Manufacturing Lightweight Carbon Nanotube Electrical Cables: Increasing the Conductivity

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: ATI Electronics

Abstract

Individual Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are as conductive as copper, they can carry more current and have ~7 times smaller density. They also perform better at high frequency, because they have a significantly-reduced skin effect, where the higher the frequency, the thinner the layer at the surface that can carry the current is, leading to increased resistance. Mechanically, CNTs are more stable as electrical conductors, as they do not suffer from creep, a phenomenon where metals deform, in time, under stress and which leads to electrical failures in wires and printed circuit boards. An electrical CNT wire that is as conductive as an aluminium or copper one will be lighter, tougher, able to carry more current and perform better at higher frequencies. Lift a power drill or a vacuum cleaner and imagine that their weight is cut in half, without losing power. The problem when going to a large scale is how to pass the current between individual nanotubes. The structure of graphite is that of individual sheets of sp2-bonded carbon, held together by weak van der Waals forces in directions perpendicular to the individual sheets; these weak forces are the reason why these planes slip across each other and the graphite lead in the pencil works. Conductivity in the plane is very high, but out of plane is much smaller; this means that if we put two nanotubes together, the electrons find a barrier between the nanotubes that they must tunnel through, reducing the conductivity. What we propose to do is to effectively weld nanotubes, by introducing defects in the nanotubes in a controlled way and then healing them together, such that the defects migrate and cancel each other between the tubes, leading to cross-linking of the CNTs in the area of contact. Therefore, our challenge is to discover a manufacturing solution for CNT wires and cables, and we are best placed to do this because we start from our proven method for getting CNTs aligned by electrospinning and we have the right expertise in the management of defects in materials, from introduction/implantation to self-healing.

Planned Impact

The proposed research is supported by T Swan Ltd, a premier independent manufacturer of performance and speciality chemicals located in Consett, County Durham. Their company is set up to produce tens of kg of CNTs and can upscale to the level of Nanocyl-Belgium and Cnano and Timesnano in China, to tonnes-per-year, if a significant application breakthrough is found, such as being able to produce lightweight conductors. This will impact significantly not only the company, but also the local economy in the North of England, creating new high-skilled jobs and wealth. The prospect is of interest also to one of the major manufacturers of electrospun fibres, Revolution Fibres, in New Zealand, who have offered their worldwide contacts and resources to help deliver the impact of a breakthrough in increasing the conductivity of carbon nanotube wires. Revolution Fibres are also looking to open a subsidiary in the UK, as a result of this, adding value to the local economy. Lightweight conductors for space and robotics applications are of interest to BAE Systems, as they will result in lighter, more powerful electrical motors that will increase the autonomy and reliability of such systems. Electrical motors will be redesigned to work at higher rpm and have higher torque than possible, which will impact throughout from the academic research and prototype design level, to the application of such motors, including for quality-of-life, such as in bionic prosthetics or for people who are immobile or mobility-impaired. The knowledge gained in this research is transferable to the class of novel 2D materials, such as graphene, where the materials are now being produced in kg quantities but with small micron-sizes and their incorporation into conductive layers requires overcoming the interface barriers. Carbon nanotubes and their fantastic possibilities have now been expounded all the way to GCSE-level textbooks; with this proposal we can deliver on some of those promises and enthuse a new generation of scientists and engineers, increasing the UKs position and reputation in the global research and market.

Publications

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Forouharshad M (2019) Textile-Compatible, Electroactive Polyvinylidene Fluoride Electrospun Mats for Energy Harvesting in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics

 
Description 1) Carbon nanotube wires must be treated as networks, rather than solid conductors, meaning that we cannot readily relate their resistance and cross-sectional area; instead we must relate it to their weight, compared to the electrical properties of a similar length of International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) wire; 2) using longer (~0.5 mm) carbon nanotubes to form electrical wires leads to a reduction of the resistance (by up to half compared to similar but shorter quality nanotubes; 3) Electrospun composites of carbon nanotubes and poly-acrylo-nitrile (PAN - this is the polymer which, when carbonised, gives carbon fibres) are stronger but not as conductive as carbon fibres; 4) Without welding or treating (eg iodine doping) individual nanotubes, carbon nanotube wires are typically 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more resistive than IACS but can withstand similar ampacities (current per unit area - see also outcome 1). 4) Electrospinning leads to alignment of polymer molecules and crystallisation in the vicinity of nanomaterials mixed in the solution, eg CNTs - these can act as crystallisation centres. 5) Electrospinning produces directly the highest piezoelectric-phase PVDF
Exploitation Route Currently, nanotube wires may have niche applications where high ampacity is required (eg power systems in RF or MW applications) or where efficent heating through thermal radiation (CNTs are nearly ideal black body radiators) is required, such as maintaining the temperature of ion batteries in harsh, cold environments.

Electrospinning has significant advantages in producing PVDF-based piezo-electric materials as it creates the piezo-electric phase during the production, without the need for thermal and electrostatic further treatment, and is directly compatible with textiles.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Education,Electronics,Energy,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

 
Description The influence of the forces exerted during electrospinning (eg. shear forces) leads to significant alignment of molecules in a polymer and crystallisation. For example PVDF, a piezo-electric polymer, is usually produced in an amorphous state and can crystallise into 4 phases, only 2 of which are electroactive. Electrospinning produces the most electroactive phase directly, and is compatible with flexible, breathable, washable textiles. It has proved to be a material of interest for smart clothing applications (energy harvesting and motion sensing) and healthcare applications (foetal movement sensors and knee portable electrophysiotherapy - osteoarthritis). Electrospun separators decrease a supercapacitor's self discharge time by approximately 30% up to 20% of the original charge, beyond which electrospun supercapacitors continue to maintain that charge for days. Prototypes based on electrospun materials have been used in aerospace and defence, medical sensors and energy harvesting from body movement, all with UK plc partners.
First Year Of Impact 2019
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Electronics,Energy,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
 
Description ICURe - Midlands Cohort 22
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Funding ID C4 Surrey Electrospinning 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 09/2019
 
Description Smart Energy Harvesting Textiles (IAA) with KYMIRA Ltd
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RN0321Q 
Organisation University of Surrey 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 09/2018
 
Description Textile-compatible foetal movement sensors - Sensing electronics (IAA) with KYMIRA Ltd
Amount £25,000 (GBP)
Funding ID RN0320L 
Organisation University of Surrey 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 06/2019
 
Title New Electrospinning System 
Description A new small area electrospinning rig has been designed and built for the more efficient use of high-cost high-performance polymers. This new system being more customisable and assessable than the previous systems available allows for the better application of the electrospinning technique. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact With a second rig available now to any user, more options and outputs are achievable. As a result of this rig, a collaboration was set up with KYMIRA allowing for nanofibres to be spun for smart textiles. 
 
Description Biological Sensors 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department School of Biosciences & Medicine
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution Provided electrospinning and nanofibre knowledge. Provided several nanofibre yarns for testing.
Collaborator Contribution Provided access characterisation equipment. Provided testing of the samples provided.
Impact None Yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Bristol composites 
Organisation University of Bristol
Department School of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We provided several electrospun samples to be used in composite manufacture and testing. We also shared electrospinning knowledge with postgraduate students.
Collaborator Contribution Partners contributed novel polymer materials, composite manufacture and testing.
Impact paper submitted - not yet published
Start Year 2016
 
Description Cell Growth Substrates 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department Department of Chemistry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided electrospinning and nanofibre knowledge. Provided numerous samples for cell growth.
Collaborator Contribution Provided knowledge of cell culture. Provided testing of cell growth on our substrates.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Electrospun Carbonised Lignin 
Organisation Scion
Country New Zealand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We set this collaboration up and will be testing their new novel carbonised electrospun lignin nanofibres for a range of analysis.
Collaborator Contribution Scion's team will in kind carbonise our large areas of nanofibres and run their own testing systems.
Impact This collaboration is related to next generation of nano-material. There have been no outputs yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Electrospun Water and Air Filtration 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department Advanced Technology Institute (ATI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided advice or electrospinning capability with respect to polymers and nanofibres, for the manufacture of air and water filteration devices.
Collaborator Contribution Existing water filtration devices have been provided in order to demonstrate a benchmark.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description KYMIRA Sports 
Organisation KYMIRA Sports
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution KYMIRA approached us to develop a flexible, textile-integrated piezeoeletric energy harvester based on electrospun PVDF fibres. We have developed this into a 6 month Impact Acceleration Account proposal (University - internally funded competition) and have delivered a demonstrator for a knee-joint energy harvesting application. The PVDF polymer has several phases, only one of which is the most desirable for this application and, through our electrospinning expertise, we have been able to increase significantly the amount of this phase and make it compatible with the textile fabrication process. As a result of this success, we have now moved on to a second project, which is to fabricate foetal monitoring sensors that are compatible to textiles, rather than belts or harnesses that are very constrictive and difficult to wear continuously.
Collaborator Contribution KYMIRA brought textile and flexible electronics know-how, as well as testers and knee-joint simulators. They have also introduced a 'pregnanct belly' simulator and know-how about sensor architecture.
Impact This is a multi-disciplinary collaboration: electronic engineering, mechanical engineering, nanotechnology, health, textile manufacturing
Start Year 2018
 
Description Nanofibre Fuel Cell Membranes 
Organisation Kyushu University
Country Japan 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided advice and demonstrations on electrospinning capability. Produced several CNT inks and nanofibre samples.
Collaborator Contribution Provided advice and overviews on the workings of a fuel cell and advised on how CNTs can be used within them.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description RevolutionFibresLTd 
Organisation Revolution Fibres Limited
Country New Zealand 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Exchange of CNT ink formulation know-how.
Collaborator Contribution Exchange of large area electrospinning, commercialisation and electrospinning industrial applications know-how
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Scion 
Organisation Scion
Country New Zealand 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Scion has been sending us state-of-the-art electrospun lignin samples as next-generation conductors. We have been analysing the samples, as well as participating in some carbonisation of the samples.
Collaborator Contribution Scion has been carbonising electrospun samples of ours which are much larger than we can normally process, they are also using a higher temp furnace.
Impact This is too early to list any outputs yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Thermoelectric CNT Devices 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department Advanced Technology Institute (ATI)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have been using our knowledge of CNT dispersion to provide better solutions for processing into thermoelectric devices.
Collaborator Contribution Extensive electrical testing of the CNT networks as well as other characterisation techniques.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Triboelectric Generators 
Organisation University of Surrey
Department Department of Physics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided knowledge of electrospinning, nanofibre capability and polymer science advice. Supplied several nanofibre sheets comprised of different polymers. Purposed a wetspinning technique and tested said technique, providing samples to be tested. Supplied electropsun fibres, spun directly onto conductive textiles.
Collaborator Contribution Supplied triboelectric knowledge.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Company Name RADICAL FIBRES LTD 
Description University of Surrey start-up, based on electrospinning IP and know how developed during this award. 
Year Established 2019 
Impact Brand new company, already secured a £100k R&D contract with KYMIRA Sports, and applied for a Joint i4i £1.4M grant with University of Southampton and KYMIRA (£60k to the company).
 
Description 7th UK - Japan Symposium on Fundamental Research Advances in Carbon Nanomaterials (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a conference organised by the Royal Society of Chemistry focusing in the field of carbon nano materials. Here I presented my poster titled "Refinement of Steam Purification Process for Carbon Nanotubes". This poster generated a lot of interest and has resulted in further collaboration with Japanese researchers lead by Prof. Stephen Lyth.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.rsc.org/events/detail/20930/7th-uk-japan-symposium-on-fundamental-research-advances-in-ca...
 
Description ANEM 2018 Conference, Perth Aus. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact ANEM 2018 Conference in Perth Australia. A presentation titled "Highly Conductive Carbon Nanotube Sheets and Wires by Aligned Electrospinning".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.anemaustralia.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/12/Program-final-ANEM2018-online-version-lates...
 
Description Carbon nanotube research could enable lighter, faster electric motors - Online Press Release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact This was a press release focusing primarily on the research conducted by myself. This press release was made by the University of Surrey and was used to successfully win further funding in the production of manufacturing carbon nanotube wires.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL http://www.surrey.ac.uk/features/carbon-nanotube-research-could-enable-lighter-faster-electric-motor...
 
Description Conference NANOP2016 Paris 7-9 Dec 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Stolojan attended this conference as a speaker and member of the organising committee - talk titled "The manufacture of complex micro-optical elements on the ends of optical fibres, using a Focused Ion Beam Microscope". This talk discussed methods of manufacturing very small, specialised lenses in polymers and has led to Dr Stolojan, through collaborators at NPL, to be invited as a stakeholder in PhotIND EU project: http://www.photind.eu/
It also led to exploratory discussions with groups in France and Switzerland who are developing medical applications based on lenses on the end of fibres, such as endoscopes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://programme.exordo.com/nanop2016/
 
Description E-MRS Fall 2016 (Warsaw, Poland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This conference is potentially the largest in the World for materials research. This conference was located in central Warsaw, Poland. At this conference I presented an oral presentation titled "Aligned Carbon Nanotube Paper and Wires for Electrical and Mechanical Applications". This presentation was well received and gained further interest from 2 of the audience members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.european-mrs.com/meetings/2016-fall
 
Description EPSRC showcase event Materials Resarch Exchange 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 2 day event to demonstrate ground-breaking new materials and the process of taking these to commercialisation. Several link were made with researchers from other universities and their characterisation facilities (eg SAXS at Warwick, Analytical electron microscopy at Oxford), as well as exploratory application avenues for electrospun nanomaterials in art (London School of Art) and funding avenues with MBDA and Qinetiq.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.mre2018.co.uk/
 
Description EUPOC 2019 Conference Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact EUPOC 2019 Conference Italy on nanofibre and related technologies. Presentation title "ELECTROSPUN PVDF WITH ENHANCED ? FOR ENERGY HARVESTING TEXTILES" given by Vlad Stolojan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cdn.website-editor.net/0ca4eb8b03aa46b6ae033a2d167e3bd8/files/uploaded/Booklet%2520of%2520Ab...
 
Description EUPOC 2019 Conference Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The was the EUPOC 2019 conference on electrospinning and nanofibre technologies. The talk title was "Highly conductive aligned carbon nanotube sheets and wires".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://cdn.website-editor.net/0ca4eb8b03aa46b6ae033a2d167e3bd8/files/uploaded/Booklet%2520of%2520Ab...
 
Description Electrically-conducting aligned carbon nanotube wires and sheets manufactured via electrospinning - talk at NART 2017 - Liberec, 24/9/17 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Electrically-conducting aligned carbon nanotube wires and sheets manufactured via electrospinning - oral presentation. A direct result was the establishment of a direct collaboration with Prof Ramakrishna's group at National University of Singapore, with a review paper due out in May 2018 and a visit to NUS by Stolojan in May 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2012,2017
 
Description Electrospinning expert discussion to look towards new innovation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was a meeting held in Frankfurt with the electrospinning experts from Reveolution Fibres Ltd to discuss new innovation and ideas, with the hope of developing new outputs. This was a day-long event of discussions and planning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description InnoLAE 2019 Conference, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact InnoLAE 2019 Conference in Cambridge UK. A poster titled "Low-cost RC Filter Using Materials from Daily-Life".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description NART 2016 (Raleigh, North Carolina) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Nanofibers, Applications And Related Technologies (NART) is a World Wide conference focusing on nanofibres and there production. This conference was held in the city of Raleigh, North Carolina. At this conference I presented my poster titled "Electrospinning of Highly Conductive Low Weight Carbon Nanotube Wires". This poster was a huge success, gaining interest from a majority of the conference attendees. This poster resulted in multiple interest from external parties looking to collaborate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.nartconference.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/NART16-Program.pdf
 
Description NART 2017 - Electrospinning Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is an annual conference were some of the World leading experts in nanofibres and related technologies. Here we delivered an oral presentation on our current work using electrospinning. This led to numerous positive questions and discussions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://nart.tul.cz/
 
Description Oral presentation NART2019 Liberec, Czech Republic 18/9/19 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation title: Electrospun PVDF with enhanced b-phase component for energy harvesting textiles and foetal movment sensors. Audience comprised academics, students and industry participants and there were significant discussions about starting collaborations on smart sensing textiles.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://nart.tul.cz/program
 
Description Press Release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Press release on the successful completion of a collaborative project in New Zealand. Titled "ATI RESEARCHER COMPLETES 3-MONTH SECONDMENT TO REVOLUTION FIBRES"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.revolutionfibres.com/2018/10/ati-researcher-completes-3-month-secondment-to-revolution-f...
 
Description Press release 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Manufacturer press release on the success of our research project. Titled "High Conductivity Fibres using Elicarb® Carbon Nanotubes from Thomas Swan & Co. Ltd.".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://thomas-swan.co.uk/high-conductivity-fibres-using-elicarb-carbon-nanotubes-from-thomas-swan-c...
 
Description Singapore NUS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Invited talk with Prof Ramakrishna's group NUS (Singapore) on electrospinning and advances in carbon nanotube conductors.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://me.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/ME-Seminar_20180522_Dr-Vlad-Stolojan.pdf
 
Description Symposium on Acoustics of Nanoporous Materials, Salford UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A small symposium on the acoustics of nanofibres. This has resulted in new research being conducted and the potential for a future funded application.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk Okayama University 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk on CNT wires to Prof Okayama's group, attended by staff and postgraduate students at the Engineering department. The discussion afterwards resulted in a continued collaboration with Prof Okayama's group, who are also working on CNT wires produced from direct spinning form vertical CNT forests, and whose methods for post-production annealing were of intereest to us. We have modified some of his methods with successful outcomes and are currently writing a joint paper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Technical consulation with Technology Analyst at IDTechEx 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Technical consultation provided to Technology Analyst on the achievements, technology and prospects of CNT cables and CNT-metal hybrid solution (eg. CNT-Cu alloys). Working towards a commercial analysis document.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Thermoelectric Devices Based On Carbon Nanotubes 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A poster was given titled "Thermoelectric Devices Based On Carbon Nanotubes" at the InnoLAE 2018 conference. This poster resulted in outside parties registering interest into project progress.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www-large-area-electronics.eng.cam.ac.uk/innoLAE2018
 
Description UK-wide Nanotube Collaborative Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was a conference or workshop designed to get all of the industry leaders together to discuss the use of CNTs for electrical transmission. This sparked discussion and debate with industry as to whether the use of CNTs is a possibility.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.swansea.ac.uk/engineering/externalsites/uk-nanotube-collaborative-inaugural-workshop/
 
Description Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerators ICMAT 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation title "Wearable Triboelectric Nanogenerators ", given at the ICMAT 2017 in Singapore. This led to discussions and many requests for further details and reports.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://icmat2017.mrs.org.sg/
 
Description invited talk Ultrawire Workshop, Wolfson College, Cambridge, 13-14 July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact This was a Workshop on the Commercialisation of Nano-Carbon Wire Technology organised by Cambridge Nanomaterials Ltd and attended by an international industrial audience involved in Copper wire manufacturing, defence technology and construction technology (specialised concrete). The presentation led to discussions on the standardisation of measurements for CNT and led to exploratory discussions with several industrial partners and an academic partner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://ultrawire.eu/