in building of Interdisciplinary research teams around specific project ideas developed in workshops to address specific challenges within the clinical theme where we are best placed to make significant impact. We have successfully encouraged early career researchers to engage with the AMR research challenges by inviting them to workshops and encouraging them to take on roles as project leads. Workshops have included 'clinical problem champions' with strong support from our 'Advisory Board' to help the network better understand specific AMR challenges that we as an organisation can engage with but also to impress upon the network the national and global importance of these challenges. We have reached out to international external collaborators with a view to positioning our network to target funding through the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF); this will allow us to extend further research supported through the AMR network working in partnership with international institutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016