Combined Heat and Photo Voltaics (CHPV)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Electrical Engineering and Electronics

Abstract

The Combined Heat and Photo-voltaic (CHPV) based local energy system solution was formulated on the simple, but
effective observation that CHP systems develop low carbon and energy efficient electrical power in the colder months of
the year in the UK and Photo-voltaic (PV) power generation provides most of its low carbon power generation when there is
no demand for heat in commercial buildings. By combining these two primary energy supplies, it is potentially feasible to
create a LES which is autonomous to the national electricity grid by appropriate sizing of the CHP and PV systems. That
said the supply and demand is highly transient and the use of energy storage and advanced control systems and other
demand side measures such as Smart DC systems for lighting and ICT networks will enable accurate supply and demand
matching for both heat and power. This potential LES solution is highly attractive to industry partners in the CHPV project
such as Peel Utilities, BRE and ARUP. The system potentially offers a high return-on-infrastructure investment (ROI),
however it is extremely complex to design to ensure that this ROI can be reliably achieved in practice. In order to assist in
the design and implementation of CHPV based LES systems the following research needs to be carried out:
Task 1: Dr J. Counsell with the research assistant will develop ESL based models for the energy supply and demand
systems such as CHP and PV and the already developed through BRE Trust R&D funded projects IDEAS dynamic
modelling of buildings and there energy using systems. The researcher will be able to draw on existing models within the
EEE department for PV and other micro-generation systems at Liverpool to rapidly develop comprehensive nonlinear dynamic models for both energy supply and energy demand in the buildings served by the CHPV based LES. (refer
references in Appendix A of the main TSB proposal for references of past modelling work)
Task 2: Led by Dr Lin Jiang the researcher will use the ESL models resulting from task 1 to develop nonlinear optimal
control solutions to guarantee supply and demand matching with the constraints of satisfying thermal comfort requirements
in the buildings and the minimising the power drawn for the national power grid. The research will need new nonlinear
inverse dynamic control algorithms developed by Dr Counsell (refer Appendix A for references) and nonlinear optimal
control strategies for demand side management systems developed by Dr Lin Jiang (refer Appendix A for references).
These control algorithms will also be modelled and used in simulation studies to prove the effective regulation of the
automated CHPV systems.
Task 3: Led By Dr Lin Jiang, the researcher will create the ESL models and tuned control algorithms for each of the three
case studies in this project.
Task 4: Dr Counsell will lead the application of the resulting case study models in partnership with Peel, BRE and ARUP to
test a number of demand side measures including Smart DC systems for LED lighting and ICT networks and devices. The
tests will establish the energy, carbon and economic benefits that Smart DC systems will bring to the CHPV based LES
solution and the models for Smart DC systems will be validated using the EEE department's new Smart DC PoE Network
laboratory now under construction.
The lead academics and the researcher will engage with BRE and the BRE Trust to hold industry/academic research
workshops and create high quality journal and BRE Trust publications as well as hold workshops to disseminate the
effectiveness of the CHPV concept. The resulting project outputs such as design tools from the university will also be
disseminated to the wider LES community. It will also investigate the potential for the design tools to be used as part of
potentially new regulatory frameworks which are being developed outside this project for local energy systems.

Planned Impact

The impact of this project cannot be underestimated. CHP based LES is emerging around the country, many universities
are deploying this energy supply solution in inner cities, such as Liverpool, De Montford, Birmingham and others. Liverpool
is by far the most mature having recently grown to such a size that it is now 100% self sufficient in electricity and heat
generation for the university's campus as a whole. It has recently tripled its CHP capacity and is a UK exemplar system of
a LES. Peel Utilities at the same time have invested heavily in developing by coincidence but serendipitous the exact
same CHP type infrastructure for Media City in Salford and are continuing to invest to expand and make more efficient
these systems. The critical mass of the Media city and University infrastructures valued at over £50 Million being made
available to be utilised as a case study in this project creates an almost unparalleled potential impact on today's energy
supply business, societal acceptance of LES and the sustainability of urban building clusters. If these systems are to
continue to succeed and expand they will need increased levels of automation, advanced control strategies and very
detailed and accurate means to predict the energy, carbon and ROI impact of design and investment decisions made. At
present both the University's Facilities Management and Peel do not have that level of knowledge and sophisticated design
tools to enable these systems to grow and be profitable without significant risk. The project will create a pathway for both
the university and Peel to take advantage of the University of Liverpool's EPSRC Doctorate Training Centre for RISK
management alongside this core project. The presence of ARUP in the project creates a further pathway to disseminate
the significant benefits of CHPV based LES when applied to new and refurbished commercial builds or complexes,
including public buildings such as education and local authorities.
As the ESL modelling framework is object oriented, the software tools can be disseminated across a number of research
projects inside Liverpool and outside such as Newcastle, BRE, Strathclyde, Bath etc. These models present an
opportunity for other research activities with an energy systems core competence to explore further collaborative research
with Liverpool and other project partners on CHPV based LES and other LES types.
The TSB through KTN's have established a critical mass with the IET to create new codes of practice for Smart DC systems for which Dr Counsell is a member of the working groups. He was also the Chairman of the TSB's Smart DC
Special Interest Group which has now successfully transferred the Smart DC activities over to the IET. Working with IET,
TSB's KTN and the global activities such as the Emerge Alliance on Smart DC standards and frameworks, Dr Counsell can
provide a high impact pathway for the CHPV concept to be considered as an exemplar application of Smart DC buildings in
the future. These forums will facilitate other industry stakeholders to be actively involved in the research such as Philips
R&D in the Netherlands with their own new initiatives to promote Smart DC for commercial building LED lighting.
The final pathway for impact via publication is also strengthened by the presence of BRE/BRE Trust in this project who can
provide industry/academic style workshops to disseminate both knowledge and tools for CHPV based LES to industry and
academic stakeholders and other interested parties and the energy industry (both suppliers and users) at large.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The Combined Heat and Photo-voltaic (CHPV) based local energy system solution was formulated on the simple, but

an effective observation that CHP systems develop low carbon and energy efficient electrical power in the colder months of

the year in the UK and Photo-voltaic (PV) power generation provides most of its low carbon power generation when there is

no demand for heat in commercial buildings. By combining these two primary energy supplies, it is potentially feasible to

create an LES which is autonomous to the national electricity grid by appropriate sizing of the CHP and PV systems. That

said the supply and demand is highly transient and the use of energy storage and advanced control systems and other

demand side measures such as Smart DC systems for lighting and ICT networks will enable accurate supply and demand

matching for both heat and power. This potential LES solution is highly attractive to industry partners in the CHPV project

such as Peel Utilities, BRE and ARUP. The system potentially offers a high return-on-infrastructure investment (ROI),

however it is extremely complex to design to ensure that this ROI can be reliably achieved in practice.
Exploitation Route publications. knowledge transfer partnership
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Education,Energy

 
Description CHPV system design and control and Software models/performance evaluation tools using European Space Agency Simulation Language and ESL for three industry case studies: 1. With Arup North West: Renovation with CHPV of Liverpool's old post office sorting office at Copperas Hill, now part of Liverpool John Moores University. 2. With University of Liverpool: The design and model of a CHPV system using thermal storage for the University's new student campus at Greenbank 3. With Peel Utilities: A full CHPV system design and energy system model for MediaCityUK in Salford.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Energy
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description ? Academic Lead of University of Liverpool, Offshore Energy Science and Innovation Audit, Department for Business Energy and Industrial Strategy, UK. led by Newcastle University (led), Durham, Hull and Liverpool Universities, and local LEPs, 12/2016 to present, published September 2017.
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact n/a
URL http://www.ncl.ac.uk/media/wwwnclacuk/business/files/sia-report-offshore-energy.pdf
 
Description Heat supply through Solar Thermochemical Residential Seasonal Storage (Heat-STRESS)
Amount £270,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N02155X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2016 
End 05/2019
 
Description University of Liverpool & Energy Efficiency Consultancy Limited
Amount £113,651 (GBP)
Funding ID 511065 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 06/2020