Electrophysiological-mechanical coupled pulses in neural membranes: a new paradigm for clinical therapy of SCI and TBI (NeuroPulse)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Oxford
Department Name: Engineering Science

Abstract

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major public health issue with over 10m incidents resulting in death or in hospitalisation annually occurring worldwide. In Europe, an average incidence of 235/100,000 per year is estimated, with most countries experiencing an incidence in the range of 150-300/100,000, leading to a direct healthcare cost of EUR2.9b per year. The World Health Organization estimates that TBI will surpass many diseases as the major cause of death and disability by 2020. The other constituent of the central nervous system is the spinal cord. Damage to the spinal cord, or Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), thus shares many similarities with TBI, but also independently leads to pain and/or motor impairments ranging from incontinence to paralysis. In addition to potentially occurring simultaneously with TBI in many situations, mild SCI alone can cost in the US as much as $334,170 the first year followed by $40,589 the subsequent years. Severe SCIs reach the staggering figure of $1m for the first year alone. In the UK, this corresponds to an overall cost of £1b per year. A direct consequence of TBI and SCI, but of a much wider scope, pain management is discretely posing itself as one of the most important healthcare costs in the UK, reaching an evaluated £774m in direct cost and £4,338m in employment related cost for back pain alone in 1998, which, extrapolated to this decade, implies a total current cost of back pain in excess of £10b a year.

The recent increase in the number of research campaigns on TBI and SCI has drastically improved the understanding of the coupled role of micromechanics and electrophysiology at the neuron level. More particularly, the PI of this proposal has focussed his recent research on the development of in silico models aimed at capturing the electrophysiological alterations of neurons when submitted to a mechanical insult. In parallel to this, recent findings suggesting a direct coupling between mechanical vibration and electrical ps in healthy neuron action potential propagation open the door to a new series of evolution for this simulation platform, as well as potentially a novel approach for the understanding of TBI and SCI. However, the intrinsic relationship between mechanical vibrations (among which ultrasounds) and their biophysical implications is still widely ignored in this context. Said otherwise, whereas the effect of mechanical damage on the neuronal functional properties is currently heavily studied, the intrinsic coupling between mechanics and electrophysiology in healthy neurons is still not fully understood. As a direct consequence, the effect of functional alteration due to a mechanical insult on the vibrational mechanical properties of a neuron has so far been fully ignored.

NeuroPulse thus aims at developing and utilising state of the art modelling approaches for the study of electrophysiological and mechanical coupling in a healthy and mechanically damaged axon, nerve and eventually spinal cord and brain white matter tract. The resulting in silico platform will be calibrated and validated by means of a comprehensive experimental programme in collaboration with the Department of Physics of the University of Oxford. Two teams of clinical project partners in Oxford and Cambridge will participate to the analysis of the results for direct applications in a clinical setting. More specifically, the project will aim at a) evaluating the role of this newly identified electrophysiological-mechanical coupling in pulses in TBI/SCI related functional deficits and, as a pilot application, b) at posing the bases for the design of a device leveraging this coupling for spinal cord pain management by cancelling effect (and reversibly, for signal enhancement). Both objectives will considerably benefit the medical community in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of TBI and SCI, while providing new avenues for non-invasive electrophysiological control.

Planned Impact

NeuroPulse encompasses three of the four pillars of the Healthcare Technologies Grand Challenges: a) the development of future therapies aimed at leveraging neuron electrophysiological-mechanical coupling to modify or quantify electrophysiological properties by control over the mechanical properties, b) treatment optimisation by potentially inexpensive non-invasive pain treatment and possibly functional deficit detection, and c) transforming community health and care by alleviating the need for primary care to "second guess" the patients' symptoms (as is unfortunately often the case in TBI), and provide an objective roadmap for damage quantification. Doing so, NeuroPulse will help decrease the societal and economic burden of TBI, SCI and pain management in the UK, and worldwide. The tremendous economic implications of these efforts for the UK (see Summary Abstract) and the envisioned translational activity will be achieved as follows.

The current network and team of the PI already involve many scientific disciplines (e.g., Engineering, Mathematics, Physics and Biology), including Co-I Prof Contera from the Department of Physics (in NeuroPulse, Prof Contera will provide her state-of-the-art experimental expertise to support the numerical efforts of the PI). Additionally, over the course of his efforts to create the International Brain Mechanics and Trauma Lab (IBMTL), the PI has consolidated a strong network of neurosurgeons and neuroscientists. With the support of University of Oxford's Department of Engineering Science, NeuroPulse will build the ideal framework (until now merely virtual) to concretise their dedicated interest in clinically driven engineering solutions by transforming the IBMTL into a physical multisciplinary lab.

In addition, so as to guarantee a direct implication of the medical (and military) community into the envisioned pilot application, Dr Jenkins, an Army Medical Officer lecturing in Neurology and a Fellow in Medicine in St Hugh's College was identified as a project partner. He is a member of the University of Oxford Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Neuropathology Research Group focussed on multidisciplinary studies of brain and spinal cord tissue in the context of MS, and aimed at ensuring that the understanding derived from these studies translates into ideas for improved treatments of patients. Dr Jenkins will be in charge of centralising the additional participation of Mr Lawrence, a consultant paediatric neurosurgeon in the John Radcliffe Hospital focussing on biomarkers identification of TBI symptoms, as well as a novel unique collaboration with University of Cambridge Prof Menon, Head of Division of Anaesthesia and Acute Care Lead in the Cambridge NIHR Healthcare Technology Cooperative for Acute Brain Injury, and Dr Ercole, consultant anaesthetist specialised in resuscitation and neurocritical care. Prof Menon is Co-Chair of the European Brain Injury Consortium, one of the coordinators of the current CENTER-TBI study and Co-Chair of the Acute Brain Injury program at Cambridge. Dr Ercole is also part of the CENTER-TBI consortium, and leads a research theme on mechanical, physiological, and metabolic modelling of human brain injury. In addition, Prof Menon's role as Head of the Division of Anaesthesia will provide access to a productive pain research group and facilitate the exploitation of research outputs that relate to pain management or more generally electrophysiological control by mechanical means. His involvement will also provide a means of disseminating NeuroPulse's research to the broader clinical community through his role in the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre.

Finally Dr Malboubi will be hired as a Researcher Co-I to leverage the expertise and wide research connectivity of the medical partners by ensuring the dissemination of the research outputs from NeuroPulse, and identifying with the PI opportunities for translational activity and grant funding.

Publications

10 25 50
publication icon
Al-Rekabi Z (2018) Multifrequency AFM reveals lipid membrane mechanical properties and the effect of cholesterol in modulating viscoelasticity. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

publication icon
Garcia-Gonzalez D (2019) Energy based mechano-electrophysiological model of CNS damage at the tissue scale in Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids

publication icon
Garcia-Gonzalez D (2018) "A continuum mechanics constitutive framework for transverse isotropic soft tissues." in Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids

publication icon
García-Grajales J (2017) Continuum mechanical modeling of axonal growth in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering

publication icon
Kwong M T (2018) "3D finite element formulation for mechanical-electrophysiological coupling in axonopathy." in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering,

 
Description The mechanisms behind ultrasound neuromodulation can potentially be explained by the multiphysics coupling naturally arising from the consideration of flexoelectricity in the neuronal membrane.
Exploitation Route This is needs to be further validated experimentally (work ongoing).
Sectors Healthcare

URL https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.99.032406
 
Description The basic science research work has important implications for the field of ultrasound neuromodulation. The WEF (building on the preaward 2014 Young Scientist award) has conducted an interview asking the PI (Antoine Jerusalem) about this type of clinical intervention, how this works, the danger, etc. This has led to significant exposure internationally. Since then, the PI has been involved in many meetings and workshops related to ultrasound neuromodulation. This is transitioning slowly into practical impact in the clinical world, i.e., a stronger interest on the basic science behind the technique and how this could be leveraged to better use it.
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Healthcare
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description EU Parliament even participation (two of them)
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description University Challenge See Fund: SIM TBI award
Amount £61,506 (GBP)
Funding ID UCSF 433 
Organisation University of Oxford 
Department Oxford University Innovation
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 08/2018
 
Description Wellcome Institutional Strategic Support Fund
Amount £30,378 (GBP)
Funding ID 0006331 
Organisation University of Oxford 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2019 
End 09/2019
 
Title MECAXON 
Description MECAXON simulates the conduction of electro-physiological pulses and mechanical pulses in neuronal axons, as well as the interactions between two pulses. Main features of the code: Solved by finite element method in Matlab Capable of modelling the conduction of both electro-physiological and mechanical pulses in the axon Capturing the direct and reverse flexoelectric effects that occurs in the neuronal membrane Can be potentially used to explain physical phenomena related to the mechano-electrophysiological coupling in neurons, such as membrane deformation during action potential propagation and ultrasound neuromodulation 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Model is being used to explain controversy of multiphysics coupling in neuronal membrane and explain some of the mechanisms underlying ultrasound neuromodulation 
URL https://process.innovation.ox.ac.uk/software/p/15910/mecaxon-academic/1
 
Title VUMAT: constitutive model for soft biological tissues 
Description This code provides the explicit implementation of a constitutive model to define the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues. Main features of the code: Implemented in a VUMAT material subroutine for Abaqus/Explicit Uncoupled volumetric and isochoric responses Developed for finite deformations Strain rate dependency Continuum damage Can be used to relate mechanical deformation to other physical phenomena through energetic terms, such as alterations in electrophysiological responses 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The model is developed within a thermodynamically consistent framework, provides energetic variables that can be linked to other physics of soft tissues (such as electrophysiology) 
URL https://process.innovation.ox.ac.uk/software/p/16428/vumat/1
 
Description Dr. Brad Treeby 
Organisation University College London
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We started collaborating with Dr. Treeby from UCL to implement the multiscale multiphysics model of electrophysiological-mechanical coupling in K-wave (Brad is one of the creators of K-wave). So far, we have met once and will be implementing the coupling to electrophysiology in K-wave soon.
Collaborator Contribution So far, we have met once and will be implementing the coupling to electrophysiology in K-wave soon.
Impact This work has not led to any outcome yet. It will be focus on the numerical implementation only.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Experimental study of effective parameters for ultrasound neuromodulation of cultured neurons 
Organisation University College London
Department Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Collaboration on in vitro ultrasound setup for cultured neurons
Collaborator Contribution Technical assitance and loan of 1064mm Q-switched DPSS laser STA version. They provided the ultrasonic probe (laser and fibres with coatings) and measured the generated ultrasound.
Impact This collaboration has been put on hold as the ultasound setup was not fully controlled. We might get back to it in a year or so.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Prof. Jerome Sallet and Dr. Lennard Verhagen 
Organisation University of Oxford
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We started a collaboration with Prof. Sallet and Dr. Verhagen in terms of the application of the developed software in NeuroPulse. We meshed fully a brain model from monkey that is being studied for neuromodulation.
Collaborator Contribution They provided so far the scan images of the animal brain, and the application of interest for us to test our resulting model.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2018
 
Description Traumatic Brain Injury Medical partners 
Organisation Addenbrooke's Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution The NeuroPulse project envisioned to establish the basis for a collaboration with both hospitals. I organised a few meetings to establish the foundations for NeuroPulse to develop clinically relevant outputs. A meeting was organised in Cambridge for the NeuroPulse academics to present their work.
Collaborator Contribution Another day meeting was organised in Oxford at the end of 2016 to discuss anaesthesia in the framework of NeuroPulse. Dr Ercole came from Cambridge. This is obviously all at a very early stage in the project but the active willingness of both Oxford and Cambridge Trauma care clinicians to share resources for the project is a very necessary step. We are still in the process to analyse the outputs of this meeting.
Impact This mutli-disciplinary exchange has so far discussed how knowledge of anaesthesia and TBI in a clinical urgent care environment can find relevance at the most fundamental level, i.e., the study of coupling between mechanics and electrophysiology at the cell level. So far only ideas have been exchanged.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Traumatic Brain Injury Medical partners 
Organisation John Radcliffe Hospital
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution The NeuroPulse project envisioned to establish the basis for a collaboration with both hospitals. I organised a few meetings to establish the foundations for NeuroPulse to develop clinically relevant outputs. A meeting was organised in Cambridge for the NeuroPulse academics to present their work.
Collaborator Contribution Another day meeting was organised in Oxford at the end of 2016 to discuss anaesthesia in the framework of NeuroPulse. Dr Ercole came from Cambridge. This is obviously all at a very early stage in the project but the active willingness of both Oxford and Cambridge Trauma care clinicians to share resources for the project is a very necessary step. We are still in the process to analyse the outputs of this meeting.
Impact This mutli-disciplinary exchange has so far discussed how knowledge of anaesthesia and TBI in a clinical urgent care environment can find relevance at the most fundamental level, i.e., the study of coupling between mechanics and electrophysiology at the cell level. So far only ideas have been exchanged.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Attendance at the 2nd POEM workshop on physics and excitatory membranes 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The sub title is "waves in Soft and Living Matter, their Transmission at the Synapse and their Cooperation in the Brain. Prof Jerusalem will participate in the round table discussions to report the work and findings of the Neuropulse project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://med-bio.physik.tu-dortmund.de/cms/en/Home/POEM---Physics-of-excitable-membranes-2019/index.ht...
 
Description Conference: Society of Engineers 55th Annual Technical Meeting SES 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Jerusalem jointly Chaired Session IV - 5.4 on Thursday 11th October 2018, entitled "Mechanics of the Brain".
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://ses2018.org/_medien/_content/files/abstract_booklet.pdf?t=124654353241
 
Description EPSRC's Inaugural Healthcare Tehcnologies Hive Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact This will be an unique opportunity for you to meet and network with all the key grant holders in our Healthcare Technologies theme through a facilitated 2 day event. When we go out and about, the main observations we have is that there is never enough time to talk to other fellow academics and the networking part of any event always scores the highest mark. Therefore we have responded and we have invited 130 academics - all our programme grant holders, CDT directors, other leads in our large investments, our early career fellows, HTCAs and leaders of our network grants. The response rate has been really good with over 85% of those invited saying yes. The event will start at 10 am on the Tuesday and finish at 4pm on the Wednesday.

We have experienced facilitators working with us and we are just finalising the details of the agenda. We have a dinner speaker and there will be an opportunity for you all in groups to discuss real challenges given by some charities with seedcorn money for the best proposals for further development of their ideas. I think you will find it extreme beneficial and be like the 2 day event we have for the HTCAs - you will also meet our new 8 HTCAs too.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ERCcOMICS blog 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The work featured on an ERCcOMICS blog. These webcomics promote and explain the achievements of ERC funded research projects. It raised awareness of Prof Jerusalems work on the development of a multiphysics neuron model that will explore how mechanical, electrophysiological and chemical mechanisms interact in neurons. The multiphysics neuron model will ultimately allow the bio-medical community to enhance their knowledge on neuron deformation, growth, electrosignalling and thus, Alzheimer's disease, cancer or brain injuries, and even ultrasound neuromodulation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://erccomics.com/blog/researchportraits-2
 
Description Invited Talk - Industrial and Interdisciplinary workshop, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation entitled " Mechano-electrophysiological, cognitive and computational challenges" to an audience that included industrialists and also researchers and from other departments. Information about Neuropulse and its wide range of potential applications was disseminated to this diverse audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invited talk - Marseille, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation entitled "Head injury simulations, cognitive and computational challenges" at the iLabSpine Science Day in Marseille, France
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited talk - Strasbourg, France 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation entitled "Computational mutiphysics of brain trauma" at the "Festival de conférences ERC", Université of Strasbourg/Neuropôle, Strasbourg, France
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://neuropole.u-strasbg.fr/
 
Description MEP-Scientist Pairing Scheme 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact EU parliament, MEP - Scientist Pairing Scheme 2017. MEP was Eva Kaili.
The MEP-Scientist Pairing Scheme aims at enhancing mutual understanding and establishing a long-term, intensive cooperation between Members and researchers. STOA is currently organising the project for the 6th time.
During their time at the European Parliament, the paired scientists will learn about the work of EP committees and research services, and will shadow their MEP counterparts in their daily activities. This aspect of the scheme is vital for both sides to identify the areas where the partners' knowledge and experience can be combined to feed into better legislation. Follow-up visits for MEPs to see their paired scientists at work will hopefully be agreed bilaterally during the scientists' visit to Brussels.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Paper presented at European Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "Cognition based bTBI mechanistic criteria; an in silico tool for preventive and therapeutic innovations" presented at the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCM ECFD 2018, Glasgow, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.eccomas.org/vnews/1042/eccm-ecfd-conferences-2018-
 
Description Paper presented at European Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "Computational model of the mechano-electrophysiological coupling in axons with application to neuromodulation" presented at the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCM ECFD 2018, Glasgow, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.eccomas.org/vnews/1042/eccm-ecfd-conferences-2018-
 
Description Paper presented at a Conference, St Andrews, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "A viscous-hyperelastic constitutive model for transverse isotropic soft tissues" presented at the 60th British Applied Mathematics Colloquium BAMC2018, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/~bamc2018/
 
Description Paper presented at workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "Cognition based bTBI mechanistic criteria; an in silico tool for preventive and therapeutic innovations" presented at the 5th Oxford Workshop on Neuron and Brain Mechanics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.evensi.uk/5th-oxford-international-workshop-neuron-brain-mechanics-st-hughs-college/2429...
 
Description Paper presented to European Conference, Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "Mechano-electrophysiological model for nerve tissue in TBI and SCI" presented to the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCM ECFD 2018, Glasgow, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.eccomas.org/vnews/1042/eccm-ecfd-conferences-2018-
 
Description Paper presented to European Conference, Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "OxFEMM, a scalable coupled Finite Element-Meshless Method program" presented at the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCM ECFD 2018, Glasgow, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.eccomas.org/vnews/1042/eccm-ecfd-conferences-2018-
 
Description Paper presented to European Conference, Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "Machine learning enhanced scalable finite element simulation of head injury" presented at the 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCM ECFD
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.eccomas.org/vnews/1042/eccm-ecfd-conferences-2018-
 
Description Paper presented to European Conference, Glasgow 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint paper entitled "A mechanical-electrophysiological membrane model for axonopathy. 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics, 7th European Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ECCM ECFD 2018", Glasgow, UK
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.eccomas.org/vnews/1042/eccm-ecfd-conferences-2018-
 
Description Presentation at international conference, Madrid, Spain 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Joint presentation with D Garcia-Gonzalez entitled "Numerical modelling of mechanics and electrophysiology in TBI" at the Society of Engineering's 55th Annual Technical Meeting - SES 2018. "Session V - 5.4 - Mechanics of the Brain" on Thursday 11th Oct 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://ses2018.org/_medien/_content/files/abstract_booklet.pdf?t=124654353241
 
Description Presentation at the Society of Engineering's 55th Annual Technical Meeting SES 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Co-author of a paper entitled "MRI/MRA based in silico head model for stroke simulation" presented during Session VI - 5.4 "Mechanics of the Brain" on Friday 12th Oct 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://ses2018.org/_medien/_content/files/abstract_booklet.pdf?t=124654353241
 
Description Talk at National Gallery, London 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A panel discussion on bringing basic research to entrepreneurship sponsored by Caixa Bank
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.caixabank.com/comunicacion/noticia/caixabank-brings-together-in-london-women-who-invest-...
 
Description Young Scientists Science Communication Module (London) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Prof Jerusalem will be attending this event on 26th March to engage with your scientists and answer questions. He will explain his background, the Neurpoulse project to them and how he communicates his scientific results. The two primary aims are firstly to stimulate interest in Neuropulse and his area of work, and secondly to assist young scientists maximise the way in which they communicate their results.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019