MACANTA:Multifunctional hierarchical advanced composite aerostructures utilising the combined properties of different carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies

Lead Research Organisation: Queen's University of Belfast
Department Name: Sch Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Abstract

The advent of carbon-fibre composite passenger aircraft, such as the Boeing 787 and the Airbus A350, has been primarily driven by the need to reduce structural weight. Higher operating efficiencies per revenue passenger kilometre also contribute to a reduction in environmental impact where 1 kg of fuel saved equates to a reduction of 3.15 kg of CO2 emissions. Indeed the European Union has set ambitious aircraft emission reduction targets by 2050 as the level of commercial air traffic is set to continue doubling every fifteen years. The high specific strength and stiffness, and corrosion and fatigue resistance of carbon-fibre composite materials, make them highly suitable for lightweight aerostructures. In laminated form, these superior properties are tempered by the material's relatively low through-thickness strength and fracture toughness which makes composite structures susceptible to impact damage. Carbon-fibre composites also have low electrical conductivity which necessitates the need for additional measures to ensure adequate lightning strike protection. The industry has adopted the use of a fine metallic mesh incorporated into the aerodynamic surfaces. This approach adds unnecessary weight to the structure as well as increasing manufacture and maintenance complexity. Composite materials also have low thermal conductivity which impacts on the design of anti-icing systems.

In recent years, a number of research groups have explored the unique properties of nanoparticles dispersed in resin or introduced between lamina interfaces, to address these limitations. The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) especially, generated much excitement due their phenomenal structural and transport properties. The results to date have been highly variable and have fallen well short of expectations. This is partly due to a lack of interdisciplinary collaboration where fundamental questions, requiring input from chemists, physicists, material scientists and research engineers, were not adequately investigated. The proposed research in MACANTA aims to rectify this by bringing together a team with highly complementary expertise to increase the fundamental understanding of the influence of physical and chemical characteristics of different CNT assemblies in pursuit of developing multifunctional composites which mitigate the known shortcomings as well as providing additional functionality.

A unique aspect of MACANTA is the emphasis on understanding and exploiting the different forms of CNT assemblies to best serve specific functions and integrated within a single structure. The team has the unique capability of producing very high quality CNTs, produced as highly-aligned 'forests'. These may be harnessed in this form and strategically placed between plies to increase through-thickness fracture toughness. Beyond simply dispersing within the matrix, they may also be 'sheared' to produce aligned buckypaper, drawn into very thin webs or spun into yarns, where their respective electrical and thermal conductivity will be investigated. These CNT assemblies will be assessed for improving lightning strike protection and providing anti-icing capability. The piezoresistive property of CNT webs will also be explored for in-situ structural health monitoring of adhesively bonded composite joints.

The successful completion of the research proposed in MACANTA will culminate in the manufacture of a set of demonstrator multifunctional composite panels. They will represent a significant advancement in the state-of-the-art and provide a competitive advantage to interested stakeholders. It will also provide an ideal training platform for the development of skills of three postdoctoral researchers and two associated PhD students funded by QUB.

Planned Impact

The UK aerospace industry is the second largest, after the USA's, contributing £24 billion to the economy and supporting over 230,000 jobs. The sector faces new challenges in delivering lower development, manufacturing and operational costs, compounded by increasing global competition for market share. The advent of carbon-fibre composite passenger aircraft, to reduce structural weight, has placed additional pressures, especially on the civilian sector, to maintain its competitiveness and innovative advantage. Competition in the design, development and manufacture of advanced composite structures, from the rest of Europe, South America and the Far East, not to mention a developing supply-chain capability in North Africa, means that the UK has to maintain its drive towards incessant innovation. MACANTA, has the potential to lead to a disruptive technology in the development of the next generation of composite aerostructures. By exploiting the unique properties of different carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies, integrated within a composite structure, MACANTA aims to deliver a multifunctional capability overcoming current known limitations of low electrical and thermal conductivity and through-thickness fracture toughness when compared to traditional aluminium alloys used in aircraft structures. Addressing these limitations will mitigate the need for additional measures which add weight and maintenance complexity to the structure. Moreover, MACANTA will explore additional functionality beyond these shortcomings, such as the introduction of structural health monitoring at critical adhesively bonded joints. By being at the forefront of innovation and actively seeking expedient exploitation routes, the industry will be well positioned to strengthen its global share of airframe development and manufacture. From a product end-user perspective, i.e. primarily airline operators, the emergence of multifunctional composites will deliver enhanced operational efficiencies wich will contribute to a reduced environmental impact.

The School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering is committed to further strengthening the research capability, knowledge and skills in the area of nano-enhanced composites and to this end has funded the establishment of a very-high-specification CNT production facility. The quality of commercially available CNTs is not reliable and this has compromised a number of research programmes. Bombardier Aerospace Belfast, in recognition of the substantial potential of this research in delivering step changes in its future composite nacelles and wing programmes, has pledged generous in-kind contributions, as outlined in the Statement of Support. Other companies, with a UK footprint, involved in the production of composite aerostructures, including GKN Aerospace (see Statement of Support), Agusta-Westland, Spirit Aerosystems (Prestwick), BAE Systems and Airbus are additional potential beneficiaries of technologies developed in MACANTA. The developed composite functionality will further be relevant to other sectors, including the automotive (e.g. Jaguar Land Rover, Nissan UK, Bentley, Formula 1 constructors) and wind energy industries (Vestas). Carbon-fibre composite manufacturers Hexcel and Cytec have each provided Statements of Support which attest to the high relevance of the proposed research.

With two PhD Students and three PDRAs involved in the research, the programme will provide multidisciplinary skills to a cohort of researchers and engineers. Queen's University Belfast is an exemplar institution in Knowledge Transfer partnerships, with 350 over 15 years, 80% with SMES, resulting in 400 subsequent graduates placements and generating an annual income of £1.8 Million as a sustaining consequence. MACANTA will be seeking to use this well established knowledge exchange route to local and national supply chain SMES and Tier 1 and 2 companies.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description While this research is ongoing, we have made major breakthroughs in the development of a carbon nanotube web-based anti-icing/de-icing electrical system for aircraft which received considerable media attention when the University issued a press release in November 2018. Another area of promise is in the use of these webs as strain and damage sensors and some findings have been submitted for publication.
Exploitation Route The research team is actively looking at exploiting the research arising from MACANTA and through the commercialisation arm of the University, is currently in discussion with Invest Northern Ireland for follow on funding to progress the technology readiness level. Other discussions with Bombardier and other interested industries are also in train.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL https://blog.qub.ac.uk/wordpress/macanta/
 
Description Distinguished Visiting Fellowship scheme
Amount £6,000 (GBP)
Funding ID DVF1617\6\12 
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Description Visiting Professorship
Amount £5,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 66483 
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Description William & Betty MacQuitty Travel Scholarship
Amount £500 (GBP)
Organisation Queen's University Belfast 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2017
 
Description Assis. Prof Andriy Katunin 
Organisation Silesian University of Technology
Country Poland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have offered co-authorship of papers, resulting from this collaboration, to Assis. Prof Andriy Katunin
Collaborator Contribution We have built collaboration with Assis. Prof Andriy Katunin at the Silesian University of Technology to assist the group with lightning strike tests and X-ray computed tomography.
Impact Assist. Prof Andriy Katunin contributed to the Lightning strike tests with his very important advice regarding the parameters which have been used for the tests.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Dielectric properties measurement 
Organisation Jilin University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The preparation and development of composites and test specimens were performed in our lab
Collaborator Contribution All the necessary step to measure the dielectric properties were performed by Wenhan Xu at National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Synthetic Technology of High Performance Polymer, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, People's Republic of China
Impact The work has been submitted to ECCM, 2018 conference in Athens for oral presentation
Start Year 2017
 
Description Institute of Catalysis and Petrochemistry 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Department Institute of Catalysis and Petrochemistry
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution The collaboration is based on gaining access to certain equipment and expertise and, in return, offer co-authorship of ensuing publications.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Garcia-Diego, at the Institute of Catalysis and Petrochemistry in Madrid, Spain, is an expert in the use of XPS and is collaborating with my research group in the characterisation of CNT assemblies used in the MACANTA project.
Impact To date, the collaborating institution has tested a number of samples for the group and provided comprehensive data sets.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Institute of Glass and Ceramics 
Organisation Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)
Department Institute of Glass and Ceramic
Country Spain 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution To date, there have been no direct contributions from the group although joint publications are planned.
Collaborator Contribution The group has established a collaborative relationship with Dr. Juan Rubio, from the Institute of Glass and Ceramics (ICV-CSIC), based in Madrid, Spain. Dr. Juan Rubio has vast experience with Raman spectroscopy and is assisting in the characterisation of CNT assemblies used in the MACANTA project. In addition the group also has access to other techniques available at the ICV-CSIC, such as FTIR, TGA, adsorption-desorption isotherms of N2, AFM, and Raman coupled to AFM, among others.
Impact The group has received Raman Spectroscopy results of the samples delivered to ICV-CSIC in late 2016.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Lightning strike tests 
Organisation Warsaw University of Technology
PI Contribution We have offered co-authorship of papers, resulting from this collaboration, to Assis. Prof Przemyslaw Sul and Dr Andrzej Lasica
Collaborator Contribution We have built collaboration with Assis. Prof Przemyslaw Sul and Dr Andrzej Lasica at the Warsaw University of Technology to assist the group with lightning strike tests. We have free access to a lightning impulse generator.
Impact Various specimens with and without lightning strike protection were tested under artificial lightning strike current up to 10 kA.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Lintec 
Organisation Lintec of America Ltd
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution My research team will be providing expertise in the exploitation of directly-drawn CNT webs for aerospace and other applications.
Collaborator Contribution Lintec of America Ltd are commercialising directly-drawn CNT webs and they plan to provide us with these products to supplement and compare with our own high-specification CNT webs that we are producing in-house.
Impact At this early stage, no outcomes or outputs have resulted from this collaboration.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Mr Lionel Demoulin and Dr Steve Mortimer 
Organisation Hexcel Composites Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution In recognition of the in-kind assistance provided by Hexcel, we will provide non-confidential information regarding the utilization and performance of RTM6 in the various functional applications and with carbon nanomaterials.
Collaborator Contribution Mr Lionel Demoulin (Airbus Programs Development Manager, Hexcel Corp. France) and Dr Steve Mortimer (Research Associate, Hexcel UK) have been consulted with respect to the behaviour and application of epoxy resins with emphasis on resin infusion and resin transfer moulding. Hexcel corporation have kindly supplied the Advanced Composites Research Group, QUB, with substantial quantities of the widely used aerospace grade polymer, RTM6 and advice on applications and processing.
Impact Mr. Demoulin and Dr Mortimer have provided valuable information and insight into the resin transfer moulding and resin infusion processes as well as providing a substantial quantity of a valuable epoxy resin product for research purposes.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Nanoworld Laboratories 
Organisation University of Cincinnati
Department Nanoworld Laboratories
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Knowledge sharing in the exploitation of CNT assemblies for multifunctional applications.
Collaborator Contribution Provision of substrates for growing highly-aligned CNT forests in our lab.
Impact A number of substrates have been received.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Professor Manu Haddad 
Organisation Cardiff University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution In anticipation of t collaboration on composite structures designed to mitigate the damage from lightning strike, Professor Haddad was offered co-authorship of relevant publications.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Haddad kindly agreed to assist with the guidance of the MACANTA project. He provided valuable insights into the problems lightning of strike protection and the challenges of testing specimens in a realistic fashion and offered access to the Lightning Research Laboratory on a fee for service basis for when the project was advanced enough in scale and performance to warrant that level of testing.
Impact Professor Haddad provided a valuable insight into the phenomenon of lightning strike and its simulation under laboratory conditions, as well as the requirements and constraints of testing.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Professor Mark Schulz, University of Cincinnati 
Organisation University of Cincinnati
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Background information and guidance in the production and handling of carbon nanomaterials
Collaborator Contribution Professor Mark Schulz (University of Cincinnati, USA). Agreed to assist with steering the MACANT project. He was visited by Prof. Hawkins on 23-25th May, 2016 and contacted since regarding concepts, approaches and problems in MACANTA project research. The interim published results will be presented at an upcoming meeting 21-22nd May 2018, and unpublished results and issues discussed with him on 23rd May.
Impact Professor Schulz has provided valuable guidance and support for the approaches being taken in the MACANTA project.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Professor Peter Foote 
Organisation Cranfield University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Co-authorship of work conducted in collaboration with Prof Foote's research group particularly in the area of sensor development was anticipated.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Peter Foote kindly agreed to help guide the MACANTA project in the area of structural health monitoring and provided valuable insights into issues such as broad area and nodal sensing patterns and signal processing. He unexpectedly retired later in the year so further collaboration was not possible.
Impact Professor Foote provided valuable guidance in the area of structural health monitoring, particularly with regard to the effect of sensors on the structure being monitored and the need to ensure they do not change the structural characteristics.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Royal Academy of Engineering Distinguished Visiting Fellowship Scheme 
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution The Advanced Composites Research Group, which I lead, hosted Professor Pascal Hubert, from McGill University in Montreal, Canada, for a period of four months (May - August 2017). During this time, Prof Pascal was given desk space and a Personal Computer, and full access to the Advanced Composites Research Laboratory and the Material Characterisation Laboratory.
Collaborator Contribution Prof. Hubert proposed the development of a new non-intrusive pressure sensor at the tool composite laminate interface or in different locations inside the laminate. The measurement of pressure distribution in corners is necessary to validate and guide the theoretical and numerical development of the corner compaction mechanisms. The sensor design requirements were identified (e.g. pressure range from 0 to 10 bar, temperature range is 20C-200C). Following meetings with Profs. Falzon and Hawkins, the carbon nanotube webs developed at Queen's University Belfast, were selected as the multifunctional material to be combined with a soft polymer (e.g. PDMS) in order to create a strain sensitive diaphragm that would deform under pressure. The resistance change caused by the deformation could be calibrated over the target temperature and pressure range. Towards the end of Prof. Hubert's visit, the work plan for the sensor development was established and steps to manufacture CNT/PDMS samples were undertaken. Prof. Hubert also delivered a number of lectures: May 12 2017, Queen's University Belfast, "Composite Materials Research Program at McGill" / June 7 2017, NIACE, "Composite Materials Research Program at McGill" / July 18, 2017, NIACE, "Composite Repairs Project at McGill" / August 14, 2017, NIACE, "Smart tooling and recycling of composites research at McGill" This collaboration also allowed Prof. Hubert to interact with Bombardier Aerospace in Belfast. He already had several research projects with Bombardier in Quebec, but never visited the facilities in Belfast. A visit to the C-Series composite wing fabrication facilities helped identify areas of potential future collaboration between Bombardier Aerospace in Quebec and Northern Ireland with McGill and Queen's University. As a follow up to these meetings and visits, Prof. Hubert invited Mr. Braniff, from Bombardier, to deliver a keynote talk at the Industrial Forum of the Research Center for High Performance Polymer and Composite Systems on September 20 2017 in Montreal. His talk was very well received and a follow up meeting with Prof. Hubert and the director of strategic research at Bombardier Montreal was organized to discuss research topic ideas on repairs, recycling and heated tooling technologies.
Impact A series of action were initiated to ensure the sustainability of the collaboration between the Advanced Composites Research Group led by Prof. Falzon and the McGill Structures and Composite Materials Laboratory led by Prof. Hubert. Plans are in development to exchange graduate students working on the research topics addressed during Prof. Hubert's visit. The Flaherty Research Scholarship was identified as a possible funding mechanism to pay for the visit of graduate students over the period of four to six weeks. Additionally, McGill's Institute of Aerospace Engineering can provide funding for a visiting graduate student from McGill to a foreign institution to conduct research in the aerospace field. Longer term funding programs have also been identified during the visit.
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Catania 
Organisation University of Catania
Department Department of Industrial Engineering
Country Italy 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Discussions have been initiated with Prof Gianluca Cicala to explore collaboration in polymers and nanomaterials, Prof Cicala was also invited to spend two days with my research group (24th - 25th October 2016).
Collaborator Contribution Prof Cicala gave a seminar to my research group and held numerous meetings with individuals within the group. His expertise in polymer science was of considerable value and his insight into thermoplastic polymers and thermoplastic-toughened thermosets, was instrumental in enabling the group to explain certain observed phenomena,
Impact No direct outputs to date,
Start Year 2016
 
Description University of Patras 
Organisation University of Patras
Department Laboratory of Palaeontology and Stratigraphy
Country Greece 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have offered co-authorship of papers, resulting from this collaboration, to Dr Stavros Tsanzalis.
Collaborator Contribution We have built collaboration with Dr. Stavros Tsantzalis at the University of Patras to assist the group with thermal conductivity measurements. We have free access to a thermal analyzer which used a modified transient plane source (MTPS) technique.
Impact Dr Tsanzalis has analysed a number of specimens for the group. A draft journal paper has been produced with joint authorship.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Article in The Belfast Telegraph 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A newspaper article in Northern Ireland's leading regional newspaper.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.belfasttelegraph.co.uk/news/northern-ireland/queens-scientists-in-breakthrough-to-stop-d...
 
Description EPSRC RISE Making Connections 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact In 2017 Prof Falzon was the recipient of an EPSRC RISE: Making Connections award, where he was provided with media and policy training. An event was held at Central Hall Westminster on 1st February 2018, in the form of a 'Talkaoke' - a TV-style talk show debate on the theme 'Please don't Let Me Be Misunderstood: Making Sense of Science'. The Talkaoke panel included senior industry members and academics, representatives from the Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology and politicians.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Local radio station, Q-radio, interview and article on anti-icing/de-icing device developed as part of MACANTA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A news item that featured on a Northern Ireland radio station Q-radio with 289,000 listeners per week.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.goqradio.com/belfast/news/q-radio-local-news/queens-flying-high-with-groundbreaking-syste...
 
Description Online news item reported by ADS, and a feature article in their print magazine ADVANCE, on a new anti-icing/de-icing system developed in MACANTA 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact ADS (Aerospace Defence Security Space) on-line article:
https://www.adsgroup.org.uk/news/member-news/queen-s-researchers-develop-ice-build-up-prevention-solution-for-aircraft/

ADVANCE (The official publication of ADS) print article:
https://www.adsadvance.co.uk/queen-s-researchers-develop-ice-build-up-prevention-solution-for-aircraft.html

ADS is the Premier Trade Organisation for companies in the UK Aerospace, Defence, Security and Space Sectors. Membership is made up of over 1000 UK registered businesses.

ADS activities are focused around the following key areas:

Influencing the policy debates of most importance to our industries
Supporting UK manufacturing and our industries' supply chains
Encouraging investments in technology and innovation
Supporting business development opportunities
Increasing Member value through a range of services
Enhancing the profile of our industries

Farnborough International Limited (FIL), which runs the Farnborough International Airshow, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of ADS Group Ltd.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.adsgroup.org.uk/news/member-news/queen-s-researchers-develop-ice-build-up-prevention-sol...
 
Description Queen's University Belfast Facebook live stream 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact This was a live interview on the Queen's University Belfast's facebook page which is still available for streaming. The objective of this exercise was to promote the University and its world-leading research. At the time of writing, the interview had been viewed more than 48,000 times.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.facebook.com/QUBelfast/videos/1061089927404661/
 
Description SEM Prize in the Cambridge University Department of Engineering 2017 ZEISS Photography Competition 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The University of Cambridge Department of Engineering Photography competition received national media coverage as evidenced by the links below:
1. Dailymail: https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwivmcnwhdXXAhXEXBoKHeOOD8AQFgguMAE&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dailymail.co.uk%2Fnews%2Farticle-5098211%2FStunning-photographs-reveal-beauty-hidden-laboratories.html&usg=AOvVaw0BeTj_6LO8-5ClnOUmrcje

2. Belfast Telegraph: https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwivmcnwhdXXAhXEXBoKHeOOD8AQFgg3MAM&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.belfasttelegraph.co.uk%2Fnews%2Fuk%2Fstriking-metal-peacock-feathers-among-cambridge-university-photo-contest-entries-36335773.html&usg=AOvVaw2Y5vwm3XYvxQaCr5zk55fV

3. Lancashire Telegraph: https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwivmcnwhdXXAhXEXBoKHeOOD8AQFggxMAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.lancashiretelegraph.co.uk%2Fnews%2Fnational%2F15671628.Striking_metal_peacock_feathers_among_Cambridge_University_photo_contest_entries%2F&usg=AOvVaw2Yxm54duu8G4mrHpyQE7rx

4. East Lothian Courier: https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwivmcnwhdXXAhXEXBoKHeOOD8AQFggoMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.eastlothiancourier.com%2Fnews%2F15671628.Striking_metal_peacock_feathers_among_Cambridge_University_photo_contest_entries%2F&usg=AOvVaw2mfhsTRhd1flPdcmepk7FM
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/news/beauty-engineering
 
Description School Visits 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact The Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences at QUB hosted a series of regional events to promote STEM subjects to primary and high school students. Two members of my research group, working on MACANTA, visited a number of schools where they explained to students the extraordinary properties of carbon nanotubes as well as the basics of carbon-fibre material. Feedback from the schools suggested that the students were keen to explore the subjects discussed further. These visits were followed by a number of students coming to the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering during our open day events.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018