Robotic disassembly technology as a key enabler of autonomous remanufacturing

Lead Research Organisation: University of Birmingham
Department Name: Mechanical Engineering

Abstract

Remanufacturing is "the process of returning a used product to at least OEM original performance specification from the customers' perspective and giving the resultant product warranty that is at least equal to that of a newly manufactured equivalent". Remanufacturing can be more sustainable than manufacturing de novo "because it can be profitable and less harmful to the environment ...". Remanufacturing is a sizable industry. For example, in the USA, there are more than 73,000 companies engaged in remanufacturing. They employ 350,000 people and have turnovers totalling $53 billion.
A key step in remanufacturing is disassembly of the returned product to be remanufactured. As it is complex, disassembly tends to be manually executed and is labour intensive. We propose to develop robotic technology allowing disassembly to be carried out with minimal human intervention or in a collaborative fashion by man and machine. We aim to facilitate the cost-effective robotisation of this critical step in remanufacturing to unlock the potential of remanufacturing and make it feasible for many more companies to adopt, thus helping to expand the UK's £2.35 Billion remanufacturing industry.
Our research will start with a detailed investigation of disassembly processes aimed at fundamentally understanding them. Such a fundamental understanding does not currently exist but is necessary to support the development of robust disassembly strategies and systems that can autonomously handle variability in the product. We will study basic common tasks such as unscrewing, removal of pins from holes with small clearances, separation of press-fit components, extraction of elastic parts (e.g. O-rings and circlips) and breaking up of 'permanently' assembled components.
We will analyse those generic disassembly tasks for feedback information that can be obtained while a robot is performing them. We will employ different types of sensors to provide feedback apprpriate to a given task. In addition to visual sensing, we will focus on using contact forces and moments as a means to gauge the state of the disassembly operation. To counteract uncertainties, such feedback will be helpful in guiding the robot and avoiding damage to the components being taken apart. We will apply the acquired basic process knowledge methodically to create models, scheduling algorithms and learning tools to enable autonomous or semi-autonomous disassembly by robotic systems.
We will develop strategies for planning and implementing multi-robot operation when the disassembly task is too complex for one machine. We will devise techniques for effective collaboration between humans and robots in cases where the work is too difficult for people or for machines on their own. We will validate these plans, strategies and techniques experimentally and will give public demonstrations of collaborative robotic disassembly using real products as examples.
Our multi-disciplinary project team, with experience in robotic assembly, intelligent systems, CAD/CAM and process modelling, will be supported by three industrial partners (Caterpillar, Meritor and MG Motor). These user companies will supply case studies for evaluating the research results. Two technology translators (the Manufacturing Technology Centre and the High Speed Sustainable Manufacturing Institute) will contribute to converting laboratory-based technology into solutions ready for deployment on an industrial scale.

Planned Impact

Our project will generate the following academic, economic and societal impact:
Academic impact. A new and fertile area, robotic disassembly science, will be created to generate fundamental knowledge about disassembly processes. The knowledge and understanding derived from our investigation will underpin the development of innovative and resilient technology for robotic disassembly. Our research will help establish UK leadership of this new area. Academic beneficiaries of our multi-disciplinary work will include robotics researchers, those concerned with remanufacturing and sustainable manufacturing research, mechanical and manufacturing engineers and computer scientists.
Economic impact. Disassembly is a key stage in most remanufacturing operations. Companies involved in dismantling products for remanufacturing or recycling - a multi-billion-pound industry in the UK - will benefit from the robotic disassembly technology developed in our research. So far, it has been difficult to robotise or automate disassembly and the process has remained largely manual. By enabling robotisation of disassembly, our project will help make the operation more cost effective, encouraging wider adoption of remanufacturing. This could mean annual savings of over £360M, an increase in gross value added of £2 billion a year and 20 Mt more materials recycled back into the UK economy by 2020.
Societal impact. As our research will result in technology promoting the adoption of remanufacturing, which uses less energy and emits less carbon dioxide than manufacturing (up to 83% and 87% for the automotive sector, respectively), our project will contribute to enhancing environmental sustainability and quality of life. Furthermore, disassembly work can be even more tedious and less satisfying an occupation than assembly. Robotising disassembly reduces human involvement in such low-quality jobs, releasing people for more challenging and stimulating tasks.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description We have broken disassembly down into elementary operations such as removing a cylindrical pin (or shaft) from a mating cylindrical bore and unfastening a nut from a threaded stud. We have analysed the most common operations in depth and have developed new strategies for using robots to perform them.
Exploitation Route The disassembly strategies we have developed could be implemented in disassembly cells to enable robots to carry out disassembly tasks in collaboration with human operators.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC19YoctUtyGAdazYFrYE1MQ
 
Description Advisory for ICT in education, UNESCO (through Ladder Education Group)
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact Ladder Education Group develops low-cost robotic tutor that works for less developed contexts, mainly Africa and the Caribbean, serving marginalized population in terms of literacy and citizenship education. The project is supported by ICT in education, UNESCO. Dr Y. Wang is a member of advisory committee of the project and advise on the design, manufacturing and remanufacturing of the machines to improve learning experience and reduce production cost.
 
Description Dr Huang was appointed as a BSI Committee member
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
Impact Contributing to the development of national and international standards.
 
Description Autonomous Remanufacturing of Complex Projects
Amount £140,142 (GBP)
Funding ID 103667 
Organisation Innova UK 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 03/2019
 
Description Futuring European Industry
Amount € 47,500 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Department Horizon 2020
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 09/2016 
End 02/2018
 
Title Collaborative robotic cell 
Description The tool will be used to demonstrate automated robotic disassembly. It will also contribute to the development of disassembly strategies. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The first robotic demonstration has been produced and released on Youtube. 
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hgEeY_gwsG0
 
Title Peg-hole separation strategy test station 
Description A test station was developed which could mimic the process of peg-hole separation and record force and torque, based on a hexapod robot and a six-axis sensor. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The station allows the investigation of novel approaches to avoid jamming and wedging during peg-hole separations processes, and can be used to validate a variety of theoretical models. 
 
Description Application collaboration with Shenyang Yuanda Science and Technology Park Co., Ltd (SYSTP) 
Organisation Shenyang Yuanda Science and Technology Park Co., Ltd
Country China 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The team organises talks with the collaborator to share information about applications of the technology and investments for the future projects.
Collaborator Contribution - Industrial planning guidance including providing Chinese industrial data and advice - Provide a technology cooperating and consulting platform to help promote projects of your team to Chinese enterprise and partners - Assist marketing management in China including joining introduction event or any other events and activities in China
Impact SYSTP is building a platform to link investments and collaborators in China to the team at the University of Birmingham.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Research collaboration with Beihang University 
Organisation Beihang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution AUTOREMAN team and Beihang University have been collaborating on automatic replanning of disassembly. This collaboration has secured a royal society international exchange fund. We will also co-organise the 4th International workshop on autonomous remanufacturing in October 2020, Beijing, China.
Collaborator Contribution Beihang University offers expertise in multi-objective optimisation
Impact 1. At least 3 journal publications. 2. Host an international workshop jointly. 3. Promote the impact of AUTOREMAN's research in China.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Research collabration with University of Castilla-La Mancha - UCLM 
Organisation University of Castile-La Mancha
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The team organises regular talks with the collaborator to share research activity information and ideas.
Collaborator Contribution Members of Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha visits UoB team to contribute to the project.
Impact The partnership resulted in an agreement that we will join forces in research activities and the preparation of international workshops.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Research collabration with Wuhan University of Technology 
Organisation Wuhan University of Technology
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The team organises regular talks with the collaborator to share research activity information and ideas. We contribute to the arrangement of 2017 International workshop on autonomous remanufacturing which is jointly organised by the University of Birmingham and Wuhan University of Technology.
Collaborator Contribution Members of Wuhan University of Technology entered UoB team to contribute to the project. They took part in the arrangement of 2017 International workshop on autonomous remanufacturing which is jointly organised by the University of Birmingham and Wuhan University of Technology.
Impact The partnership resulted in three scientific publications and one international event.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Prof D. T. Pham gave a keynote presentation 'Robotic disassembly: The key to autonomous remanufacturing' at SHTP 5th Annual International Conference, Ho CHi Minh City, Vietnam. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Prof D. T. Pham gave a keynote presentation 'Robotic disassembly: The key to autonomous remanufacturing' at SHTP 5th Annual International Conference, Ho CHi Minh City, Vietnam.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 2017 International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 12 talks related to automation and remanufatcuring were given at the workshop. Guests from both academia and industry shared ideas and information about recent development. Over 50 guests from Spain, Netherlands, France, Greece, China and UK attended the event. Audiences from industry reported increased interest in related subject areas.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://autoreman.altervista.org/Event/2017IWAR_Agenda_full_v2.pdf
 
Description AUTOREMAN project was presented on International Workshop on APplication of Bees Algorithm in sustainable development (IWABA 2018), Hanoi, Vietnam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact AUTOREMAN project was presented on International Workshop on APplication of Bees Algorithm in sustainable development (IWABA 2018), Hanoi, Vietnam
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description AUTOREMAN team participated in 2018 The 2nd International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing at Wuhan, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact AUTOREMAN team participated in 2018 The 2nd International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing at Wuhan, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Autonomous Remanufacturing and IoT 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Professor Duc Pham talked about Autonomous remanufacturing at Symposium on Embracing the Internet of Things to Drive Data-Driven Decisions, University of Manchester.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Autonomous remanufacturing enabled by robotic disassembly (and Industry 4.0) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A keynote presentation "Autonomous remanufacturing enabled by robotic disassembly (and Industry 4.0)" was given by Prof D.T.Pham at International Symposium on Production Research 2017 (ISPR 2017) Transition to Industry 4.0, Vienna, Austria.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Digital Technologies for Manufacturing Innovation: Embracing Industry 4.0 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The event is organised by the Institute for Advanced Manufacturing (ifAM) at The University of Nottingham, in conjunction with EPSRC and Innovate UK. The even will close with a panel discussion on the challenges and opportunities presented by Industry 4.0.
AUTOMAN poster in the Innovate UK template, leaflet, questionnaire and presentation have been created, delivered and shown during two-day Nottingham events, which include project outline (scientific and technical objectives), project impact (economic benefits and example applications), further challenges and opportunities (other applications), contact details (contact person, email address, phone numbers) and further information (project website).
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/conference/fac-eng/dtmi2015/index.aspx
 
Description Dr J. Huang will present "A Strategy for Human-Robot Collaboration in Taking Products Apart from Remanufacture" at 8th International Conference on Business Sustainability 2018, Povoa de Varzim, Portugal. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr J. Huang will present "A Strategy for Human-Robot Collaboration in Taking Products Apart from Remanufacture" at 8th International Conference on Business Sustainability 2018, Povoa de Varzim, Portugal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Dr Y. Wang presented "Automatic Detection of Subassemblies for Disassembly Sequence Planning" at 15th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics, Porto, Portugal. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr Y. Wang presented "Automatic Detection of Subassemblies for Disassembly Sequence Planning" at 15th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics, Porto, Portugal.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Flexible Manufacturing Business Modelling Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Innovate UK offered this business modelling workshop to help participants in its Flexible Manufacturing CR&D competition. This workshop is for CEO's, CTO's, Head of Innovation, Business Development, Strategy or the lead applicant for the competition.
Mellissa Norman, a business model expert from Innovate UK, has covered a mixture of practical exercises, case studies and the latest learnings from the field of business.
AUTOMAN case study has been contributed to Flexible Manufacturing webinar slides (edited by Mellissa Norman), which include product flexibility with figures of reconfigurable multi-point press forming technology, mapping AUTOMAN with potential business model, partnerships, market potential, customer segments, changes in costs.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2015
URL https://interact.innovateuk.org/events/-/asset_publisher/AoTSAD664ItK/ConnectEvent/id/19693673
 
Description How can robots help manufacturing industry use natural resources more efficiently and be kinder to the environment? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof D.T.Pham gave a presentation entitled "How can robots help manufacturing industry use natural resources more efficiently and be kinder to the environment?" at 39th MATADOR conference on advanced manufacturing, Manchester, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description III International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A presentation was gaven in the international workshop by Dr Huang about the development of an Optical SixAxis Force/Torque Sensor for Robotic Applications.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Intelligent systems - A review of developments over the past five decades 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Duc Pham gave a Keynote presentation: "Intelligent systems - A review of developments over the past five decades" at World Automation Congress 2016, Puerto Rico.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.wacong.org/WAC2016/keynotes.html
 
Description Keynote presentation by D T Pham at ISPR 2019, Vienna, Austria 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Approximately 100 people from universities and industry across Europe attended the keynote presentation "Autonomous remanufacturing enabled by robotic disassembly (and Industry 4.0)."
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://www.ispr2019.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/generalprogramme.pdf
 
Description Keynote presentation by D T Pham at the International Workshop on Autonomous Remanufacturing 2019 (IWAR 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact D Pham delivered a keynote presentation on "Human Robot Collaboration in Product Disassembly for Remanufacturing" by video conferencing to an international audience of approximately 60 people from academia and industry at the University of Castilla la Mancha in Albacete in October 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://eventos.uclm.es/32090/section/18487/iwar-2019-iii-international-workshop-on-autonomous-reman...
 
Description Present at Workshop on Managing Operations in Circular Economy Contexts, IET Birmingham, 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Dr Y. Wang presneted "Robotics and Automation in Remanufacturing" at Workshop on Managing Operations in Circular Economy Contexts, IET Birmingham, 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation in the 8th International Conference on Business Sustainability 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation tilted "A Strategy for Human-Robot Collaboration in Taking Products Apart for Remanufacture" was gaven in 8th International Conference on Business Sustainability. Around 100 person attended the conference.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://2100projects.org/conferences/bs18/
 
Description Presentation: "Remanufacturing as the driver for long-term sustainability" 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Duc Pham gave a presentation entitled 'Remanufacturing as the driver for long-term sustainability' at Subcon 2016 which is the UK's premier manufacturing supply chain show dedicated to subcontract and outsourced engineering services. This event is for manufacturers in all industry sectors, to source suppliers, benchmark capabilities, and secure contracts in order to remain competitive in a global market. The talk drew the attention from the magezine, The Engineer, which published a follow-up news about AUTOREMAN project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://www.theengineer.co.uk/research-aims-for-autonomous-robots-that-disassemble-and-remanufacture...
 
Description Prof D. T. Pham attended a panel discussion on 'How to achieve growth in the automotive supply chain through remanufacturing' at AUTOREMANIKA 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Prof D. T. Pham attended a panel discussion on 'How to achieve growth in the automotive supply chain through remanufacturing' at AUTOREMANIKA 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof D. T. Pham gave a keynote presentation 'Is Smart Remanufacturing a Tautology?' at IWAR 2018, Wuhan, China. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Prof D. T. Pham gave a keynote presentation 'Is Smart Remanufacturing a Tautology?' at IWAR 2018, Wuhan, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof D. T. Pham gave a keynote presentation 'Remanufacturing 4.0: Industry 4.0-enabled Smart Remanufacturing' at ISPR 2018, Vienna, Austria. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Prof D. T. Pham gave a keynote presentation 'Remanufacturing 4.0: Industry 4.0-enabled Smart Remanufacturing' at ISPR 2018, Vienna, Austria.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Prof D. T. Pham shared his understanding of Smart Remanufacturing on CMM International 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact N/A
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://flickread.com/edition/html/5afc41309d751#1
 
Description Robotic disassembly and autonomous remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Duc Pham gave a keynote talk: "Robotic disassembly and autonomous remanufacturing" at International RECODE Network Symposium - Future visions of manufacturing, London.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://autoreman.altervista.org/Event/EPSRC_Robotic_Disassembly__International_RECODE_Network_Sympos...
 
Description Robotic disassembly and autonomous remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A keynote presentation "Robotic disassembly and autonomous remanufacturing" was given by Prof D.T.Pham at EPSRC RECODE International Symposium, London, UK.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Robotic disassembly as a key enabler of autonomous remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A presentation "Robotic disassembly as a key enabler of autonomous remanufacturing" was given by Dr. M. Castellani at World Remanufacturing Summit 2017, Singapore.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Steps towards Autonomous Remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Professor Duc Pham gave a Keynote presentation: "Steps towards Autonomous Remanufacturing" at 9th International Conference on Developments in E-Systems Engineering, Liverpool.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description Steps towards autonomous remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A keynote presentation "Steps towards autonomous remanufacturing" was given by Prof D.T.Pham at 2017 International Conference on Industrial Informatics - Computing Technology, Intelligent Technology, Industrial Information Integration (ICIICII 2017), Wuhan, 2-3 December 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The role of nature-inspired decentralised intelligence in disassembly planning 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Dr. M. Castellani describes the role of nature-inspired decentralised intelligence in AUTOREMAN's approach to disassembly planning in an invited presentation at Sheffield Hallam's MERI
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The value of remanufacturing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The importance of AUTOREMAN is discussed by Will Stirling in The Engineer.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.theengineer.co.uk/the-value-of-remanufacturing/
 
Description Why the remanufacturing in China lost balance? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Dr C. Ji presented 'Why the remanufacturing in China lost balance?' at Wuhan University of Technology, China.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://autoreman.altervista.org/Event/Presentation_wuhan_2017.pdf
 
Description the International Conference on Sustainable Smart Manufacturing (S2M 2019) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A presentation was gaven in the international conference by Dr Huang about a new method of automated screw unfastening for robotic disassembly by combining the strategies of torque control, position control and active compliance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020