EPSRC Centre for Multiscale Soft Tissue Mechanics - with application to heart & cancer

Lead Research Organisation: University of Glasgow
Department Name: School of Mathematics & Statistics

Abstract

In the diagnosis and treatment of disease, clinicians base their decisions on understanding of the many factors that contribute to medical conditions, together with the particular circumstances of each patient. This is a "modelling" process, in which the patient's data are matched with an existing conceptual framework to guide selection of a treatment strategy based on experience. Now, after a long gestation, the world of in silico medicine is bringing sophisticated mathematics and computer simulation to this fundamental aspect of healthcare, adding to - and perhaps ultimately replacing - less structured approaches to disease representation.

The in silico specialisation is now maturing into a separate engineering discipline, and is establishing sophisticated mathematical frameworks, both to describe the structures and interactions of the human body itself, and to solve the complex equations that represent the evolution of any particular biological process. So far the discipline has established excellent applications, but it has been slower to succeed in the more complex area of soft tissue behaviour, particularly across wide ranges of length scales (subcellular to organ).

This EPSRC SoftMech initiative proposes to accelerate the development of multiscale soft-tissue modelling by constructing a generic mathematical multiscale framework. This will be a truly innovative step, as it will provide a common language with which all relevant materials, interactions and evolutions can be portrayed, and it will be designed from a standardised viewpoint to integrate with the totality of the work of the in silico community as a whole. In particular, it will integrate with the EPSRC MultiSim multiscale musculoskeletal simulation framework being developed by SoftMech partner Insigneo, and it will be validated in the two highest-mortality clinical areas of cardiac disease and cancer.

The mathematics we will develop will have a vocabulary that is both rich and extensible, meaning that we will equip it for the majority of the known representations required but design it with an open architecture allowing others to contribute additional formulations as the need arises. It will already include novel constructions developed during the SoftMech project itself, and we will provide many detailed examples of usage drawn from our twin validation domains. The project will be seriously collaborative as we establish a strong network of interested parties across the UK. The key elements of the planned scientific advances relate to the feedback loop of the structural adaptations that cells make in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli. A major challenge is the current lack of models that operate across multiple length scales, and it is here that we will focus our developmental activities. Over recent years we have developed mathematical descriptions of the relevant mechanical properties of soft tissues (arteries, myocardium, cancer cells), and we have access to new experimental and statistical techniques (such as atomic force microscopy, MRI, DT-MRI and model selection), meaning that the resulting tools will bring much-need facilities and will be applicable across problems, including wound healing and cancer cell proliferation.

The many detailed outputs of the work include, most importantly, the new mathematical framework, which will immediately enable all researchers to participate in fresh modelling activities. Beyond this our new methods of representation will simplify and extend the range of targets that can be modelled and, significantly, we will be devoting major effort to developing complex usage examples across cancer and cardiac domains. The tools will be ready for incorporation in commercial products, and our industrial partners plan extensions to their current systems.

The practical results of improved modelling will be a better understanding of how our bodies work, leading to new therapies for cancer and cardiac disease.

Planned Impact

Computers are increasingly being used to help doctors diagnose and treat disease, and new software is being developed to allow individual, patient-specific therapies. For this approach to be successful, two key issues need to be addressed. These are fundamental mathematical modelling to understand the biomechanical changes that occur in soft tissue in disease, and the development of techniques to deal with uncertainty in clinical measurements. SofTMech will carry out programmes of research by world-leading UK experts to give answers to these problems and, by developing detailed models of remodelling in the heart following a myocardial infarction (MI) and metastasis of breast carcinoma, provide computational examples that will enable healthcare technologists to translate the research into software to be used in clinical practice.

Heart disease is the leading killer in the world, responsible for about 30% of all deaths each year. Cancer is the second deadliest disease, and the World Health Organization projects that without immediate action, the global number of deaths from cancer will increase by nearly 80% by 2030. Together, these pose severe economic and medical challenges for the UK health care system. Consequently, SofTMech's research will have a major socioeconomic healthcare impact on the quality of life and health in the UK, and beyond, and enhance the UK's global competitiveness by addressing the most important healthcare problems. It is therefore of direct benefit to everyone in terms of improved quality of life and more efficient and cost-effective patient-specific treatment.

Our research will generate a range of new mathematical models for studying these diseases. Developing predictive quantitative models of healing processes after a heart attack and of the biomechanics of cancer invasion will facilitate translational medical research to enhance diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. By developing test- and data-based modelling, we will examine how cellular changes affect stress and strain distributions within organs, what drives functional responses within cells, and which parameters are strongly associated with adverse remodelling leading to heart failure or cancer metastasis. This fundamental research will significantly advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and responses to therapy, and hence move clinical research forward. This will be of direct benefit to patients and healthcare providers. For example, we will focus on developing in-depth myocardium mechanics models, linked to important subcellular organelle remodelling, that will increase our understanding of the mechanical status of a heart with a MI and help us suggest treatments to prevent progression of this disease to terminal heart failure. As a further example, we will explain how cancer cells become softer and thus better able to spread through surrounding tissue, to provide new targets for interventional therapies.

International engineering-software companies that provide computer code to describe the behaviour of advanced materials, such as our partners Simulia (Abaqus) and Ansys, and their customers in advanced technologies worldwide will benefit from advanced mathematical models that predict the behaviour of soft materials that SofTMech will develop, by incorporating these models into their widely used commercial software packages. Major medical imaging companies including Siemens, another of our partners, will benefit from using our models to better interpret signals from e.g. magnetic resonance and ultrasound scanning devices, which will further benefit patients and their doctors.

The Centre will raise awareness of our research to new and existing groups by networking activities, increase knowledge transfer by involving new clinical/industrial partners through training events, and influence the effectiveness of public services and policy by engagement with the Turing Gateway.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title SofTMech Cartoon 01 
Description Image created from the proceedings of the SofTMech Launch Event 2016-04-21 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Used on the SofTMech website for outreach purposes. 
URL http://www.softmech.org/media/media_464690_en.png
 
Title SofTMech Cartoon 02 
Description Image created from the proceedings of the SofTMech Launch Event 2016-04-21. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Used on the SofTMech website for outreach purposes. 
URL http://www.softmech.org/media/media_464689_en.png
 
Title SofTMech Cartoon 03 
Description Image created from the proceedings of the SofTMech Launch Event 2016-04-21. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Used on the SofTMech website for outreach purposes. 
URL http://www.softmech.org/media/media_464691_en.png
 
Title SofTMech Cartoons 04 to 10 
Description Images created from the proceedings of the SofTMech Dialogue on Heart Failure 2016-04-22. 
Type Of Art Image 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Used on the SofTMech website for outreach purposes. 
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/2016-04-22dialogueonheartfailure
 
Title Video clip from the Third Workshop on Soft Tissue Modelling in Glasgow 2017-07-07 
Description This is a short film produced during the proceedings of the Third Workshop on Soft Tissue Modelling held in Glasgow on 2017-07-07. It contains typical moments of research presentations, interviews with selected participants, free discussions during poster sessions. The clip conveys the excitement that participants feel about engaging in with the research field, comments on the significance and impact of research results, comments of future directions and aspirations. The level of presentation is non-technical. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Helped promote other technical and outreach events organised by the SofTMech centre. Video available upon request. 
 
Title YouTube 
Description Our events are recorded and published in youtube: https://youtu.be/Ydo4G5VmSOo https://youtu.be/mH8CgNYvRw8 We also have updated animations of our modelling posted on YouTube since 2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcUNUmbCJSI https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qko55MsoX8k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAX8xnykZJM 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact This is hard to assess. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcUNUmbCJSI
 
Title YouTube video "Mathematically Modelling the Heart" by Peter Mortensen 
Description YouTube video "Mathematically Modelling the Heart" by Peter Mortensen. A brief video targeted at the General Public. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact 194 views on 2019-03-13 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TE1IrqpyxGA
 
Description WORK PACKAGE 1 WP1 - MECHANICAL MODEL OF WHOLE CELL. THEORETICAL: The number of elements within the cell has now been extended to include stress fibres, the cell membrane and the nucleus, with material properties given for each element in addition to those of the F-actin cortex and soft neo-Hookean core. This has all been implemented in FEAP and specific calculations that account for the effects of the individual components on the overall response of the cell are in progress. A separate project, which links with WP5, has developed a growth/remodelling model for the myocardium based on the analysis of growth relative to the deformed configuration as distinct from the (unattainable) so-called virtual stress-free configuration. When specialized to the latter, the results agree with those obtained by Kuhl et al. (2010) [Göktepe S, Abilez OJ, Kuhl E. A generic approach towards finite growth with examples of athlete's heart, cardiac dilation, and cardiac wall thickening. J Mech Phys Solids, 2010;58:1661-1680]. On the other hand, by using the more realistic deformed configuration with its residual stress as the basis for growth, significantly different results are obtained. A substantial paper on this topic has recently been accepted for publication. Zhuan, X., Luo, X.Y. Volumetric growth of soft tissues evaluated in the current configuration. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology (2022).DOI: 10.1007/s10237-021-01549-y. Additionally, also related to the theory of growth and its relationship with residual stress, a paper has been published as part of a special issue on biomechanics. R. Huang, R.W. Ogden, R. Penta, Mathematical modelling of residual stress based volumetric growth in soft matter. Journal of Elasticity 145 (2021), 223-241. DOI: 10.1007/s10659-021-09834-8. Following his appointment as Postdoc in August 2020, Yangkun Du has continued to develop theoretical aspects of the single cell model with particular reference to modelling the elasticity of indentation of soft materials. He has prepared a substantial paper that improves upon the second-order results for indentation of a soft half-space, which we are now revising ready for submission. As the original SofTMech grant came to an end in July 2021, Yangkun Du has been moved to an RA position with the SofTMechMP grant to provide continuity as the new Centre-to-Centre collaboration moves forward.
EXPERIMENTAL: Within the experimental programme, we have developed a novel method to measure the viscoelastic property of a cell and demonstrated its use as a potential "mechanical biomarker" to indicate the ability of cancer cell invasion. The results have been published. Y.H. Chim, L. Mason, N. Rath, M.F. Olson, M. Tassieri and H. Yin. Probing the viscoelastic properties of cells by Atomic Force Microscopy: measuring the continuous frequency spectrum "in a step,". Scientific reports (2018) 8:14462. In another study which is associated with WP2 and WP6, we have established an AFM method for studying the interactions between cell and cell matrix. This work has already contributed to the discovery of a highly pro-invasive extracellular matrix deposition by mutant p53 tumor cells Novo, D. et al. (2018) Mutant p53s generate pro-invasive niches by influencing exosome podocalyxin levels. Nature Communications, 9, 5069. With these capabilities, we have investigated how alternation of cytoskeleton by MAPK signalling pathway can reduce cell stiffness and enhance cancer cell invasiveness. We used an anti-cancer drug, trametinib, which is an MECK kinase inhibitor. Our results revealed that trametinib treatment significantly reduce cell viscous properties but increase cell elasticity, which contribute to the decreased cell migration. These results have been published recently D.A. Rudzka, G. Spennati, H. Yin and M.F. Olson. Migration through physical constraints is enabled by MAPK-induced cell softening via actin cytoskeleton re-organization. Journal of Cell Science (2019) 132, jcs224071. Via collaboration with Professor Albert Folch at the University of Washington, we further validated our studies with organotypic tissue platforms and published our findings recently Spennati, G., Horowitz, L. F., McGarry, D. J., Rudzka, D. A., Armstrong, G., Olson, M. F., Folch, A. and Yin, H. (2021) Organotypic platform for studying cancer cell metastasis. Experimental Cell Research, 401(2), 112527 To understand how cells interact with the extracellular matrix, we have recently established a traction force microscopy technique. This has been used to evaluate the effects of trametinib on cell traction forces. These results have been correlated with the cell viscoelastic properties determined via the AFM2 method in the reference Chim et al,Scientific reports (2018) above, providing new, time-dependent information on cancer cell invasion. This work has been accepted as an oral presentation in the 18th International Congress on Rheology (ICR 2020). To mimic in-vivo 3D extracellular matrix (ECM), for which we have fabricated synthetic peptide hydrogels with mechanical properties tuned to match normal and cancerous breast tissues. Culturing cells on these hydrogels allows us to study cancer cell invasion in well-controlled environments. To derive the elasticity of cells via AF nanoindentation, mathematical models have been developed to eliminate the influence of hydrogel substrates. A manuscript is under preparation for this work. A separate project, which links with WP2 and WP6, has been initiated with collaborators in Beatson Cancer Institute to evaluate the role of hypoxia in cancer metastasis. Results so far have provided new evidence on how hypoxia affected cell mechanical properties, cell-matrix interactions and cell migration. These provide a solid basis to develop a close-to-in-vivo vascular platform for further in-depth investigations. However, due to the Covid, the project has been interrupted. Last year, we have attracted a PhD student, funded by Thailand government, to continue this research. The student is jointly supervised by Professors Huabing Yin, Nick Hill and Jim Norman at Beatson Cancer Institute. We have also implemented the same mathematical model in other matrix system, which has been recently published in a high impact journal. N.Qi is a co-author. Wei, D., Charlton, L., Glidle, A., Qi, N., Dobson, P. S. , Dalby, M. J. , Fan, H. and Yin, H. (2021) Dynamically modulated core-shell microfibers to study the effect of depth sensing of matrix stiffness on stem cell fate. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 13(32), 37997-38006.
WORK PACKAGE 2 WP2 - 2.1 MECHANOBIOLOGICAL MODELS OF CELL-CELL AND CELL-ECM INTERACTIONS: Background: In both normal and pathological settings, the tissue microenvironment influences cell functionality. How cells maintain and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) is vitally important both for tissue homeostasis and for pathological scenarios such as tumour growth, cancer invasion and myocardial infarction (MI). Activating invasion and metastasis is one of the key "hallmarks of cancer". Loss of cell-cell adhesion, modification of cell-matrix adhesion (e.g. through integrin expression) and interaction with the (highly heterogeneous) tumour microenvironment are all crucial individual components of invasion and metastatic spread of cancer. In cardiac repair, the recruitment and differentiation of peripheral connective tissue cells following MI are also tightly regulated by the local environment. In this work package, we have been developing a multiscale model to investigate the complexities of the interactions of the various components.Work done so far: We have developed a computational code which is being used as the basis to simulate the force-based, individual-based model of cell-cell, cell-matrix and cell-blood-vessel interactions. The model was implemented to model the growth of cancer cells around a central blood vessel - the "tumour cord" or "tumour cuff". The new code was extended to include individual fibres in 3-dimensions and thus enable the explicit modelling of cell-matrix interactions. Work on this Work Package was effectively stopped from October 2017 until January 2019 due to the fact that the PDRA working on this WP, Dr Cicely Macnamara, was on maternity leave. Work recommenced between January 2019 and October 2019, but stopped again due to a second period of maternity leave for Dr Macnamara. The second period of maternity leave was from 1 October 2019 - 29 September 2020. However, on returning, work was again slowed down due to COVID-19 restrictions and home schooling. Nonetheless we have published a paper detailing the main results of the model in the Journal of Computational Science. The work focused on understanding the specific mechanisms that occur in the tumour microenvironment and we have developed a 3D individual-based, force-based model which allows one to simulate the behaviour of, and spatio-temporal interactions between, cells, extracellular matrix fibres and blood vessels. Each agent (e.g. a single cell, a single fibre of the ECM) is fully realised within the model and interactions are primarily governed by mechanical forces between elements. As well as the mechanical interactions we have also developed the model to consider chemical interactions, by coupling the individual-based code to a finite element solver to model the diffusion of oxygen from blood vessels to cells. The current state of the art of the model allows us to simulate tumour growth around an arbitrary blood-vessel network or along the striations of fibrous tissue. Other recent work has involved (i) the development of a mathematical framework for the metastatic spread of cancer through local invasion of the ECM (interactions with the tumour microenvironment), interactions with blood vessels (intravasation), transport through the blood vessels/circulatory system, escape through vessel walls (extravasation) and then re-growth at the secondary location. This is the first explicitly spatial model of metastatic spread and has now been published in the Bulletin of Mathematical Biology and the IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics; (ii) the development of a model of pattern formation of cell aggregation using a development of the mechano-chemical framework of Murray & Oster. The work here has shown new insight into the role of cell-tissue constitutive equations governing the ability to form cellular patterns or not. Interaction with WP1 (incorporating the results of the individual cell modelling) is now currently underway, as is interaction with WP3 (upscaling) once we have undertaken some more intensive computational simulations of the individual-based model. We have also started collaborating with Prof Steven McDougall (WP6) to integrate the 3D individual-based, force-based model with Prof McDougall's angiogenesis model. The aim is to focus attention on intravasation of cancer cells into blood vessels (microvasculature), and then the transport of the cancer cells into the main blood system. Feasibility study: "Probing and modelling cell-matrix interaction and cell invasion under hypoxia" (awarded funding in February, 2019 SofTMech Feasibility Call) in collaboration with Prof McDougall and Prof Yin. Background to Feasibility study: Prof McDougall and Prof Chaplain met with Prof Yin (Glasgow) and Drs Zanivan, Carlin and Norman (Beatson Institute) to discuss how best to use experimental data to provide key parameter values for use in the mathematical models of angiogenesis and cell-cell interactions. A feasibility study was conceived that involved a study of cell interactions using Prof Yin's vasculature-on-a-chip platform. This platform consists of an interconnected channel network (i.e. analogous to blood vessels) to evaluate cell trapping locations, which can be potential starting points for angiogenesis. The feasibility study was given the go-ahead by SofTMech and began in November 2019. This involves interaction between WP1 and WP6. The work was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic but commenced again in December 2021. Output: [1]Franssen, L., Lorenzi, T., Burgess, A.E.F., Chaplain, M.A.J. (2019) A mathematical framework for modelling the metastatic spread of cancer. Bull. Math. Biol. 81, 1965-2010. 10.1007/s11538-019-00597-x; [2].Macnamara, CK, Caiazzo, A, Ramis-Conde, I, Chaplain MAJ (2020) Computational modelling and simulation of cancer growth and migration within a 3D heterogeneous tissue: The effects of fibre and vascular structure. J. Comput. Sci. 40, 101067 [3] Prof M Chaplain - Plenary Speaker, 6th International Conference on Computational and Mathematical Biomedical Engineering, CMBE 2019, Tohoku University, Katahira Campus, Sendai, Japan, 10-12 June 2019. [4]Franssen, L.C., Sfakianakis, N., Chaplain, M.A.J. (2021) "A novel 3D atomistic-continuum cancer invasion model: In silico simulations of an in vitro organotypic invasion assay" J. Theor. Biol. In press, doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2021.110677. [5]Macnamara, C.K. (2021) "Biomechanical modelling of cancer: Agent-based force-based models of solid tumours within the context of the tumour microenvironment" Comp. Sys. Onco. 1(2), https://doi.org/10.1002/cso2.1018 [6]A mathematical multi-organ model for bidirectional epithelial-mesenchymal transitions in the metastatic spread of cancerLinnea Franssen, Mark AJ Chaplain IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics, Volume 85, Issue 5, October 2020, Pages 724-761.
WORK PACKAGE 3 WP3 - UPSCALING FROM CELLS TO TISSUE : 3.1 Micro-meso upscaling & reduced-order modelling tools: A theoretical generalized structure tensor (GST) model has been developed for which fibre dispersion has been incorporated into the coupling invariant I8 in order to provide a consistent approach to each term of the basic Holzapfel-Ogden myocardium model. This has been completed and published [A. Melnik, X.Y. Luo and R.W. Ogden, A generalized structure tensor model for the mixed invariant I8. International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics 107 (2018), 137-148.]. The theory is now being implemented numerically and will be applied to the fitting of mechanical data from experiments on myocardial tissue. A new postdoc, Dr. Yangkun Du was appointed in August 2020 to continue this work.An interesting connection property between stress components for different deformations has been identified which applies, in particular, to orthotropic constitutive models (such as those used for the myocardium) that are of separable form. This can be used as a basis for deciding whether currently used models are consistent with data that have the connection property and therefore whether the models require modification. A paper dealing with this topic was published in 2019: A. Melnik, X.Y. Luo and R.W. Ogden, A para-universal relation for orthotropic materials. Mechanics Research Communications 97 (2019), 46-51.
In recent work [G.A. Holzapfel and R.W. Ogden, An arterial constitutive model accounting for collagen content and cross-linking. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 136 (2020), 103682.] the novel effect of collagen fibre cross links at the microscale has been accounted for in a macroscopic model of artery tissue. A model for damage accruing in collagen fibres within tissues during deformation has also been developed [G.A. Holzapfel and R.W. Ogden, A damage model for collagen fibers with an application to collagenous soft tissues. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 476 (2020), 20190821.] As the original SofTMech grant came to an end in July, Dr. Yangkun Du has moved to an RA position with the SofTMechMP grant to provide continuity as the new Centre-to-Centre collaboration moves forward. His work, reported under WP1, is related mainly to theoretical aspects of elastic indentation and comparison results from indentation experiments carried out in Professor Yin's lab. 3.2 Growth and remodelling - meso to macroscale:PhD student Roxanna Barry (supervised by SofTMech CIs Stewart and Hill) has now completed her studies and graduated in Dec 2020. During her PhD she developed new techniques for rationally upscaling one-dimensional arrays of individual rectangular cell models (from WP1) and derived new macroscale continuum models for use in WP5. This model includes nonlinear hyperelastic and visoelastic models for each cell, and allow the cells to deform, grow and divide. In response to forces exerted by their neighbours, cells move along a substrate, to which they bind resulting in a `Stokes-like' drag proportional to their speed. The discrete models have been solved numerically to evaluate scaling laws for the growth and proliferation of the line of cells. Using discrete-to-continuum asymptotic methods, corresponding upscaled PDEs have been derived from the discrete models. Analytical and numerical solutions for these novel, rationally-derived PDEs show excellent agreement with the discrete models. The PDEs are much faster to solve numerically than the discrete models for large numbers of cells and provide constitutive laws for the tissue-scale continuum models used in other work packages. A paper has been submitted and is still under review. Furthermore, Roxanna did some preliminary analysis of 2D tissue layer models, which will be continued by a future PhD student.
WORK PACKAGE 4 WP4 - PARAMETER INFERENCE AND MODEL SELECTION. The work reported in this section covers three areas related to
1) CARDIAC MECHANICS, 2) HAEMODYNAMICS and 3) CHEMOTAXIS.
1) CARDIAC MECHANICS. Our work in the other work packages has demonstrated that cardio-mechanic models show substantial promise for improving personalised diagnosis and disease risk prediction. However, clinical applications call for patient-specific model calibration, and estimating the constitutive parameters from features extracted from in-vivo cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) scans in real time is challenging due to the high computational costs of numerically solving the mathematical models. As part of this grant, we have successfully developed a cardiac mechanics emulator, which replaces the computationally expensive original mathematical model (the so-called simulator) by a computationally cheaper statistical surrogate model (a so-called emulator). We have shown that if the geometry of the left ventricle is known and fixed, our emulator reduces the computational complexity of parameter estimation by three orders of magnitude to about 15 minutes at negligible loss in accuracy (Davies et al. 2019, Noe et al. 2019). In real clinical applications the geometry of the left ventricle varies from patent to patient, and we have developed various dimension reduction techniques to integrate these variations into our inference framework (Romaszko et al. 2019a) and to extract the geometry of the left ventricle automatically from CMR scans (Romaszko et al. 2019b, Romaszko et al. 2021). We have shown that patient-specific cardio-mechanic parameter inference can be improved significantly by incorporating prior knowledge from population wide ex-vivo volume-pressure data. We have developed and assessed various alternative methodological frameworks and used statistical model selection to find the best method for integrating ex-vivo volume-pressure data into the inference framework (Lazarus et al. 2022).
2) HAEMODYNAMICS: Our work has focussed on the modelling of the dependence between blood pressure and blood flow in the pulmonary blood circulation system. The ultimate objective of our work has been the prediction of the risk of pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs) by combining computer tomography (CT) images of the vasculature with non-invasive blood flow measurements, to replace current state-of-art invasive techniques based on right-heart catheterisation. In order for this to succeed, we have developed techniques to calibrate mathematical models of the pulmonary circulation system using blood flow and pressure time series measurements (Paun et al, 2018; Qureshi et al. 2019). For clinical applications, quantifying the uncertainty of the parameter estimates and the predictions is important. We have investigated the influence of the two main causes of uncertainty: measurement noise and model mismatch. We have shown that established parameter inference techniques from the literature lead to a systematic parameter estimation bias and under-estimate the estimation uncertainty. We have developed a novel nonparametric Bayesian inference scheme based on Gaussian processes to explicitly allow for potential model mismatch as well as correlations in the measurement noise. We have demonstrated that our method systematically eliminates the parameter estimation bias and leads to more reliable uncertainty quantification (Paun et al. 2020). To achieve these results, we have developed novel computational inference methods that are based on a combination of sequential sampling and emulation techniques (Paun et al. 2018, Paun et al. 2019, Paun & Husmeier, 2020, 2022).
3)CHEMOTAXIS :Chemotaxis is a type of cell movement in response to a chemical stimulus which plays a key role in multiple physiological processes, such as embryogenesis and wound healing, and which is crucial for understanding metastasis in cancer research. In the literature, chemotaxis has been modelled using biophysical models based on systems of nonlinear stochastic partial differential equations (NSPDEs), which are known to be challenging for statistical inference due to the intractability of the associated likelihood and the high computational costs of their numerical integration. Therefore, data analysis in this context has been limited to comparing predictions from NSPDE models to laboratory data using simple descriptive statistics. Following up on our preliminary work based on unscented Kalman filters (Giurghita & Husmeier, 2018) and advection-diffusion models (Devlin et al, 2019), we have developed a novel statistically rigorous framework for parameter estimation in complex biophysical systems described by NSPDEs for chemotaxis (Borowska et al., 2020). Our work is based on approximate Bayesian computation with sequential Monte Carlo (ABC-SMC), which allows the intractability of the likelihood to be circumvented. In our method a considerable part of the necessary computations can be completed before measuring actual data. This is an important finding for potential clinical applications, as it minimises the computational costs required for patient-specific calibration. Our method also enables sound uncertainty quantification. REFERENCES [1] - Davies V, Noè U, Lazarus A, Gao H, Macdonald B, Berry C, Luo X., Husmeier D. (2019). Fast parameter inference in a biomechanical model of the left ventricle by using statistical emulation. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C, Applied Statistics, 68 (5), pp. 1555-1576.[2]- Noè U, Lazarus A, Gao H, Davies V, Macdonald B, Mangion K, Berry C., Husmeier D. (2019). Gaussian process emulation to accelerate parameter estimation in a mechanical model of the left ventricle: a critical step towards clinical end-user relevance. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 16 (156), pp. 20190114 [3]- Romaszko, L., Lazarus, A., Gao, H. , Borowska, A. , Luo, X. and Husmeier, D. (2019) Massive Dimensionality Reduction for the Left Ventricular Mesh. In: International Conference on Statistics: Theory and Applications (ICSTA'19), Lisbon, Portugal, 13-14 Aug 2019, p. 24. ISBN 9781927877647 (doi: 10.11159/icsta19.24)[4]- Romaszko, L., Borowska, A. , Lazarus, A., Gao, H. , Luo, X. and Husmeier, D. (2019) Direct Learning Left Ventricular Meshes from CMR Images. In: International Conference on Statistics: Theory and Applications (ICSTA'19), Lisbon, Portugal, 13-14 Aug 2019, p. 25. ISBN 9781927877647 (doi: 10.11159/icsta19.25)[5]- Romaszko, L., Borowska, A. , Lazarus, A., Dalton, D., Berry, C. , Luo, X. , Husmeier, D. and Gao, H. (2021) Neural network-based left ventricle geometry prediction from CMR images with application in biomechanics. Artificial Intelligence In Medicine, 119, 102140. (doi: 10.1016/j.artmed.2021.102140) [6]- Alan Lazarus, Hao Gao, Xiaoyu Luo, Dirk Husmeier (2022). Improving cardio-mechanic inference by combining in-vivo strain data with ex-vivo volume-pressure dataJournal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C: Applied Statistics. Accepted for publication. [7]- Paun, L. M., Qureshi, M. U., Colebank, M., Hill, N. A. , Olufsen, M. S., Haider, M. A. and Husmeier, D. (2018) MCMC methods for inference in a mathematical model of pulmonary circulation. Statistica Neerlandica, 72(3), pp. 306-338. (doi: 10.1111/stan.12132) [8]- Paun, L. M., Colebank, M., Qureshi, M. U., Olufsen, M., Hill, N. and Husmeier, D. (2019) MCMC with Delayed Acceptance using a Surrogate Model with an Application to Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics. In: International Conference on Statistics: Theory and Applications (ICSTA'19), Lisbon, Portugal, 13-14 Aug 2019, p. 28. ISBN 9781927877647 (doi: 10.11159/icsta19.28) [9]- Umar Qureshi, M., Colebank, M. J., Paun, L. M., Ellwein, L., Chesler, N., Haider, M. A., Hill, N. A. , Husmeier, D. and Olufsen, M. S. (2019) Hemodynamic assessment of pulmonary hypertension in mice: a model based analysis of the disease mechanism. Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, 18(1), pp. 219-243. (doi: 10.1007/s10237-018-1078-8) (PMID:30284059)[10]- Paun, L. M., Colebank, M. J., Olufsen, M. S., Hill, N. A. and Husmeier, D. (2020) Assessing model mismatch and model selection in a Bayesian uncertainty quantification analysis of a fluid-dynamics model of pulmonary blood circulation. Journal of the Royal Society: Interface, 17(173), 20200886 Ref.[11]- Paun, L. M., Colebank, M., Qureshi, M. U., Olufsen, M., Hill, N. and Husmeier, D. (2019) MCMC with Delayed Acceptance using a Surrogate Model with an Application to Cardiovascular Fluid Dynamics. In: International Conference on Statistics: Theory and Applications (ICSTA'19), Lisbon, Portugal, 13-14 Aug 2019, p. 28. ISBN 9781927877647 (doi: 10.11159/icsta19.28) [12]- Paun, L. M. and Husmeier, D. (2020) Markov chain Monte Carlo with Gaussian processes for fast parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in a 1D fluid-dynamics model of the pulmonary circulation. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering, (doi: 10.1002/cnm.3421) (PMID:33249755) [13]- Paun, L. M. and Husmeier, D. (2022) Emulation-accelerated Hamiltonian Monte Carlo algorithms for parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in differential equation models. Statistics and Computing, 32(1) (doi: 10.1007/s11222-021-10060-4) [14]- Giurghita, D. and Husmeier, D. (2018) Statistical modelling of cell movement. Statistica Neerlandica, 72(3), pp. 265-280. (doi: 10.1111/stan.12140) [15]- Devlin, J., Husmeier, D. and Mackenzie, J.A. (2019) Optimal estimation of drift and diffusion coefficients in the presence of static localization error. Physical Review E, 100, 022134. (doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.100.022134) [16]- Borowska, A. , Giurghita, D. and Husmeier, D. (2020) Gaussian process enhanced semi-automatic approximate Bayesian computation: parameter inference in a stochastic differential equation system for chemotaxis. Journal of Computational Physics, (doi: 10.1016/j.jcp.2020.109999)
WORK PACKAGE 5 WP5 - MULTISCALE HEART MODELLING. Ventricle-valve Interaction we extended the left ventricle model to include the mitral valve model, and then added the left atrium model, linked with the pulmonary circulation. In collaboration with Mark Danton (consultant cardiac surgeon), we obtained interesting new results about these sub-systems of the heart, compared with clinical observations. The work is published in BMMB and presented at various conferences, workshops. We also improved the modelling of the myocardium by adding details of the cellular level. The heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium and the scaffold (collagen network) have very delicate structures to maximize the pumping function. Existing studies usually consider main features (i.e. average muscle orientations), but miss features like dispersion. In this new work both the passive and active heart muscle models include the myocyte and collagen dispersions, and the work is published in R Soc Open Science [8] and JEM [9].
Poroelasticity We have modelled cardiac perfusion with improved numerical efficiency. The computational framework we developed is published in IJNMBE. We also have developed an immerse interface model for both hyperelastic and poroelastic material, which allows higher resolution and is much faster than the original solver.
Growth and Remodelling: We have developed a new theory that allows the growth tensor to be defined in the current loaded configuration, and able to produce residual strain that is consistent with experimental observation. The work is published in BMMB.
Machine learning: we have also successfully adapted "deep learning" techniques based on convolutional neural networks to learn heart geometry directly from the heart scans without manual interventions [12]. We have observed three orders of magnitude acceleration when inferring heart muscle stiffness using surrogate modelling, reducing the computational time to less than 15 mins. Currently, we are applying the cutting-edge mathematical models in real-time prediction and assessment of the heart function with sound uncertainty quantification.
Electrophysiology: Five further studies of the electrophysiology of cardiomyocytes and hiPSC-cardiomyocytes have been published in this period. In (Mortensen et al., 2021) we developed an analytical theory of action potential block due to non-uniform distributions of fibroblast cells in atrial tissue, namely fibroblast barrier distribution and myocyte strait distribution. In (Costa et al., 2021) we tested the hypothesis that the co-culturing of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiCMs) with a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell-line expressing the Kir2.1 channel (HEK-IK1) can generate an electrical syncytium with an adult-like cardiac electrophysiology. The electrical and mechanical activity of co-cultures using different HEK-IK1:hiCM ratios was measured and compared with co-cultures using wildtype (HEK-WT:hiCM) or hiCM alone on days 3-8 after plating and a computational model of the co-culture was developed to explain the observed electrophysiological effects. In (Huethorst et al., 2022) we studied the spatiotemporal features of contraction of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CM) arranged in monolayers interacting mechanically via cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion and in the presence of Isoprenaline. To clarify the underlying mechanisms, further gene expression and computational studies were performed. We found that HiPSC-CM monolayers exhibited multiphasic contractile profiles on rigid surfaces in contrast to hydrogels, substrate-free cultures or single cells where only simple twitch-like time-courses were observed and concluded that flexible substrates are necessary for normal twitch-like contractility kinetics and interpretation of inotropic interventions. In (Lachaud et al. 2022) we reported and analysed electrophysiological heterogeneity in large populations of rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes. APD in ~50 isolated cells from subregions of the LV free wall of 17 rabbit hearts were measured using a voltage-sensitive dye and significant (i) regional differences in action potential (AP) waveform, (ii) AP waveform differences in cells isolated from a single region, (iii) variability of the contribution of individual ion currents in cells with similar AP durations (APDs) were found. Highly variable changes in APD occurred after IK(r) or ICa(L) block that included a sub-population of cells (HR) with an exaggerated (hyper) response to IK(r) inhibition. A set of 4471 AP models matching the experimental APD90 distribution was generated from a larger population of models created by random variation of the maximum conductances (Gmax) of 8 key ion channels/exchangers/pumps. This set reproduced the pattern of cell-specific responses to ICa(L) and IK(r) block, including the HR sub-population. The models exhibited a wide range of Gmax values with constrained relationships linking ICa(L) with IK(r), ICl, INCX, and INaK. In (Aziz and Simitev, 2022) we developed a robust method along with open-source numerical code for estimation of the parameter values of a relatively simple but mathematically accurate archetypal model of single-cell cardiac from measurements of the morphology of single-stimulus action potentials derived from detailed ionic current models and from experimental myocyte measurements. An archetypal model that accurately reproduces a variety of wet-lab and synthetic electrophysiology data offers a number of mathematical and computational advantages.
WORK PACKAGE 6 WP6. 6.1 MULTISCALE SOLID TUMOUR MODELLING: The latest research in this area has concentrated on two key aspects of cancer progression: diagnosis/prognosis and metastatic spread. Both have been studied by means of our numerical Perfusion-Tissue-Interactions platform (numPTI) - diagnosis/prognosis using novel contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) models of microbubble transport, and metastatic spread through the coupling of an adaptive angiogenesis methodology to a cellular-scale tissue model. For the first time, developments have allowed us to compare ground truth (GT) perfusion-related data from the microcirculation with those emerging from established ultrasound simulation tools to help provide an assessment of the accuracy and utility of current imaging protocols. To this end, microbubble (MB) infusions have been tracked as they pass through vascular beds at different angiogenic states and containing a variety of tumour occlusions Multiscale analysis of corresponding time-signal intensity data has provided valuable insights into how best to interpret ultrasound data for cancer staging and the evaluation of treatment efficacy. In addition to the ultrasound studies, work has continued on modelling metastatic spread. New parent vessel networks have been implemented into numPTI that allow for the initiation of angiogenic sprout tips throughout a realistic tissue domain. Tumour fragments can be tracked as they enter the nascent vasculature from a developing tumour - when coupled with the St. Andrews cell-based tumour model, we will be able to follow micro-metastases as they leave the primary tumour site and re-emerge as metastatic foci in downstream organs. Specific outcomes from WP6 include the following: 6.1 We have investigated the use of minimum variance Beamformer (BF) methods, in combination with image analysis, to ascertain whether they are able to provide additional diagnostic benefits and deliver diagnostic data at lower cost [1] Kanoulas et al, (2019). Super-Resolution Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Methodology for the Identification of In Vivo Vascular Dynamics in 2D. Investigative Radiology, 54, 1. This study showed that the use of adaptive BFs provides improved microbubble localisation for critical separations between 100µm and 1000µm. For lateral distances greater than 1000µm, the use of adaptive BF does not provide any additional benefits in the process of MB localisations because the MBs are already well separated without significant overlap of point spread functions. For lateral distances lower than 100µm the use of adaptive BF does not provide additional benefits because the overlap is so high that there is only one detection for paired events. 6.2 We have used our modelling platform to predict the degree to which an obstruction affects the flow distribution in a micro vessel system and investigated whether Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging and indicator dilution models would be able to detect these changes. CEUS quantification relies on the spatio-temporal evolution of MBs in the blood stream following their intravenous injection. The MB echoes are registered as intensities that change with time in a specific region of interest and are related to the blood flow dynamics in the region as well as the upstream circulation.There are two categories of perfusion quantification models: (i) wash-in models of constant infusion used with the destruction-reperfusion method, and (ii) transient MB concentration measurements after bolus injection. The constant infusion method makes use of the fact that MBs can be selectively destroyed by high amplitude ultrasound, allowing cycles of wash-in and destruction to be repeated multiple times and for the wash in behaviour to be modelled and analysed. A realistic vascular bed was realised by constructing a homogeneous capillary plexus and then running the adaptive capillary subroutines available in numPTI . We have confirmed our initial hypothesis that an obstruction, even at a capillary level, can have a significant impact in neighbouring areas of the bed and that such abnormalities can be detected using CEUS [3]. The controlled environment of the vascular model has also allowed us to compare and evaluate of a number of different image processing approaches [2] Voulgaridou et al (2020), Improved microbubble (MB) Localisation Using Particle Detecting algorithm: Evaluation of Algorithm Performance for Different Beamforming Methods, 2020 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 2020, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/IUS46767.2020.9251433
6.3 By comparing ground truth (GT) data from numPTI with Time Intensity Curves (TICs) and parametric maps derived from particle tracking software, we have been able to assess the impact of tumour stage and tumour vascularity on the detection capabilities of CEUS with each method and suggest new measurement protocols. The relative utility of a number of derived imaging parameters, including the classical Area under the Curve (AUC), Mean Transit Time (MTT), peak Intensity (Ip), and super resolution parameters have been studied and evaluated. We have demonstrated that SRI parametric mapping reveals useful information on tumour vascularisation for tumours up to 1.5mm in diameter in a vascularised region that would normally be considered poorly vascularised. Tumours with necrotic cores are easier to locate on the maps by identifying: gaps in track maps, increased track density around the tumour, and increased speed at the tumour periphery. In terms of image processing, the SRI algorithm has successfully detected pathologically-compromised tissue in situations that could not be identified through conventional Time Intensity Curve analysis.
Work Package WP7 OUTREACH AND USER ENGAGEMENT The Global pandemic has restricted a number of planned external engagement activities. Since lockdown the SofTMech team have recorded bi-weekly research presentations. There have been a number of talks from our new international partners from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Politecnico Di Milano (POLIMI). These recordings form a rich resource for the SofTMech team to review and inform thinking on future engagement activities. SofTMech has established a twitter account which has ~212 Followers. WP7.1: SofTMech people Since March 2020 Dr Sean McGinty and Richard Clayton have joined the engagement committee. Updates previously reported in March 2020 Prof Matt Dalby took over as SofTMech CI from Prof Mike Olson, (who left to join Ryerson University), and will serve as the Beatson representative on the engagement committee. Student representation, on our committees, has proved to be a valuable addition. In 2020 Dr Matt Dalby was awarded the Biochemical Society Academic-Industrial Collaboration Prize 2020. WP7.2: SofTMech ESPRC Mid Term Review: 15th and 16th May 2018 SofTMech's mid-term review was held in May 2018. The review is a condition of funding for all EPSRC Healthcare centres. The engagement & outreach committees produced relevant sections, impact and engagement of the mid-term review report and review visit. The EPSRC approved external panel was very positive about the centre and its research progress; confident about the centres impact and "particularly impressed with the industrial collaboration and efforts of the centre to create and highlight new collaborations". WP7.3: Research Grant applications: since January 2018 To support the long-term growth of the academic disciplines, that constitute SofTMech, and to ensure the centre's continuity, post the initial award period, SofTMech have pursued a number of funding opportunities. Since January 2018 applications that build on SofTMech research have resulted in ~£4.5m of new research awards see below. a) EPSRC Growth and Remodelling in the Porcine Heart - Pushing Mathematics through experiments. Awarded £394k. EP/S014284/1 PI Luo b) EPSRC Predicting the long term outcome of Percutaneous Mitral Valve Repair with MitcClip NT. Not funded £401k EP/S-19529/1 c) PI X Luo EP/S030875/1: EPSRC Centre for Multiscale soft tissue mechanics with MIT and POLIMI. £1.6m awarded. Through developing this grant we have strengthened & developed collaborative links: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI). d) PI Luo EPSRC Advanced Fellowship: A whole-heart model of multiscale soft tissue mechanics and fluid structure interaction for clinical applications (Whole-Heart-FSI). £1.3m awarded. e) PI D Husmeier The SofTMech Statistical Emulation and Translation Hub £1.2m awarded. f) Prof Nick Hill awarded a Leverhulme Research Fellowship ~£55k on 'Coupling circulation models to the micro-circulation". g) EPSRC IAA award Oct. 2020 ~£48K to X Luo "Cardiac endotypes in COVID-19: quantification and mechanisms of cardiac injury" WP7.4: Developed links with: (i) Terumo Aortic, formerly Vascutek, a leader in the aortic implant market have committed funds to support a PhD Studentship in support of SofTMech EPSRC international Centre to Centre EP/S030875/-, (ii) NHS Research Scotland and Scottish Health Innovations Ltd have committed to promote and facilitate links between SofTMech and clinicians. (iii) lifETIME: EPSRC CDT in Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine was funded by EPSRC. Prof Matt Dalby is a Director in this CDT with SofTMech's Prof N Hill as a member of the centre's Interdisciplinary skills group. WP7.5: Other Awards a) Knowledge Exchange Associate (KEA): Previously reported that following a successful application, to the University of Glasgow, SofTMech was awarded funding to employ 0.5FTE KEA. The KEA, C Hogarth, started on 1st April 2018. Her role to develop strong external networks and new industrial and collaborative Knowledge Exchange opportunities and to help develop links between SofTMech and Biomedical Engineering groups. Activities undertaken to date include organising & promoting the following (i) Modelling & Experiments in Drug Delivery Systems (MEDDS), workshop with PI S Mcginty. (ii) May 2019 Stakeholder engagement event & (iii) Dialogue with Clinicians on Retinal Haemorrhage. (iv) Business engagement for EPSRC CDT lifetime. In addition (i) Developed Industry club model with the Lifetime CDT, and is monitoring the success to see if the model can be deployed wider within SofTMech; (ii) contacting SofTMech investigators to explore potential for using their models as medical devices. b) STEM for Britain 2018: SofTMech PhD student L Mason, (supervised by Huabing Yin and Ray Ogden), was awarded the Gold Medal for Engineering at the prestigious STEM for Britain event, held in UK Parliament in March 2018. Her poster was entitled `Investigating the viscoelastic properties of complex materials and cells to study cancer migration'.c) Mihaela Paun supervised by Dirk Husmeier and Nick Hill won the GOLD MEDAL in the STEM for BRITAIN competition, category "Mathematics" March 2020 d) David Dalton, a PhD student supervised by Dirk Husmeier, funded by SofTMech^MP, was awarded the BEST PAPER prize at the 2nd International Conference on Statistics: Theory and Applications (ICSTA'20) August 19, 2020 - August 21, 2020. His certificate was virtually presented for the paper entitled: "Comparative Evaluation of Different Emulators for Cardiac Mechanics" e) Royal Society-Newton Mobility Grant. Prof Zishun Liu, (Xi'an Jiaotong University), and Prof Xiaoyu Luo, (University of Glasgow), awarded £12,000 over 2 years. (1st April 2018-30th March 2020). For travel to enable project: "Towards the next generation stenting- The evaluation and study on mechanics behaviour of novel shape memory polymer stent". IEC\NSGC\170202. WP7.6: Events organised since January 2018 a) Five EPSRC Maths-Healthcare Centres Meeting. 19th-21st September 2018: FIVE EPSRC Maths-Healthcare Centres (Cambridge, Exeter, Imperial, Liverpool and SofTMech), met, (in Glasgow), to share experiences and to explore joint future funding opportunities. As a follow up the Liverpool, Cambridge and SofTMech Centres are outlining an EPSRC programme grant proposal based around physiologically-based image analysis. b) First joint SofTMech Liverpool CMH Healthcare meeting. First meeting held between these centres. Aim to improve understanding of each others work and explore opportunities for collaborative grants and possible PhD student exchanges. 2nd Joint meeting 30th Aug 2018. c) Multiscale Hard and Soft tissue Modelling workshop. 18th-20th June 2018. A joint SofTMech and MultiSim workshop on multi-scale hard and soft tissue modelling. d) SIG Event on Fluid Mechanics of the Eye: 26- 27th March 2019. Event brought together a group of modellers to work on problems related to the fluid mechanics of the eye. It was funded by EPSRC UK Fluid Network with additional support from SofTMech. e) Dialogue with Clinicians on Retinal Haemorrhage. 31st Jan 2019. Event brought together expert clinicians and modellers to discuss challenges in quantifying the onset and severity of retinal haemorrhage. The aim to provide the first steps toward a rational prediction of bleeding in the retinal circulation, to provide a robust and quantitative model for retinal haemorrhage to aid clinicians in interpreting evidence placed before them. It was funded by EP/P024270/1 with additional support from SofTMech. . f) 4th Tissue Workshop: 5th-9th June 2019 The workshop engaged both modellers and clinicians and reviewed the progress of "state of the art" soft tissue modelling and provided a research forum on the challenges in the area. g) SofTMech stakeholder event, 8th May 2019. This event produced opportunities to build on SofTMech research and created translational research opportunities and the identification of common research interests that would form the basis future grant applications. h) Public Patient Participation Day: organised by the SofTMech Outreach committee was held on the 20th May 2019. The day will gave patients an insight into Mathematical Research in Healthcare and how it might in the future improve their treatment. i) Turing Gateway to Mathematics Meeting, Achieving Impact in Healthcare: From Mathematics to Clinical Support Systems and Devices. 10th & 11th April 2019, Cambridge. This has been re-branded to Newton Gateway of Mathematics. This joint workshop of the five Centres focused on translating mathematical research into technological advances, as well as outreach and linkage with clinicians and end-user companies. j) International Centre for Mathematics Applied to Life Sciences (CMALS): The workshop, 19th March 2019, a one day symposium where the state of the art and future perspectives concerning mathematical modelling in bio-mechanics will be discussed. k) STEM for Britain 2019: Giulia Pederzani was selected to display her poster at the House of Commons on Wed 13th March 19 on the Mathematical Sciences session. l) SofTMech held an on-line training day on 8th January 2021. The day allowed the University of Glasgow staff and postgraduate students to engage with staff and students from their partner Institutions in Politecnio Milano (POLIMI) (Italy) and MIT (US). Other collaborators that engaged in the invent were from the University of Plymouth, Terumo Aortic, EPFL and North Carolina State University.m) 5th Tissue Workshop; 1st - 3rd June 2021; due to the pandemic this event was held on-line and co-hosted by ICMS via the sococo platform; 95 delegates registered. WP7.7: SofTMech Funding: Feasibility and New Collaborations a) Feasibility Fund: SofTMech investigators have access to feasibility funding to support external collaborations, that make use of SofTMech research outcomes, and generate new ideas that lead to new projects and new grants. Since SofTMech's launch these funds have been used to support 33 projects. External collaborators in these projects include Bordeaux University Hospital; Cairn Research Ltd; Golden Jubilee Nation Hospital; Strathclyde University; University of Ireland Galway; University of Pittsburgh; Swedish Defence Research Agency; Newcastle university, Cardiff University, POLIMI, North Carolina State University and Tianjin University. b) New Collaboration Fund: SofTMech investigators have access to funding to support the development of new collaborations. Since SofTMech's launch these funds have been used to support projects with Department of Mathematical Sciences (DISMA), Politecnico di Torino and Texas A&M University. WP7.8: Communication channels & mechanisms a) Software Dissemination Policy prepared, by Simitev. This policy covers how SofTMech use web-based file hosting services such as GitHub (or GitLab) and Zenodo. b) Website: (i) has been developed to facilitate improved engagement and compliance with GDPR. The SofTMech team are in the process of rebranding its website to incorporate reference to wider interests of the team such as the SofTMech Hub. Members of the team are planning to participate in the IAA Impact Festival, in March 2022, in Glasgow. The event is primarily aimed at Universities and is a good opportunity to develop academic collaborations and discuss a range of impact related topics.
Exploitation Route Journal publications, conference presentations, and open-source software uploaded in Github, organising mini-symposia at international conferences.
The expertise and results are being taken forward into the other grants that we have been awarded.
Sectors Education,Healthcare

URL http://www.softmech.org/funding/headline_629573_en.html
 
Description The aim of the centre is to enhance the quality of life and health in the UK, and beyond, and enhance the UK's global competitiveness by addressing the most important healthcare problems Heart disease, the leading killer in the world, and cancer the second deadliest disease. Our research continues to generate a range of new mathematical models for studying these diseases. SofTMech researchers have responded in an agile manner to address the challenges of the global pandemic. Professor Xiaoyu Luo was awarded an impact acceleration account with a project "Cardiac endotypes in COVID-19: quantification and mechanisms of cardiac injury" and Professor Colin Berry has been successful in the Chief Scientist Office Rapid Research in Covid-19 (RARC-19) funding call and has been awarded £47,940 to lead a project to investigate Cardiac Imaging in SARS Coronavirus disease-19 (CISCO-19). One in four patients with COVID-19 pneumonia develop life-threatening heart problems. Through cardiovascular imaging and biomarkers analyses this study aims to evaluate whether COVID-19 infection results in heart injury. SofTMech's fundamental research will significantly advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and responses to therapy, and hence move clinical research forward. The Centre started on 1st April 2016. At March 2022 researchers had produced over 150+ high-quality journal publications on model development, parameter inference, clinical applications and experiments. To date our activities to facilitate impact delivery have focused on • Influencing professional practice by raising awareness of our activities to Professional practitioners and seeking their views on some of the challenges associated with the research programme • Influencing public behaviour by raising awareness of soft tissue mechanics to School children and the general public. Working with Industry to understand the challenges they face and to determine how our research can help address these challenges. SofTMech's mid-term review was held in May 2018. The EPSRC approved external review panel was "particularly impressed with the industrial collaboration and efforts of the centre to create and highlight new collaborations". Our engagement is designed to help us better understand the challenges faced by relevant stakeholders to support our long term impact delivery agenda. Since the review SofTMech have developed collaborations. For example a funded PhD with Terumo Aortic; title "Optimization of the stent devices to treat Aortic Dissection" Sathish Kumar Marimuthu, a PhD student working under Prof. Nick Hill and Dr. Sean McGinty. To date our activities have helped develop strong relationships with industry; International and UK Universities; all EPSRC funded Healthcare centres and other organisations such as NHS Research Scotland. Our investigators have been successful in winning funding from a range of funders, (STFC; EPSRC; EU; BBSRC & the Royal Society of Edinburgh); engaging successfully with industry with key outcomes including three joint industry funded PhD studentships and two impact acceleration awards. Two highlights include our CDT success and our engagement with Glaxosmithkline (GSK) • Professor Matthew Dalby is Director of the £7m funded Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT) EP/S02347X/1, the lifETIME (Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine), with SofTMech member Prof N Hill as members of the centre's Interdisciplinary skills group. The CDT is a partnership between the University of Glasgow, the University of Birmingham, Aston University and CÚRAM - Science Foundation Ireland. The CDT will enable impact delivery by training innovation leaders in drug discovery and regenerative medicine through development of bioengineered humanised 3D models, microfluidics, diagnostics and sensing platforms. The CDT has run a number of engagement events: Stakeholder Day, Student Day and Twitter conference which are reported in the Engagement section. SofTMech has been awarded two Impact Acceleration Awards, (i) IAA project "Tracking biomarkers of heart attacks using a fast statistical emulator based on heart modelling and in vivo MRI", The planned Socio-economic impacts include the aim of producing a useful computational toolkit for clinical research. and (ii) IAA award to support work on mathematical modelling of cardiac amyloid. This project has the potential to deliver significant Economic Impacts through developing predictive models which will enable Pharmaceutical companies to evaluate clinical trials, (testing of novel drugs), at an earlier stage in the product life cycle. SofTMech has established a new collaboration with the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline on cardiac modelling. This has led to the GSK funding of >£600k which includes support of a three-year PDRA and co-funding of two industrial PhD studentship and two Impact Acceleration account awards Profs. Berry and Luo were also invited to give talks for the "International seminar" series at the GlaxoSmithKline's Headquarter in Stevenage on 20th Feb, 2017. SofTMech investigators have access to feasibility funding to support external collaborations, that make use of SofTMech research outcomes, and generate new ideas that lead to new projects and new grants. During this pandemic period we have been awarded an EPSRC IAA award (Oct. 2020 ~£48K to X Luo: "Cardiac endotypes in COVID-19 quantification and mechanisms of cardiac injury". Since SofTMech's launch these funds have been used to support 33 Feasibility Projects. External collaborators in these projects include Bordeaux University Hospital; Cairn Research Ltd; Golden Jubilee Nation Hospital; Strathclyde University; University of Ireland Galway; University of Pittsburgh; Swedish Defence Research Agency; Newcastle University, Cardiff University, and in 2020 POLIMI, North Carolina State University and Tianjin University. In addition, SofTMech investigators have access to funding to support the development of new collaborations. Since SofTMech's launch these funds have been used to support projects with Department of Mathematical Sciences (DISMA), Politecnico di Torino and Texas A&M University. Although this grant ended in July 21 The SofTMech team has been successful in being awarded two major grants: SofTMech with MIT and POLIMI (SofTMechMP) EP/S030875/1which started in January 2020; The SofTMech Statistical Emulation and Translation Hub (SofTMech-SET) EP/T017899/1, which started in March 2021. Both of these will deliver further major impact through translation of our research to the clinic.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description 8 Sept 2017, Professor Nicholas Hill attended EPSRC Review of KE in the Mathematical Sciences - Community Consultation Workshop, London
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Improvement of Knowledge Exchange in Mathematical sciences will facilitate collaborations between Mathematics and Industry. This will then impact on Healthcare and biotechnology products and also impact on clinical services.
 
Description COVID-19 Scotland PPI groups
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Guideline Title 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis andmanagement of chronic coronary syndromes
Description Colin Berry cited in 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical guidelines
URL https://www.escardio.org/Guidelines/Clinical-Practice-Guidelines/Chronic-Coronary-Syndromes
 
Description Colin Berry is a member of Regional Strategy Group for Imaging in NHS West of Scotland
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Guideline Title Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST -segment elevation
Description Colin Berry papers cited in 2017 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Citation in clinical guidelines
 
Description Colin Berry part of Scottish Government Women's Health Plan Committee, 2020
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Gave evidence to a government review
URL https://www.gov.scot/publications/protecting-scotlands-future-governments-programme-scotland-2019-20...
 
Description Colin Berry provided training at European Society of Cardiology Annual Scientific Congress, Paris August - September 2019
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Training/educational developments for postgraduates/research users.
URL https://www.escardio.org/Congresses-&-Events/ESC-Congress?gclid=Cj0KCQjw0pfzBRCOARIsANi0g0uR5vJUiCYq...
 
Description Grant board reviews
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact I site on research grant review committees that provide peer review for research proposals in the UK (MRC, BHF)
 
Description Graz Summar School
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact tba
 
Description Influence on future research directions - Simitev was a member of the Engineering Prioritisation Panel Meeting 7 and 8 August 2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL https://gow.epsrc.ukri.org/NGBOViewPanel.aspx?PanelId=1-5DQRDA
 
Description Invited lecture at European Course in Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ECMINT), June 2017, June 2019.
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
URL https://www.esmint.eu/ecmint
 
Description Ray Ogden taught at Graz Summar School
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Provided training in Soft tissue mechanics, including theoretical models and computation.
 
Description Simitev served as an External Examiner of a PhD Candidate at the School of Mathematics, University of Nottingham
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
 
Description Training Day for Phd students and RAs organised by Professor Dirk Husmeier
Geographic Reach Local/Municipal/Regional 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Consolidation of Essential Background knowledge: To initiate successful interdisciplinary research projects, it is helpful for everyone to have sufficient background knowledge of the essential methodological concepts relevant to SoftMech, so as to be able to effectively collaborate and work as a research team.
 
Description 'EPSRC and SFI Centre for Doctoral Training in Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine
Amount £7,013,578 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S02347X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 12/2027
 
Description An Aqueous Scanning Thermal Microscope for nanoscale thermal biology
Amount £151,136 (GBP)
Funding ID BB/R021953/1 
Organisation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 10/2019
 
Description Biomedical Catalyst Developmental Pathway Funding
Amount £2,714,383 (GBP)
Funding ID MR/S005714/1 
Organisation Medical Research Council (MRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 04/2023
 
Description EPSRC ECR Capital Award
Amount £22,926 (GBP)
Funding ID 308011-01 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 03/2020
 
Description EPSRC First Grant Scheme
Amount £124,991 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P024270/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description EPSRC IAA project Mathematical modelling of cardiac amyloidosis and related interstitial cardiac pathologies, co funded by GSK,
Amount £25,146 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Department University of Glasgow Impact Acceleration Award
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 12/2017 
End 06/2018
 
Description EU2020
Amount € 5,600,000 (EUR)
Funding ID Prof. Colin Berry (http://www.euroshock-study.eu/) 
Organisation European Union 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2018 
End 12/2022
 
Description Early diagnosis and intervention of osteoporosis using nanovibrational stimulation; Professor Matt Dalby (Lead)
Amount £200,000 (GBP)
Organisation Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 09/2020
 
Description Growth and Remodelling in the Porcine Heart-- Pushing Mathematics through Experiments
Amount £393,630 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S014284/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 04/2022
 
Description Heathcare investigator-led research
Amount £387,321 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2019 
End 07/2022
 
Description IEC\NSFC\191622 - International Exchanges 2019 Cost Share (NSFC) Royal Society-Newton Mobility Grant
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Funding ID IEC\NSFC\191622 - International Exchanges 2019 Cost Share (NSFC) 
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2020 
End 03/2022
 
Description Industrial Funding (Consultancy)
Amount £53,986 (GBP)
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 04/2017 
End 04/2019
 
Description Industrial Studentship
Amount £75,480 (GBP)
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Industrial Studentship
Amount £75,480 (GBP)
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Industrial funding
Amount £468,095 (GBP)
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) 
Sector Private
Country Global
Start 08/2017 
End 08/2020
 
Description Institute Group Award
Amount £0 (GBP)
Funding ID A24450 
Organisation Cancer Research UK 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2017 
End 05/2022
 
Description Know Exchange Associate Fund
Amount £490,000 (GBP)
Funding ID KE associate 
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Department University of Glasgow Impact Acceleration Award
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description LKAS studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Glasgow Life 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2022
 
Description LKAS studentship 2 (Drug eluting stent and coronary artery disease)
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation Glasgow Life 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 09/2020
 
Description LORD KELVIN / ADAM SMITH (LKAS) Peter Stewart, Matthew Dalby
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2020 
End 10/2024
 
Description Leverhulme Research Fellowship (Professor Nick Hill)
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Leverhulme Trust 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2021 
End 04/2022
 
Description MEGA-FLIM: quantum technologies for megapixel time-resolved imaging and control across biological scales
Amount £1,875,030 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T002123/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2019 
End 03/2022
 
Description Royal Society of Edinburgh sabbatical research grant
Amount £62,800 (GBP)
Funding ID 62335 
Organisation Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 06/2020
 
Description Royal Society-Newton Mobility Grant
Amount £12,000 (GBP)
Organisation The Royal Society 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 03/2020
 
Description SofTMech with MIT and POLIMI (SofTMechMP)
Amount £1,599,530 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S030875/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2019 
End 06/2023
 
Description Terumo Aortic (Industry funded PhD Studentship)
Amount £41,000 (GBP)
Organisation Terumo Aortic 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2019 
End 03/2023
 
Description The lifETIME (Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine), CDT, Professor Matthew Dalby (Director), is a partnership between the University of Glasgow, the University of Birmingham, Aston University and CÚRAM - Science Foundation Ireland
Amount £13,500,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2019 
End 10/2028
 
Description Tracking biomarkers of heart attacks using a fast statistical emulator based on heart modelling and in vivo MRI
Amount £46,379 (GBP)
Organisation University of Glasgow 
Department University of Glasgow Impact Acceleration Award
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2016 
End 03/2017
 
Title Chemotaxis chambers 
Description Various microfluidic chambers for assaying chemotaxis 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2010 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A number of papers; minor collaborations; and the development of even better tools 
URL https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-4939-3480-5_17
 
Title Computational models and methodology 
Description We developed finite element immersed boundary methods and used these to develop new models for mitral valve, left ventricle and various coupled systems. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Our publications are cited by a number of other research groups, and we are invited to give talks at conferences/workshops 
URL http://www.glasgowheart.org/
 
Title Coronary physiology measurements 
Description Measurement of coronary disease and coronary artery function 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Publication in the literature; potential adoption of the index globally in other catheter laboratories for assessment of heart disease. 
 
Title Golden Jubilee National Hospital Cardiovascular Imaging Database 
Description We have established a database for patients who give informed consent for use of clinical imaging data for audit, education and research. There are around 20,000 cardiovascular diagnostic and therapeutic tests performed in our hospital annually. With support, we aim to prospectively enroll all patients. 
Type Of Material Biological samples 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The database has only recently been established. 
 
Title Heart imaging methods 
Description I contribute to R&D for heart imaging, especially MRI. Our work in patients helps to assess and validate or not new imaging methods. 
Type Of Material Physiological assessment or outcome measure 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact Multiple research publications and support for implementaion in clinical practice. 
 
Title Imaging myocardial pathology 
Description MRI: validation and implementation of methodologies developed by Siemens Healthcare 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We have validated bright blood oedema imaging for diagnostic assessment of heart attack injury. Our papers have been widely read (top 10 read Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 2011), and are relevant for clinical and research practice. 
 
Title Immersed boundary method with finite element extension, with application to heart mechanics 
Description Built on immersed boundary method with finite element extension, fluid-structure interaction of personalized human heart modeling approach is developed, and implemented in IBAMR framework. The computational framework IBAMR is freely available to anyone through https://github.com/IBAMR/IBAMR. Heart models are shared within the centre, but not to the public. 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact By employing this approach, we studied the heart function between healthy volunteers and patients with acute myocardial infarction. 
URL https://github.com/IBAMR/IBAMR
 
Title Simplified generic mathematical model of single cell cardiac action potential 
Description Mathematical model. Consists of a set of ordinary differential equations. Implemented in the form of numerical code in various computing languages - C, Fortran, Python, Matlab 
Type Of Material Model of mechanisms or symptoms - human 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Not known 
URL https://github.com/hifzhudin/CaricNobleModel
 
Title Action potential propagation and block in a model of atrial tissue with myocyte-fibroblast coupling 
Description Action potential propagation and block in a model of atrial tissue with myocyte-fibroblast coupling 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Action potential propagation and block in a model of atrial tissue with myocyte-fibroblast coupling 
URL http://researchdata.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/1104
 
Title Assessing model mismatch and model selection in fluid-dynamics modelling of pulmonary blood circulation 
Description Github repository containing the data and the software for the paper by L. Mihaela Paun, Mitchel J. Colebank, Mette S. Olufsen, Nicholas A. Hill and Dirk Husmeier (2020): ``Assessing model mismatch and model selection in a Bayesian uncertainty quantification analysis of a fluid-dynamics model of pulmonary blood circulation" Journal of the Royal Society Interface 17: 20200886. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2020.0886 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The software and the data of the Github repository allow the reader to reproduce the results reported in the above paper. The software can be applied to other fluid dynamics models and data, to quantify potential model mismatch and parameter estimation uncertainty. 
URL https://github.com/LMihaelaP/ModelMismatchPaper.git
 
Title Continuum soft tissue models from upscaling arrays of hyperelastic cells 
Description Codes used for generating numerical predictions for our paper 'Continuum soft tissue models from upscaling arrays of hyperelastic cells' 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://researchdata.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/1008
 
Title Energetics of a collapsible channel flow with a nonlinear fluid-beam model 
Description Data for figures in 'Energetics of a collapsible channel flow with a nonlinear fluid-beam model' 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://researchdata.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/1112
 
Title FibreGeneration-LDDMM 
Description We develop a procedure to map an ex vivo DT-MRI dataset into a porcine bi-ventricle model, all model data and algorithms are included. The companion paper is being accepted in Royal Society Open Science (http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/211485/). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The Abaqus LivingHeart Team was very interested in this approach and has been trying to deploy the framework within the LivingHeart Project. 
URL https://github.com/HaoGao/FibreGeneration-LDDMM
 
Title GlasgowHeart: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-derived 'virtual twin' cardiac mechanics platform 
Description A personalized biomechanical cardiac modelling framework, aimed at the mechanistic understanding of individual patients' cardiac remodelling in the longer-term and risk-stratification. Our long-term aim is to be able to revolutionise clinical practice through accurate risk-stratification and virtual testing. Four modules are currently available in GlasgowHeart: 1) image processing, 2) biomechanics modelling, 3) personalization, inference and machine learning of left ventricular (LV) mechanics and 4) statistical emulation as shown in Figure 1. Modules 1, 2 and 3 have been developed in MATLAB by the co-authors, and module 4 is programmed in Python using Tensor Flow, Scikit-learn, XGBoost to use advanced machine-learning methods. For computational modelling in module 2, we further use LibMesh, IBAMR, Fenics for solving nonlinear systems, Visit and Paraview for 3D visualization. Module 2 can also work with other commercial packages for biomechanics simulations (ABAQUS, FEAP). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This framework has been developed over the last ten years and contributed to various projects and funding applications. Recently it was presented in SCMR 2021 conference in the open-source software demo session. 
URL https://github.com/HaoGao/GlasgowHeart
 
Title Global stability analysis of flexible channel flow with a hyperelastic wall 
Description Data for figures in 'Global stability analysis of flexible channel flow with a hyperelastic wall' 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://researchdata.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/1113
 
Title Multiple Steady and Oscillatory Solutions in a Collapsible Channel Flow 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL http://researchdata.gla.ac.uk/id/eprint/1165
 
Title Numerical code for simulation of electrophysiological excitation in cardiac tissues and whole hearts. 
Description This is a finite-element code capable of solving the bidomain and the monodomain equations that model the electricalphisiological excitation and propagation in 1, 2 and 3D geometries including whole heart realistic geometries. Various models for the transmembrane ionic current can be incorporated. Code ownership: Dr Hao Gao (Glasgow), Dr Radostin Simitev (Glasgow); Mr Peter Mortensen (Glasgow). 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact None yet. 
 
Title Open Source software, https://github.com/IBAMR/IBAMR 
Description This open source software can be used by any research groups who are interested in modelling fluid-structure interaction and soft tissues 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact We contributed to the develpment of this open source. 
URL https://github.com/IBAMR/IBAMR
 
Title Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in a 1D fluid-dynamics model of the pulmonary circulation 
Description Github repository containing the software and the data for the article: Paun LM and Husmeier D. (2021): Markov chain Monte Carlo with Gaussian processes for fast parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in a 1D fluid-dynamics model of the pulmonary circulation. Int J Numer Meth Biomed Engng. 2021;37:e3421. https://doi.org/10.1002/cnm.3421 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2021 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The software and the data included in the Github repository allow the user to reproduce the results reported in the above paper. The software can be applied to other fluid dynamics models and data to estimate model parameters and quantify the estimation uncertainty. 
URL https://github.com/LMihaelaP/BayesianUQ_CardiovascularModelling.git
 
Title Parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in differential equation models 
Description Github repository containing the software and the data for the article by L. Mihaela Paun and Dirk Husmeier (2022): Emulation-accelerated Hamiltonian Monte Carlo algorithms for parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in differential equation models,Statistics and Computing, volume 32, Article number: 1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11222-021-10060-4 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2022 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The software and the data of the Github repository allow the user to reproduce the results reported in the above paper. The software can be applied to other differential equation models to infer the model parameters and quantify the estimation uncertainty. 
URL https://github.com/LMihaelaP/Hamiltonian-Monte-Carlo-with-emulation.git
 
Title Self-excited oscillations in a collapsible channel, with applications to retinal venous pulsation 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Shock wave propagation along the central retinal blood vessels 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Computational modelling of phagocytosis 
Organisation National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Country United States 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution We used our model of chemotaxis & adapted it to show phagocytosis
Collaborator Contribution The model confirmed wet experiments
Impact Papers; discovery of new mechanisms of chemotaxis
Start Year 2015
 
Description EPSRC SofTMech Group 
Organisation University of Glasgow
Department Mathematical Biology Glasgow
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution EPSRC SofTMech Mathematical Biology and Statistics Centre
Collaborator Contribution EPSRC SofTMech Mathematical Biology and Statistics Centre and now a new award for statistical emulation (EPSRC Stats Hub).
Impact For PRIZE, study design manuscript under review
Start Year 2019
 
Description GSK (as a new collaborator) 
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution SofTMech has strong engagement with GSK. GSK have joint funded two PhD studentship, funded one PDRA and provided support for two impact acceleration account applications
Collaborator Contribution At present this collaboration involves links to the School of Mathematics & Statistics and the Institute of Cardiology and Imaging at the University of Glasgow
Impact To early at this stage
Start Year 2016
 
Description GSK Partnership 
Organisation GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)
Country Global 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution GSK - postdoctoral and PhD Studentship to advance and exploit computational heart modelling for therapy development in patients after acute myocardial infarction
Collaborator Contribution GSK - postdoctoral and PhD Studentship, each for 3 years
Impact None as yet - posts to start in 2017
Start Year 2017
 
Description ITIS Foundation 
Organisation IT'IS Foundation
Country Switzerland 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution External co-supervision of PhD student
Collaborator Contribution Allocation of PhD student to research on aneurysm mechanobiology framework. Implementing Watton model to patient-specific geometries within a software pipeline from clinical imaging to simulation.
Impact Abstract at CMBE 2019, Tohoku, Japan. Invited lecture at intracranial stenting meeting Two draft publications.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Industrial Engagement - Neurvana Medical 
Organisation Neurvana Medical
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Clinically driven problem with regards predicting force that a stent needs to apply to vessel wall to mechanical treat vasospasm. Current mechanical treatment methods involve balloon angioplastly that generates higher outward forces than is necessary. The company wanted a mathematical model to support rationale of their new treatment with stents that have lower outward forces (reducing risk of damage to artery). Developed a constrained mixture model of the arterial wall to reflect its mechanics before/after vasospasm and to predict additional pressure (above blood pressure) needed to damage vascular smooth muscles to resolve vasospasm. Results consistent with (recent) clinical observations.
Collaborator Contribution Industrial company funded Dr Watton's Softmech PhD student, Giulia Pederzani, to attend an international clinical conference to present findings of research.
Impact Clinical paper (submitted). Two presentations (oral) at international clinical conferences (ABC-WIN, Val d'sere, Jan 2018; iNEW, Zurich Feb 2018). Multidisciplinary (Clinical research, Industrial company des, mathematics)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Industrial Engagement Vascutek 
Organisation Vascutek Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution SofTMech organised an industry Dialogue which was held in November 2017. As a follow up activity members of the SofTMech team met with members of Vascutek, in January 2018, The aim of the meeting to better understand Vascutek's industrial challenges and to have more in depth discussion on areas of research expertise within the SofTMech team. A follow up conversation took place, in February 2018, to identify specific research projects of mutual interest and to explore opportunities for collaboration. Development of this relationship is ongoing. Engagement has led to company becoming a partner on recent SofTMech International centre to centre application. As part of this company have committed to 50% fund a PhD studentship. This application EP/S030875/1was successful and a £1.6m EPSRC grant awarded
Collaborator Contribution Vascutek identified specific research topics/challenges which they are interested to work on in collaboration with SofTMech. Ongoing engagement has strengthened the relationship and understanding of the companies research interests and relevance of SofTMech to addressing them.
Impact No outputs to date. This collaboration is at an early stage of development. Projects have been identified and Vascutek have confirmed cash and in kind support for a CDT that SofTMech are developing. The SofTMech centre is multidisciplinary and discussion, with Vascutek, has involved academics from Mathematics, Statistics and Engineering. To date no formal agreements have been signed or agreed.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Industrial Engagement with Vascular Flow Technologies. 
Organisation Vascular Flow Technologies
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution SofTMech organised an industry Dialogue which was held in November 2017. Vascular Flow Technologies expressed an interest but were unable to attend. A follow up conversation took place in February 2018, to explore opportunities for collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution Vascular Flow Technologies have confirmed their intention to be considered as an industrial partner on the Centre for Doctoral Training that SofTMech is developing. The support would take the form of work placements and short research projects in line with our R&D project pipeline. The CDT application was not taken forward. However development of this relationship is ongoing.
Impact No outputs to date. This collaboration is at an early stage of development.
Start Year 2017
 
Description NHS Research Scotland 
Organisation NHS Research Scotland
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Following successful industry dialogue, in 2017, SofTMech investigators engaged with NHS Research Scotland (NRS) via reciprocal visits to explore areas of interest. NHS Research Scotland promotes and supports excellence in clinical and translational research in Scotland so that patients can benefit from new and better treatments. Ongoing Engagement has led to NRS becoming a partner on recent SofTMech International centre to centre application. This application EP/S030875/1was successful and a £1.6m EPSRC grant awarded. NRS introduced SofTMech PIs to Scottish Health Innovations Ltd.
Collaborator Contribution NHS Research Scotland (NRS) has committed staff time to promote and raise awareness of SofTMech within their network of clinicians.
Impact None at present
Start Year 2017
 
Description Pittsburgh 
Organisation University of Pittsburgh
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of a Softmech Feasability Fund Award, collaborative research on modelling bladder growth and remodelling began in March 2018.
Collaborator Contribution PhD student from Pittsburgh visited Sheffield for 3 weeks to collaborative on developing mathematical model of bladder growth and remodelling (March 2018). Continued research in Pittsburgh.
Impact Two conference papers presented (BAMC 2018, WCB 2018) and two abstracts submitted (SB3C).
Start Year 2018
 
Description Reserach Centre, University Hospital, University of Bordeaux. 
Organisation Bordeaux University Hospital (CHU Bordeaux)
Country France 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We discuss techniques and experiments and share data.
Collaborator Contribution So far, they advise on protocols and experimental design.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Scottish Health Innovations Ltd 
Organisation Scottish Health Innovations Ltd (SHIL)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution SofTMech investigators were introduced to NHS Research Scotland (NRS) has committed staff time to promote and raise awareness of SofTMech within their network of clinicians.via engagement with NHS Research Scotland.SHIL work in partnership with NHS Scotland to identify, protect, develop and commercialise healthcare innovations to improve patient care.Ongoing Engagement has led to SHIL becoming a partner on recent SofTMech International centre to centre application. . This application EP/S030875/1 was successful and a £1.6m EPSRC grant awarded.
Collaborator Contribution SHIL has committed staff time to promote and raise awareness of SofTMech within their network of clinicians.
Impact No outputs yet
Start Year 2017
 
Title Code for Estimation of Parameters for an Archetypal Model of Cardiomyocyte Membrane Potentials 
Description This is a suite of MATLAB/Octave functions for numerical solution of and for estimation of the parameter values of the cardiomyocyte membrane potential model of Biktashev et al. (Bull Math Biol, 70(2), 2008,doi:10.1007/s11538-007-9267-0) - "the archetypal model". In particular, the code can be used determine parameter values for the archetypal model such that its solutions approximate the action potential traces and the action potential duration restitution curves of (a) other electrophysiologically detailed mathematical models of the transmembrane ionic currents of single cardiac myocytes - "target models", as well as (b) traces and curves measured experimentally - "target data". Data and functions for several detailed ionic models from the CellML physiological model repository (cellml.org) are included as examples of usage. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2021 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact NA 
URL https://zenodo.org/record/4568662
 
Title Glasgow Cine Strain estimation from cine images--deformation tracking 
Description Since 2012, Dr. Hao Gao, together with Prof. Colin Berry and Prof. Xiaoyu Luo, have been designing a novel method for tracking myocardial deformation using cardiac magnetic resonance cine imaging. Pixel-wise strain for myocardial deformation was estimated by incorporating both local and global myocardial features from cine images based on an in-house intensity-based b-spline deformable registration method. The algorithms were published in 2014 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24922458). Later, Dr. Gao developed an user-friendly interface for using in clinic, which are currently evaluated by our clinical collaborators for the accuracy and reliability. Results on healthy volunteers are reported in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5150576/. Following studies on patients with myocardial infarction are under analysis. Currently the package is shared within the group. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2016 
Impact Deformation-tracking could potentially obviate the need for bespoke strain sequences, reducing scanning time and is more reproducible than feature-tracking. 
 
Description 6th International Conference on Computational and Mathematical Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Katahira Campus, Sendai, Japan, 10 -12 June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Chaplain was a plenary speaker at the 6th International Conference on Computational and Mathematical Biomedical Engineering, CMBE 2019, Tohoku University, Katahira Campus, Sendai, Japan, 10 -12 June 2019. He gave a talk on multiscale modelling of cancer growth and spread, tissue invasion and metastasis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.compbiomed.net/2019/
 
Description A Dialogue on Cancer 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This workshop was the second in a series of focussed meetings, co-funded by the EPSRC Network 'Predictive mOdelling for hEalthcare through MathS (POEMS)' and Centre for Multiscale Soft Tissue Mechanics (SoftMech). The focus of the workshop will be to bring together multidisciplinary groups (e.g. clinicians, biologists and modellers) and initiate dialogues and collaborations across disciplines, on challenges in relation to the mechanical and physical aspects of cancer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://softmech.org/news/headline_499405_en.html
 
Description Biomechanics and Biophysics of Living Matter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact In this workshop, it will mainly cover the biophysics/biomechanics of biofilms, bacteria, cells , soft tissues and cell-materials  interactions.   


We welcomed biologists, physicists, engineers, computing scientists and mathematician to attend. In this workshop, we invited the delegates to actively
participate the discussions that provide interesting physical insights  including but not limited to the following areas.

 

- Nanobiomechanics of cells

- Mechanobiology of cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions

- Mechanobiology at the cellular and tissue scale, using  experimental and modelling approaches.

- Mechanics of bacteria, biofilms and biopolymer meshes

-Antimicrobial surfaces 

 

Jinju (Vicky) Chen (Organiser, Newcastle University)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description COVADIS 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact COVADIS https://covadis.online/.
COVADIS (Coronary Vasomotor Disorders International Study Group) was established by an international group of cardiologists in order to develop global standards in the diagnosis of cardiac conditions. The conditions involve the spasm of the large vessels, or the coronary microvessels within the heart.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018,2019,2020,2021
URL https://covadis.online/
 
Description Cancer talk, Turnberry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk to Scottish Power employees at their large annual fundraiser
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Cardiovascular Research Day - Public Engagement, 14 March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Public engagement day in our hospital
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Computationally efficient parameter estimation and uncertainty quantification in complex physiological systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited keynote lecture given at the 2nd International Conference on Statistics:
Theory and Applications (ICSTA'20),
held as a virtual conference via Zoom, 19-21 August 2020.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://2020.icsta.net/program/
 
Description Cside 2018: Competitive statistical inference for differential equations 26th Nov 2018, Dr Benn Macdonald 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Cside 2018: Competitive statistical inference for differential equations 26th Nov 2018 was organised by Dr Benn Macdonald at the University of Glasgow Mathematics and Statistics Building. Models developed within SofTMech were used.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/mathematicsstatistics/events/conferences/cside2018/
 
Description DIALOGUE WITH CLINICIANS ON RETINAL HAEMORRHAGE 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This one-day event brought together expert clinicians and modellers to discuss challenges in quantifying the onset and severity of retinal haemorrhage, along with its likely cause. In particular, the event involved presentations by leading clinicians on current medical understanding of the causes of retinal haemorrhage and by modellers on recent advances in modelling the retinal circulation and in predicting the response of the eye and optic nerve to a traumatic brain injury.

This event was organized by Dr Peter Stewart
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Dialogue on Heart Failures 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 22nd April 16 brought together clinicians and modellers and created a focus to identify some of the crucial challenges in heart failure and disease over the next 20 years.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/2016-04-22dialogueonheartfailure/
 
Description European Researchers Night 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact On September 30th SofTMech participated in the European Researcher Night outreach event at the Glasgow Science Centre. With attendance from over ten thousand visitors it was an excellent opportunity to present SofTMech to the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.softmech.org/news/headline_497928_en.html
 
Description Explorathon 2018 - european researchers night 2018 glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Andrey Melnik and Jay MacKenzie presented for SofTMech.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.explorathon.co.uk/glasgow/
 
Description Five EPSRC Maths-Healthcare Centres Meeting. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact FIVE EPSRC Maths-Healthcare Centres (Cambridge, Exeter, Imperial, Liverpool and SofTMech), met, (in Glasgow), to share experiences and to explore joint future funding opportunities. As a follow up the Liverpool, Cambridge and SofTMech Centres are outlining an EPSRC programme grant proposal based around physiologically-based image analysis.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Glasgow SofTMech / Liverpool Centre for Mathematics in Healthcare joint sandpit meeting Glasgow 2018-04-04 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Outreach and user engagement meeting between the Glasgow SofTMech / Liverpool Centre for Mathematics in Healthcare EPSRC centres to be held in Glasgow on 4/5 April 2018.The aim is to share methodology and results of mutual interest and to explore avenues for collaboration. Organised by Radostin Simitev and the SofTMech Outreach Committee.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Industry Dialogue 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Industrial engagement: SofTMech organised an Industry Dialogue, 24th November 2017. The aim was to invite a small group, (~50) and to create the opportunity for quality/in depth discussion on topics of mutual interest.Key outcomes: include strengthening of links with industrial collaborators GSK Pharmaceuticals who and development of links with new collaborators i.e. NHS Research Scotland, Vascutek Ltd and Vascular Flow Technologies. Follow up meetings have occurred with Vascutek and Vascular Flow Technologies which has led to the identification of research projects and commitment, from both Companies, to support the development of a SofTMech CDT. NHS Research Scotland have indicated their support for the planned SofTMech CDT and their willingness to promote and support SofTMech. The event helped strengthen the links to GSK by exploring new avenues of interest.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Insigneo Showcase Event 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Members of SofTMech lead by Dr Paul Watton organised and presented at an workshop within the larger Insigneo Showcase Event 2018. The Showcase is organised by the partner institution University of Sheffield.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://insigneo.org/event/insigneo-showcase-2018/
 
Description Interview for BBC Scotland News, 12th November 2020: Colin Berry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Colin Berry discussing the effects of long COVID on BBC News on the 12th November, 2020. The purpose was to make the general public aware that some people who become infected with COVID suffer long lasting effects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://twitter.com/UofGMVLS/status/1326844312525606914
 
Description Invited talk at the University of Southampton which was live-streamed and recorded 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is a talk given that the University of Southampton to disseminate research outputs obtained in WP4 of the Softmech project. The talk was live-streamed and recorded; the recording can be accessed here:
https://coursecast.soton.ac.uk/Panopto/Pages/Viewer.aspx?id=f77021fe-662c-427c-9c7a-a9ea0088932a
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://tinyurl.com/y2sagn8q
 
Description Joint CDT conference (Team member Prof. Matthew Dalby, Director of Glasgow lifETIME CDT) - a meeting between CDTs based in Glasgow, Birmingham, Leeds, Manchester, Liverpool, Aston, Sheffield, Keele, Nottingham and Loughborough 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The following EPSRC Centres for Doctoral Training across the UK regenerative medicine field and the UK society for biomaterials came together online on 24th and 25th June 2020:
EPSRC-SFI Joint CDT in Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine (LifETIME)
EPSRC/MRC CDT in Regenerative Medicine
EPSRC/MRC CDT in Regenerative Medicine
EPSRC Advanced Biomedical Materials CDT (ABM)
EPSRC CDT in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (TERM)
Doctoral Network for Technologies in Healthy Ageing (Ageing)

The CDTs showcased their research to professionals and other PhD students within the field via Zoom.
The conference will began with keynote speaker Prof Liam Grover, Director of the Healthcare Technologies Institute (HTI) at the University of Birmingham.
The conference then broke out into six themes across two days. During each session there were presentations from later year CDT students within the field and poster and flash talks from early year students. Time was also allowed to view posters on the UKSB website in advance of the poster discussion session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/
 
Description Joint EPSRC Multisim-Softmech workshop, June 18-20, 2018, University of Sheffield. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A 3 day workshop that provided a forum to review the progress of state of the art multi-scale modelling of hard and soft tissues and discuss challenges and opportunities in the area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://multisim-insigneo.org/events/smw18/
 
Description Joint SofTMech Liverpool LCMH Meeting First Joint SofTMech Liverpool LCH Meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact On the 4th April, 2018 the first of two meetings was held between SofTMEch and Liverpool CMH. In order for both centres to have a better understanding of the work of the other centre Part 1 of the programe was devoted to Research Talks. The meeting commenced with two 10-minute overview talks, one from each centre. There was also a poster session. After the talks a round-table allowed discussion on areas of collaboration. Topics for the round-table discussion were: opportunities for collaborative grants, possible PhD student exchange visits.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/headline_584998_en.html
 
Description LifETIME Centre for Doctoral Training stakeholder day (Team Member Prof. Matthew Dalby, Director of the LifETIME CDT) - a meeting between industry, academics, charities and funders to enhance student training. Jan 2021. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact LifeTIME Centre for Doctoral Training (LifeTIME CDT) stakeholder day. Professor Matthew Dalby is the Director of the lifETIME CDT; the meeting was held to discuss ideas on enhancing student training. The partners were from industry, academia, charities and funders.
The stakeholder day will bring together LifETIME students, academics, industry partners, iClub members and steering group.
The purpose of the stakeholder day was to capture our stakeholder views from which the management will use to refine the CDTs impact strategy. In the morning a facilitator captured CDT subjects, highlighted and raised by stakeholders. These subjects then formed the basis for the discussion points in the afternoon.
The afternoon consisted of six co-current discussions over three different sessions. Each session 30 minutes long and stakeholders had the chance to attend the discussion most important and relevant to them. The discussion sessions used open space principles and responses and suggestions will be collected.
There was als an opportunity for all attendees to network.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/
 
Description LifeTIME Centre for Doctoral Training student day (Team Member Prof. Matthew Dalby, Director of the lifETIME CDT) - a meeting between industry, academics, charities and funders to develop student networking abilities and allow them to show their work to different sectors. Sept 2020. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact the first LifETIME Student Day took place on Thursday 10th September 2020 via Zoom.
The student day will brought together lifETIME academics, partners, iClub, steering board and students. During the event the 2019 cohortl showcased their research projects and th industrial partners will presented a 5-minute pitch about their company and technologies. This was followed by talks from the funders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/
 
Description MODELLING & EXPERIMENTS IN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (MEDDS) 3-5 September 2018, University of Glasgow, UK, Dr Sean McGinty 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This 3 day workshop brought together theoretical and experimental researchers, industrialists and clinicians working broadly in the area of drug delivery, so that the problems that persist may be identified from an 'end-user' point of view, new challenges laid down and successfully tackled.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.gla.ac.uk/research/az/cmals/newsevents/meddsworkshop/
 
Description Main twitter feed for EPSRC Centre for Multiscale Soft Tissue Mechanics - with application to heart & cancer 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Main Twitter feed for SofTMech
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://twitter.com/SofTMech
 
Description Main website of the project - www.softmech.org 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Main Website of the EPSRC Centre for Multiscale Soft Tissue Mechanics - with application to heart & cancer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
URL http://www.softmech.org
 
Description Mason as a STEM Ambassador in Primary school 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Louise Mason, acted as a STEM Ambassador in Primary school teaching 'Viscoelasticity - Engineering Medicine to Spacecraft,' Crosshouse Primary School, East Kilbride, UK, October 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Media interviews - multiple 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Multiple media contacts following late breaking trial presentation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Minisymposium on Integrative Modelling of Soft-Tissue Mechanobiology, 5th International Conference on Computational & Mathematical Biomedical Engineering (CMBE17), Pittsburgh, April 10-12, 2017 organised by Dr Paul Watton 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Minisymposium to showcase work and to encourage collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Minisymposium on Integrative Modelling of Soft-Tissue Mechanobiology, 7th International Conference in Vietnam on the Development of Biomedical Engineering, International University-Vietnam National University, HCMC, Vietnam, 27-29 June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact tba
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Patient Participation Day 20th May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Background
SofTMech's Mid-Term review highlighted the excellent quality of the research and that the centre has provided a focal point, and is very proactive in impact, outreach, and training activities. A key future activity is to inform patients and seek their views on our research and its impact via Patient Engagement Days.
The first such meeting was organised by the SofTMech Executive Director, the Chair of the Outreach Committee, 2 Clinicians, 2 Head Research Nurses from two large Glasgow Hospitals and the SofTMech secretary and was aimed at Cardiology patients. The event was held at the Golden Jubilee National Hospital as many of the patients would be familiar with it, and it has good access appropriate facilities.

The Patient Participation Day
On the 20th May 2019 the Patient Engagement day was held. Sixteen patients attended. Following a general introduction, there were eight 15-minute talks with opportunities for questions after each talk. In addition, there were hands-on Models of the Heart, and demonstrations by SofTMech PhD students and postdoctoral researchers. The Day started at 10am and the many questions led to the day running over and finishing at 2.45 pm.
Titles of presentations
• Clinical decision support with mathematical and statistical modelling: Dirk Husmeier

• The digital twin of your heart: Xiaoyu Luo and Hao Gao

• Blood flow in arteries: Nicholas Hill

• Bleeding in the eye following brain injury: Peter Stewart

• The challenges of fixing a "broken" heart: Ana Costa

• Imaging the heart: Colin Berry

• Simulating cell migration: Matthew Neilson

• Electricity in the heart: Radostin Simitev

Feedback
Feedback forms were handed out at the end of the day. Feedback was very thorough and detailed with the main points being:
- Relate talks to patient benefit
- Include small group discussion to provide patient insight goals
- Include patient who has taken part in research
- Include sign-ups for research projects
- Biscuits on arrival and sufficient milk
- Include more demo and visual aids
- Fewer speakers with more time
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/headline_596271_en.html
 
Description Patient and Public Involvement for 'INOCA' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact I regularly (ie once - twice a month) respond to contacts from patient groups who advocate for the affairs of patients with 'ischaemia with no obstructive coronary arteries' (INOCA) and wider awareness within the medical community, including healthcare practitioners and service providers. This term includes a family of conditions including microvascular angina and vasospastic angina. The conditions affect women and men, although there is a female excess.

I support website articles, media, interviews, blogs and newsletter.

https://inocainternational.com/

https://www.internationalheartspasmsalliance.org/
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019,2020,2021,2022
URL https://inocainternational.com/
 
Description Presentation of GlasgowHeart Platform in SCMR 2021 meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This is the first time to present the Glasgow heart modelling framework to clinicians in one of the largest meetings in the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging community, SCMR 2021. The audiences consist of clinicians, imaging experts, industry partners, etc. The presentation was given in the first software demo session of the SCMR meeting, which brings the mechanic model one step closer to clinicians. The meeting committee believes that biomechanical biomarkers shall be included in the diagnosis guideline, and encourage more open-source software within the society of cardiac magnetic resonance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://scmr2021.process.y-congress.com/scientificProcess/Schedule/?setLng=en
 
Description PubPhD talk "Can cells be evil?" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact "Pub PhD" talk "Can cells be evil?"
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SIG EVENT ON FLUID MECHANICS OF THE EYE: TUESDAY 26TH TO WED 27TH MARCH 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The event was an informal study group considering two problems - one related to the cornea and the front of the eye (Problem 1) and one related to the retina and the back of the eye (Problem 2).

Organized by Dr Peter Stewart
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description SOFT TISSUE MODELLING WORKSHOP 5-7 June 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact The 4th workshop took place from Wednesday 5th to Friday 7th June. The workshop focused on the most recent advances in the field of soft tissue mechanics, with a clear vision of the landscape of multiscale soft tissue modelling and both fundamental and translational research. The workshop provided a unique environment for cross-talk, enabling the sharing of novel ideas and expertise necessary for the future advancement of soft tissue modelling.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/headline_587639_en.html
 
Description STEM for Britain 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact SofTMech PhD student Louise Mason presented a poster at the prestigious STEM for Britain event held in UK Parliament. Louise was awarded the gold medal for Engineering for her poster entitled `Investigating the viscoelastic properties of complex materials and cells to study cancer migration'. This event was attended by MPs and policy makers from UK Parliament, which sparked questions and discussion.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.setforbritain.org.uk/
 
Description SofTMech December Seminars Series Glasgow 2017-Dec 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SofTMech organised a Seminar Series in Dec 2017 with two high profile external speakers as follows (1) Prof. Nir Gov "Modelling Collective Cell Migration: Clusters and Monolayers"; (2) Dr. Yanlan Mao "Getting in Shape: in vivo and in silico studies of tissue mechanics in growth control". SofTMech Members and affiliates from the School of Mathematics and Statstics U Glasgow as well as and CMALS attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description SofTMech Training Day 8th January 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact On Friday 8th January 2021 an on-line training day organised by the SofTMech Training Committee led by Professor Dirk Husmeier and Dr Peter Stewart was held. The workshop was mainly aimed at PhD students and postdocs, but also welcomed staff members who were interested in closer future collaborations. 51 people registered for the workshop with 48 attending. Postgraduate and Staff from the University of Glasgow, University of Plymouth, Terumo Aortic, Politecnio Milano (POLIMI) (Italy), MIT (US), EPFL and North Carolina State University attended. The aims of the day were :
To give the mathematical modellers a brief overview of state-of-the-art statistical inference in complex systems.
To give statisticians an opportunity to learn about the basic mathematical modelling principles relevant to our projects.
To allow participants to talk together in small groups of 4/5, repeated a few times via Zoom breakout rooms (Speed dating); meeting people from other institutions with the view to future collaboration.
The day also included a presentation by David Hand on "Dark Data"
This recent training day allowed the University of Glasgow staff and postgraduate students to meet staff and students from their partner Institutions in POLIMI, MIT and working on similar areas and this has the potential to lead to future collaborative projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/headline_763982_en.html
 
Description SofTMech at European Researchers Night Glasgow 2017-09-29 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact 29th September 2017 SofTMech CIs and PGR students participated with poster displays and a stall in the European Researchers Night Glasgow.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.softmech.org/news/headline_555906_en.html
 
Description SofTMech website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Set up a SofTMech website. The website is a main vehicle for dissemination of results, news, events information, and general outreach activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
URL http://www.softmech.org
 
Description SoftMech & Multisim Tissue Mechanics Workshop (3 days), University of Sheffield, UK, June 18-20, 2018: Organiser Dr Paul Watton 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact To showcase new developments and encourage collaboration
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://insigneo.org/event/insigneo-showcase-2018/
 
Description Special interest group on the fluid mechanics of the eye 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Peter Stewart organised two virtual study groups on the fluid mechanics of the eye, one held on 30th November 2020 and one held on 4th March 2021. The event gathered clinicians and modellers (including some PhD students) to derive mathematical models of fluid flow between the uvea and the sclera, so-called uveoscleral flow.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021
URL https://eyefluidssig.wordpress.com/history/
 
Description Stakeholder Engagement Day 8th May 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Study participants or study members
Results and Impact SofTMech held a Stakeholder Engagement Day on the 8th May, 2019 at the University of Glasgow. The event was designed for a wider audience including industry, clinicians and academics.
The event was well attended by a range of speaker including academics, industry, clinicians and funders. Key speakers included Dr Stephen Meader, MRC, who spoke about the importance of
translational activities from a funder perspective and Dr Tom Robinson, EPSRC who highlighted EPSRC funding options i.e. support for translational activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/headline_627300_en.html
 
Description Statistical inference in cardiac mechanics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk given to the Royal Statistical Society local Glasgow group on 12th March 2020, which sparked questions and discussions afterwards, both over coffee and via follow-up emails.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://sites.google.com/site/rssglasgow/events
 
Description Statistical inference in cardiovascular modelling 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Three of Dirk Husmeier's PhD students and postdocs gave talks at an event organised by the Royal Statistical Society Glasgow local group on 9 February 2021, with the following titles:
Mihaela Paun
The importance of allowing for model mismatch in cardiovascular modelling
Alan Lazarus
Improving cardio-mechanic parameter estimation by including prior knowledge derived from ex-vivo data
Agnieszka Borowska
Bayesian optimisation for improving accuracy and efficiency of cardio-mechanic parameter estimation
The event was delivered via ZOOM, and lead to a stimulating discussion between speakers and participants (also via Zoom).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://rss.org.uk/training-events/events/statistical-inference-in-cardiovascular-modelling/#eventov...
 
Description The British Applied Mathematics Colloquium (BAMC), 26th-29th March 2018 at the School of Maths and Statistics, University of St Andrews, organised by Professor Mark Chaplain. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The BAMC is the UK's annual multidisciplinary applied mathematics meeting. The meeting has a history going back to 1959, founded by Sir James Lighthill as the British Theoretical Mechanics Colloquium. The meeting has since broadened to cover all aspects of modern applied mathematics. The event includes 18 mini-symposia. SofTMech CIs are leading the following mini-symposia: Title: Multiscale Soft Tissue Modelling: Upscaling from Cell to Tissue; Organisers: Dr P Stewart (Glasgow), Professor R Ogden (Glasgow), Professor S McDougall (Heriot-Watt) & Dr P Watton (Sheffield). Title:Multiscale Soft Tissue Modelling: Circulation and Fluid-Structure Interaction; Organisers: Prof X Luo (Glasgow) & Prof N Hill (Glasgow); Title:Multiscale Soft Tissue Modelling: Cardiac Electrophysiology and Active Contraction; Organiser: Dr R Simitev (Glasgow); Title: Multiscale Soft Tissue Modelling: Parameter Inference;Organisers: Prof D Husmeier (Glasgow) & Dr H Gao (Glasgow),
,
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity Pre-2006,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018
URL http://www.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~bamc2018/
 
Description The lifETIME (Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine) CDT; Director: Matthew Dalby: Stakeholder Day 21.01.21 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The stakeholder day brought together LifETIME students, academics, industry partners, iClub members and the steering group.
The purpose of the stakeholder day was to capture our stakeholder views from which the management will use to refine the CDTs impact strategy. In the morning a facilitator captured CDT subjects, highlighted and raised by stakeholders. These subjects then formed the basis for the discussion points in the afternoon.
The afternoon consisted of six co-current discussions over three different sessions. Each session waa 30 minutes long and stakeholders attended the discussion most important and relevant to them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/previous-events/
 
Description The lifETIME (Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine) CDT; Director: Matthew Dalby: Student Day 7.11.21 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The student day brought together lifETIME academics, partners, iClub, steering board and students. During this event to showcase their research the 2019 students presented posters and the 2020 students presented quickfire presentations. Industrial partners and academics also presented short talks. The questions and discussions helped shape future research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/previous-events/
 
Description The lifETIME (Engineered Tissues for Discovery, Industry and Medicine) CDT; Director: Matthew Dalby: Twitter Conference 10th & 11th June 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The LifETIME Twitter Conference was an online event held entirely over Twitter using the hashtag #futureleadersinregenmed to bring together the LifETIME CDT cohort and the wider scientific community to share research, engage in scientific discussions and network. The 2019 LifETIME students each presented 3 tweets during the two day event. The discussion could be joined by searching for the hashtag #futureleadersinregenmed allowing people to see all posts that are related to the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://lifetime-cdt.org/agenda-of-cdt-events/previous-events/
 
Description Third Workshop on Soft Tissue Modelling Glasgow 2017-07-07/09 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The Third Soft Tissue Modelling Workshop in Glasgow provided a research forum for modelling specialists and medical experts to discuss and exchange ideas on state-of-the-art developments and challenges in the field of soft tissue modelling, with particular applications to tissues in the cardiovascular system and tissues affected by cancer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.softmech.org/events/thirdworkshoponsofttissuemodelling/
 
Description Twitter Account 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact SofTMech Twitter Account which covers a number of SofTMech and SofTMech related grants. Main purpose to give information on research activities, events including social, advertise job opportunities to a wide audience, and announce graduations, prizes and achievements of the group. In addition to use the Re-tweet feature of Twitter to advertise information from partner groups or followers. The account has 201 followers and follows 171 other Twitter accounts. Impacts arising from the Account are quick dissemination of material.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020,2021,2022
URL https://twitter.com/home
 
Description https://www.holyrood.com/news/view,women-suffering-and-dying-because-of-inequalities-in-heart-disease-diagnosi_10869.htm 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact https://www.holyrood.com/news/view,women-suffering-and-dying-because-of-inequalities-in-heart-disease-diagnosi_10869.htm
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
URL https://www.holyrood.com/news/view,women-suffering-and-dying-because-of-inequalities-in-heart-diseas...