Tailored Reinforced Concrete Infrastructure: Boosting the Innate Response to Chemical and Mechanical Threats

Lead Research Organisation: University of Cambridge
Department Name: Engineering

Abstract

The required global infrastructure investment from 2013-2030 is estimated to be £34 trillion. Thus there are significant social and economic ramifications associated with the utilisation and design of strategic infrastructure assets which are fit for purpose both now, and in the future. Nationally, the construction sector is vital and contributes around £90 billion annually to the UK economy.

This EPSRC Established Career Fellowship will provide Dr Lees with the prestige and freedom to extend the impact of her research and develop a new field of research dedicated to the creation of tailored concrete infrastructure. The enhancement of the innate characteristics of reinforced concrete with a concurrent reduction in total cement content directly links to key Engineering global grand challenges for Sustainability and Resilience. Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world, over 4 billion tonnes in 2013, and cement production is responsible for 5-7% of man-made CO2 emissions. 'Cradle to factory gate' emissions for CEM 1 are 913 kg CO2e for 1000 kg of cement. The sustainability credentials of the proposed research are to mitigate the scale of this environmental impact through the delivery of more durable construction, a reduction in the cement content in concrete products, and material efficiency.

The 'innate' characteristics of our reinforced concrete infrastructure include an inherent resistance to a myriad of deterioration causes e.g. chemical attack, chloride ingress, and mechanical actions e.g. dead and live loads. To help achieve the desired resistance, minimum cement contents are specified for a required strength or durability. In conventional practice, the same concrete mix is used throughout a given structural element. A compelling new paradigm is to break from conventional thinking and reinterpret a reinforced concrete structure as a tailored continuum to meet a desired serviceability, strength and/or durability performance. Material with high cement content is used judiciously to boost the innate response of our reinforced concrete infrastructure by explicitly recognising, targeting and reacting to environmental and mechanical threats to structural performance. In this way, there is either no loss, or an enhancement, in structural and durability functions. The innate immunity against environmental actions is boosted for corrosion prevention whereas the adaptability in response to mechanical actions is enhanced through the novel design of the concrete continuum for a greater structural resilience. These deliverables present a unique opportunity for the PI, UK Academia and UK Industry, to establish a world leading capability in a nascent field while addressing Engineering Sustainability priorities for lifetime extension, reduced lifetime costs, energy minimisation and a reduction in over-engineering.

Planned Impact

Cement production is energy intensive and accounts for 5-7% of manmade CO2 emissions. Nevertheless concrete is the mostly widely used construction material in the world. Significant economic, environmental and societal impacts will be realised as a result of clever innovation to reduce cement usage.

Tailored reinforced concrete infrastructure opens up vast opportunities for improved material efficiencies and CO2 reductions while maintaining structural integrity throughout the lifetime of a structure. Corrosion prevention and an inherent adaptability in response to mechanical actions provide more efficient and durable structural members. Less energy intensive concrete infrastructure that remains fit-for-purpose for longer mitigates negative financial, societal and environmental impacts associated with CO2 emissions, deteriorating infrastructure, maintenance interventions and user disruption. This will assist governments and policy-makers in meeting environmental targets and improving the quality of life of the nation.

As the result of this Fellowship, the UK will become the global leader in an exciting new growth area. Tangible commercial and reputational benefits will be realised by UK construction from the early exploitation of tailored concrete technology over a short to medium term horizon. Access to novel underpinning research will also mean that UK Industry is poised to beneficially exploit rapid advances in manufacturing adding further value to the construction sector and competitive advantage.

Novel, evidence-based research is at the heart of the Fellowship proposal. The PI has a strong track record in delivering internationally leading research, communicating advances within professional fora, and in translating research into practice. The Advisory Committee meetings, Industrial Engagement events and Academic collaborator meetings provide opportunities for discussion and dissemination with a range of stakeholders. High profile participants, partners and collaborators will extend the impact by communicating the outcomes throughout their own institutions, to professional bodies, including design code committees, and to their wider network of contacts throughout the supply chain. This will lead to an enhanced understanding and acceptance of the innovations, greater exploitation, and a more sustainable basis for the design and construction of future infrastructure. Large scale multi-disciplinary proposals led by the PI will capitalise on the Fellowship deliverables and will shape national research priorities.

The Fellowship will provide freedom for the PI to gain a fuller appreciation and knowledge of connectivities with cognate areas to make even greater contributions towards addressing Engineering for Sustainability and Resilience challenges. The PDRAs will develop tremendous core expertise in reinforced concrete and concrete technology with multi-disciplinary knowledge relating to sustainability, optimisation and manufacturing leading to a unique skill set that meets tomorrow's needs. As the 2014 ICE State of the Nation Report notes 'The civil engineering industry of tomorrow will require a wider range of skills and competencies.' and hence the PDRAs will be in high demand from academic, or non-academic, employers. Affiliated MEng and PhD students will flourish as part of a vibrant, supportive, project team delivering world-leading research and be well-prepared to make their mark in their future professional careers.

Outreach and community activity will promote public recognition of the energy intensity of cement embodied within our reinforced concrete infrastructure. This will encourage dialogue and the exchange of ideas on how to promote a more sustainable vision and the important role of Civil Engineering in creating the lifelines for society. Excitement about the creation of bespoke materials will inspire future generations of Engineers.
 
Description The production of cement is currently associated with around 5% of global carbon emissions. The manufacture of functionally graded structural concrete elements, where the material composition is varied over the volume, allows the use of cement to be optimised and minimised.
Gradation of material properties can be achieved by casting horizontal or vertical layers of concrete having different homogeneous compositions. However, a key challenge with this approach is the control of the fresh state deformations of the different concrete layers during manufacture.
Findings on horizontal layering have elucidated the interplay between the rheology and density of different concrete mixes and the intended geometry (Brault & Lees, 2020, Construction and Building Materials). This provides a framework for the selection of compatible mixes to achieve desired mix combinations. The fresh state stability of two vertical layers of different mixes is also being addressed (Torelli & Lees, 2019, Cement and Concrete Research). Original experiments have been undertaken where either stable or unstable behaviour was invoked. The concurrent development of a new limit-state model to capture the relationship between system stability, geometry and material parameters shows great promise.
When concrete is layered in the fresh state, there is an interface between the concrete layers. The integrity of this interface will depend on the way the concrete is manufactured, the concrete mix compositions and the time delay between the deposition of the layers. Studies to characterise the fracture behaviour of interfaces are informing the most desirable parametric combinations to ensure the interface does not introduce a plane of weakness.
One promising application area for functionally graded concrete is to provide an external durability layer to mitigate the ingress of deleterious materials. As such, a detailed investigation of the carbonation resistance of layered concrete is being conducted.
Another exciting strand is to better establish the hardened state behaviour of layered concrete. The mapping of concrete slab designs that derive most benefit from layering has been undertaken and comprehensive experimental studies where reinforced concrete slabs have been tested to failure is providing practical validation. The results suggest that layered systems can potentially meet serviceability and ultimate state performance requirements while concurrently offering CO2 savings.
The use of advanced measurement systems including ultra-sonic pulse velocity and fibre optic sensors is providing detailed insight into the early age behaviour of concrete materials as well as the longer term performance of concrete within a structural element subjected to load.
Exploitation Route These outcomes will underpin growing academic and industrial interest in functionally graded concrete.
Sectors Construction,Transport

 
Description Recognition of a significant contribution to EPSRC Peer Review - May 2021
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
 
Description CDT in Future Infrastructure and Built Environment Studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/L016095/1 
Organisation University of Oxford 
Department EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training (CDT)
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description CSIC Innovation and Knowledge Centre Phase 2
Amount £2,499,396 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/N021614/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2016 
End 06/2023
 
Description Costain/EPSRC FIBE2 CDT MRes/PhD Studentship
Amount £6,761,084 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S02302X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2021 
End 09/2025
 
Description EPSRC - University of Cambridge Doctoral Training Partnership Award
Amount £70,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 09/2022
 
Description EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Future Infrastructure and Built Environment: Resilience in a Changing World (FIBE2)
Amount £6,761,084 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S02302X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 03/2028
 
Description IETF industrial energy efficiency and decarbonisation studies
Amount £556,742 (GBP)
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2021 
End 03/2022
 
Description Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellowship - Textile-reinforced tailored concrete structures
Amount £121,353 (GBP)
Funding ID 101027058 
Organisation Marie Sklodowska-Curie Actions 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country Global
Start 09/2021 
End 01/2023
 
Description Structural systems beyond 2050: Strategic large-scale experimental hub
Amount £50,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Cambridge 
Department Isaac Newton Trust
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start  
 
Title Research data supporting "Fresh state stability of vertical layers of concrete". 
Description Spreadsheet (.xlsx) containing research data supporting "Fresh state stability of vertical layers of concrete". The following data are provided: • Mix composition of the mortars used in the experiments. • Densities of the mix constituents. • Experimental measurements for the mixes under investigations: density, spread length, yield stress, difference in yield stresses, sum of the yield stresses, stability coefficient, ratio between lower and higher yield stress, and maximum horizontal displacement of the interface between the two vertical layers of concrete. • Relationship between sum of the yield stresses, difference in densities of the materials, and average horizontal displacement obtained for each test. • Maximum horizontal displacement d as a function of the stability coefficient. • Analytical bound solutions and experimentally measured relationship between sum of the yield stresses, difference in densities of the materials, and average horizontal displacement obtained for each test. • Analytical bound solutions and experimentally measured maximum horizontal displacement as a function of the stability coefficient. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Research data supporting "Interface bond strength of lightweight low-cement functionally layered concrete elements". 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/305186
 
Title Research data supporting Brault, A and Lees, JM (2020) Wet casting of multiple mix horizontally layered concrete elements, Construction and Building Materials, v 247, 118514 
Description  
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2020 
Provided To Others? Yes  
URL https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/308991
 
Description Highways England 
Organisation Department of Transport
Department Highways Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Knowledge transfer, delivery of research advances and sharing of research findings
Collaborator Contribution Highways England have supported a number of funded EPSRC projects including (EP/K016148, GR/S55101/01, EP/I018972/1 and EP/J002887/1). This support has included technical guidance, access to data relating to reinforced concrete infrastructure, sharing of experience in managing the strategic road network in the UK and guidance regarding the main challenges faced on the network. This has ensured the long-term relevance of our research and extensive knowledge exchange.
Impact Knowledge transfer, revision of design guidance, formulation of research proposals for funding, improved understanding of reinforced concrete infrastructure assets
Start Year 2006
 
Description Knowledge Exchange with Laing O'Rourke 
Organisation Laing O'Rourke
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Dissemination of research findings/technical guidance/knowledge exchange
Collaborator Contribution Strategic input into research directions and impact pathways
Impact A funded IETF DPCM (Decarbonising Precast Concrete Manufacturing) project ensued Knowledge exchange
Start Year 2017
 
Description Knowledge Exchange with University of Michigan 
Organisation University of Michigan
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We are engaging in knowledge exchange with the University of Michigan with the aim of submitting a collaborative proposal for research. An initial collaboration visit in Feb 2020 was funded through a Michigan-Cambridge Research Initiative. This was a catalyst for regular meetings between McGee (Michigan), Li (Michigan) and Lees (Cambridge) to develop ideas and formulate collaborative research directions.
Collaborator Contribution Knowledge exchange and ongoing engagement.
Impact We envisage that the outcomes will emerge in coming years.
Start Year 2020
 
Description Knowledge exchange between Highways England and Cambridge on UHPFRC 
Organisation Department of Transport
Department Highways Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Highways England have an interest in the potential use of Ultra High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) but there are limitation in our understanding of the behaviour of the material in shear. During 2018/19, a Cambridge MEng student supervised by Lees has conducted analytical and experimental work to scope specific knowledge gaps and the findings suggest contradictions in proposed design practice.
Collaborator Contribution Highways England have provided supporting material and technical advice throughout the project.
Impact Professor Lees chaired a panel on UHPFRC as part of a Dec 2018 Cambridge Centre for Smart Infrastructure & Construction (CSIC) Industry Meeting. This initiative will now engage further industry partners and follow-on workshops are planned.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Knowledge exchange between University of Cambridge, University of Southampton and Oxford University 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution This collaboration draws on University of Southampton expertise in fibre optic sensor development and fibre optic sensor analysis, University of Oxford knowledge of embedded sensing systems in smart pipe tunnel segments and world leading University of Cambridge infrastructure sensing and concrete material research.
Collaborator Contribution Regular knowledge exchange is underway and joint projects planned.
Impact The collaboration is multi-disciplinary. Beresna (Southampton) research interests include fiber optic sensors, distributed sensing systems, miniature optical imaging and spectrometry systems. Sheil (Oxford) has experimental geotechnics expertise and keen interests in intelligent monitoring to inform underground construction processes. Lees (Cambridge) contributes deep insight into concrete material and structural behaviour. The collaboration also draws upon Cambridge's strong position as a National Research Facility for Infrastructure Sensing.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Knowledge exchange between the University of Cambridge and Queen's University 
Organisation Queen's University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of Dr Janet Lees' overseas travel award for research visits to Canada (EP/J002887/1), Dr Lees and Professor Hoult from Queen's University strengthened existing collaborations and forged new collaborations. They collaborated on an MSc student project at Queen's University which was based on research conducted at Cambridge investigating crack propagation. This resulted in a joint publication. Dr Lees has provided strategic technical guidance through her membership of the Steering Committee of a Canadian NSERC Strategic grant led by Professor Hoult in collaboration with the University of Toronto and the University of Ottawa.
Collaborator Contribution Professor Hoult and his team have provided fibre optic sensor and digital image correlation expertise which has helped to validate models developed at Cambridge. Professor Hoult was a member of the International Steering Committee for our Cambridge-based EPSRC funded research project (EP/K016148/1) to investigate reinforced concrete half joints and is collaborating with Professor Lees on EPSRC Established Career Fellowship Tailored Reinforced Concrete Infrastructure project (EP/N017668/1). During regular visits to Cambridge Professor Hoult has been working with the project team on collaborative aspects. We also collaborate through SKYPE meetings.
Impact Additional research funding, international research collaboration, knowledge transfer, student training
Start Year 2010
 
Description Knowledge exchange between the University of Cambridge and University of Toronto 
Organisation University of Toronto
Department Civil and Mineral Engineering
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution As a result of Dr Janet Lees' overseas travel award for collaborative research visits to Canada (EP/J002887/1), a number of new and exciting research projects have been instigated in collaboration with the University of Toronto (U of T). A PhD project at the University of Cambridge (2012-2016) undertook research to investigate the time-dependent behaviour of reinforced concrete. The Cambridge PhD student applied an analytical approach developed at the University of Toronto (U of T) and linked this to experiments undertaken in Cambridge. The collaboration with U of T also benefited an EPSRC funded project relating to the CFRP shear strengthening of reinforced concrete T-beams (EP/J002887/1) where the Cambridge team built on analytical work undertaken by the University of Toronto and adapted this to a new class of problems. Our two Institutions actively share and discuss research findings.
Collaborator Contribution Under the aegis of EP/J002887/1 Professors Bentz and Collins hosted Dr Lees in Toronto during Spring/Summer 2012 and subsequently on short term repeat visits during 2013/2104. Dr Lees worked with Professors Bentz and Collins during her stays and was not charged a bench fee. As a result of these visits and discussions, Dr Lees submitted a successful EPSRC proposal - Reinforced concrete half-joint structures: Structural integrity implications of reinforcement detailing and deterioration (EP/K016148/1). To further develop our collaboration, Professor Bentz spent a three month period of sabbatical leave at the University of Cambridge in 2014. Professors Bentz and Collins were International Collaborators on the EPSRC project on reinforced concrete half-joint structures (EP/K016148/1) and are also collaborating with Cambridge on our latest work on tailored reinforced concrete infrastructure (EP/N017668/1).
Impact Additional research funding, international research collaboration, new approaches to reinforced concrete design, analysis and assessment, student training
Start Year 2012
 
Description Knowledge exchange with Arup on Reinforced Concrete Design & Assessment 
Organisation Arup Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Ongoing engagement with ARUP team regarding research findings Hosting of a Cambridge/ARUP meeting in Cambridge on Feb 1, 2019 on recent research findings in relation to the strength assessment of reinforced concrete bridges, and tailored reinforced concrete structures
Collaborator Contribution Technical advice and feedback
Impact Closer collaboration, knowledge transfer
Start Year 2017
 
Description Knowledge exchange with SOM 
Organisation Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Regular meetings are providing an excellent forum to disseminate our latest research findings and benefit from advice and feedback from SOM experts.
Collaborator Contribution Ongoing technical support and knowledge exchange
Impact Access to data and SOM environmental impact tool, technical advice
Start Year 2020
 
Description Knowledge exchange/Regular academia-industry workshops with Costain 
Organisation Costain Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Costain and Cambridge have established regular online workshops with researchers, Costain stakeholders and members of Costain's supply chain. This merges together key players in concrete decision making and the latest research findings and advances. These workshops are proving to be very influential in identifying potential barriers to lower cement options and actioning new strategies to overcome these.
Collaborator Contribution Technical knowledge, expertise, access to data
Impact Internal report Studentship funding
Start Year 2019
 
Description Engagement with University of Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy (CSaP) Fellow - March 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact CSaP creates opportunities for public policy professionals and academics to learn from each other. Priorities identified by the CSaP Fellow were discussed and connections made between emerging research findings and future directions for environmental sustainability, the role of technology and material innovation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Cambridge University Structures Seminar (Forsdyke) - Tailored concrete for durability 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation on the importance of durability and how concrete can be tailored to save CO2 and meet desired durability requirements encouraged debate amongst participants and knowledge exchange.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Cambridge Zero Research Symposium (Forsdyke) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The presentation encouraged reflection on the CO2 impact of concrete and awareness of need for cement reduction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.zero.cam.ac.uk/cambridge-zero-research-symposia-2021
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop Feb 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop July 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop March 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop March 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop May 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop Nov 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop Oct 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/Costain Digital Sustainable Concrete Workshop Sept 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular workshops with Costain and representatives from their supply chain are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The workshops provide invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Cambridge/Costain London Workshop for knowledge exchange 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop explored Cambridge's latest research findings, Costain's business priorities and collaborative directions for impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cambridge/Laing O'Rourke Discussion of Decarbonising Precast Concrete Manufacturing - Oct 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Knowledge exchange and review of strategic directions for decarbonisation strategies
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/National Highways/Banager Precast Meeting - February 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The meeting between Banager Precast Concrete, National Highways and Cambridge explored the capabilities and interests of Banager Precast. Challenges facing National Highways and recent Cambridge research findings were discussed as the basis for future collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Meeting March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Meeting Sept 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Workshop Dec 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Workshop Feb 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Workshop Jan 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Workshop June 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Workshop March 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Cambridge/SOM Workshop Oct 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Regular meetings/workshops with SOM designers are providing a forum for knowledge exchange and research dissemination. The meetings/workshops provide Invaluable feedback that is informing strategies for the incorporation of innovations into industry practice.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Concrete Sustainable Design Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Online workshop with Costain design team members to establish what the driving factors are for specification of specific concrete mixes or concrete properties when these are influenced by the structural design. This lead to lots of discussion, and was followed by another workshop reporting back findings to a larger working group of Costain and CIRG members.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description EPSRC Blog (Lees) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The purpose was to write a blog for the general public to highlight my research and thoughts on creativity and engineering in light of 2018 being the Year of Engineering. A particular topic was inspiring the next generation and interesting examples from our EPSRC CDT in Future Infrastructure and Built Environment student-led activity and personal thoughts were shared.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.epsrc.ac.uk/blog/creativityandconcrete/
 
Description Engagement with University of Cambridge Centre for Science and Policy (CSaP) Fellow - Dec 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact CSaP creates opportunities for public policy professionals and academics to learn from each other. Priorities identified by the CSaP Fellow were discussed and connections made between emerging research findings and future directions for concrete usage and CO2 reduction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Industry/Academia Workshop for knowledge exchange - University of Cambridge, University of Toronto, Queen's University, Highways England and Atkins 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A workshop to showcase emerging University of Cambridge research findings relating to the lifetime extension of existing infrastructure and carbon efficient concrete, recent advances at the University of Toronto and Queen's University in the context of reinforced concrete infrastructure and structural health monitoring, and the latest challenges, findings and developments from the perspectives of Highways England and Atkins was an excellent platform for knowledge exchange and further collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description LafargeHolcim Zero Carbon Hackathon 17-19 November 2019 (Gimenez Fernandez and Forsdyke) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Members of the research team participated in a Hackathon to come up with novel lower carbon concrete solutions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/news/zero-carbon-hackathon-encourages-students-rethink-material-use-constru...
 
Description Panel Chair (Lees) for EPSRC IKC Cambridge Centre for Smart Infrastructure & Construction Industry Strategy Day, Dec 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact As a result of the panel sessions, industry partners have engaged and expressed a commitment in supporting research projects related to ultra-high performance fibre reinforced concrete and also the mitigation of the environmental impact of concrete. These will now be developed further in collaboration with the EPSRC IKC Cambridge Centre for Smart Infrastructure & Construction.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Podcast interview about the environmental sustainability of concrete and concrete structures 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Michele has been invited to participate in a podcast named 'Parole in Connessione' (Italian) [Words in Connection] on an episode about cities, sustainability, construction and transports. He has been interviewed by an academic from TU Delft on the topic of structural safety, concrete sustainability, circular economy and the reduction of the environmental footprint of infrastructure through lifetime extension.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://open.spotify.com/episode/4imMtWf17Cz36Cit7dGGR2
 
Description Preseantation at Second fib Italy YMG Symposium on Concrete and Concrete Structures 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation delived to conference attendees at the Second fib Italy YMG Symposium on Concrete and Concrete Structures, Rome, 18th-19th November 2021.

The presentation summarised the work in the conference paper "Carbonation depth measurement of concretes exposed to different curing and preconditioning conditions, using image-processing tools".

There were questions following the presentation, both in person and submitted to the author by email to be adressed afterwards.

The presentation and conference paper recieved an award for "Best research advances in concrete and concrete structures" at the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://fibitaliayoung.it/index.php/2021/12/20/symposium-2021-vincitori-awards/
 
Description Presentation (Brault) - Cambridge University Structures Research Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Andre Brault gave a presentation entitled: Connecting the dots: the power of using distributed sensors to monitor structural behaviour
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation (Gimenez Fernandez) - Cambridge University Structures Seminar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Mar Gimenez Fernandez presented her latest research on Tailored Reinforced Concrete.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation (Lees) during Cambridge University Engineer's Association Alumni Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation to Cambridge Engineering Alumni - the discussion reflected an increased awareness of the environmental impact of concrete and the latest research development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation (Torelli) - Cambridge University Structures Seminar November 2019, Cambridge, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Torelli gave a presentation on the main outputs of his recent research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation (Torelli) - International Conference "2nd International RILEM Conference - Rheology and processing of construction materials (RheoCon2) 9th International RILEM Symposium - Self-compacting concrete (SCC9)" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Torelli gave a presentation on the analytical aspects of the work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rheocon2019.org/
 
Description Presentation (Torelli) - International Conference "IABSE Symposium 2019 Guimarães - Towards a Resilient Build Environment - Risk and Asset Management" March 2019, Guimarães, Portugal 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Torelli gave a presentation on the project's main outputs, focusing on the experimental aspects of the work.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.iabse.org/IABSE/Documents/Guimaraes2019_FP.aspx
 
Description Presentation (Torelli) - Sheffield University Structural Engineering Seminars. March 2020, Sheffield, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Torelli gave a presentation on the main outputs of his recent research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Presentation (Torelli) to high school students in Montepulciano, Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr Torelli gave a presentation on his own career path, and professional career choices more generally, to an audience of high school students from his home town.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.sito.liceipoliziani.com/possibilita-di-crescita-professionale-allestero-7-gennaio-2019/
 
Description Presentation at 2nd fib Italy YMG Symposium on Concrete and Concrete Structures, Rome, Italy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation by a team member (Mak) on 'Effectiveness of arch behaviour in reinforced concrete beams subjected to shear' during 2nd fib Italy YMG Symposium on Concrete and Concrete Structures, Rome, Italy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.cirg.eng.cam.ac.uk/news/award-cirg-member-fib-conference-rome
 
Description Presentation at fib Symposium 2021: Concrete Structures: New Trends for Eco-Efficiency and Performance 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation delived to conference attendees at the fib Symposium, Lisbon (online), 14th - 16th June 2021. The presentation summarised the work in the conference paper "An analysis of existing models for carbonation coefficient applied to tests under natural conditions". There was a question and answer session following the presentation, with questions posed by virtual atendees and the chairpeople of the conference session.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.fib-international.org/publications/fib-proceedings/i-fib-i-symposium-in-lisbon,-portugal...
 
Description Presentation to CSIC Achieving Net Zero Cross-Industry Group - May 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Professor Lees made a presentation on - Hard Concrete Problems - Ownership and Action - to help support and inform the work of the Cross-Industry Group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Research presentations at launch of University of Cambridge Civil Engineering Building (UKCRIC NRFIS) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Lees described the facilities and examples of research activity facilitated in Cambridge's new state-of-the-art concrete manufacturing and durability laboratories.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description St Catharine's college Engineering Society presentation (Forsdyke) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact An online presentation to the undergraduates, postrgraduates and academics at St Catharine's college. The presentation was titled "Improving Cement Efficiency in Concrete Elements" and described the problems of cement use in terms of embodied carbon, and the concept of tailored elements to improve this. There was good engagement from the students and siginicant discussion following the presentation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description St Catharine's college Engineering Society presentation (Forsdyke) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact A presentation to the undergraduates, postrgraduates and academics studying Engineering at St Catharine's college. The presentation was titled "Using Image Processing and Analysis in Concrete Research" and focussed on the use of image processing techniques to give more information than traditional measurement methods. There was good engagement from the students and siginicant discussion following the presentation about the interdisciplinary nature of research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description St Catharine's college Graduates and Fellows research seminars (Forsdyke) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Jess Forsdyke gave a presentation entitled: "What's so hard about concrete?" to postgraduate students and academic fellows. This lead to interesting questions afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Tailored Concrete Infrastructure Workshop - University of Cambridge, University of Toronto and Queen's University 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Cambridge research findings relating to tailored concrete infrastructure were discussed with international collaborators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Workshop for University of Cambridge EPSRC FIBE2 CDT MRes Students - March 2021 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A session on 'Resilient concrete infrastructure with minimal cement' covered challenges, latest developments in concrete manufacturing and innovation and how research related to tailored reinforced concrete infrastructure offers routes for cement reduction. An interactive workshop encourages participants to reflect on the connection between cement usage and performance requirements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
 
Description Workshop for University of Cambridge EPSRC FIBE2 CDT MRes Students - March 2022 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A session on 'Resilient concrete infrastructure with minimal cement' covered challenges, latest developments in concrete manufacturing and innovation and how research related to tailored reinforced concrete infrastructure offers routes for cement reduction. An interactive workshop encourages participants to reflect on the connection between cement usage and performance requirements.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
 
Description Zero Carbon World Materials Mapping Workshop (i3P) - Aug 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Mapping of innovation strategies to promote lower carbon systems and materials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Zero Carbon World Research Findings Review (i3P) - Sept 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The ambition was to identify, catalogue and classify the different carbon innovation projects across the sector; by understanding what innovation programmes are taking place now, we will be able to provide insight on any critical gaps. The output of the project will be a prioritized innovation map, and a set of strategic project briefs to be explored further in subsequent phases.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020