FloWTurb: Response of Tidal Energy Converters to Combined Tidal Flow, Waves, and Turbulence

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Engineering


Tidal currents are known to have complex turbulent structures. Whilst the magnitude and directional variation of a tidal flow is deterministic, the characteristics of turbulent flow within a wave-current environment are stochastic in nature, and not well understood. Ambient upstream turbulent intensity affects the performance of a tidal turbine, while influencing downstream wake formation; the latter of which is crucial when arrays of tidal turbines are planned. When waves are added to the turbulent tidal current, the resulting wave-current induced turbulence and its impact on a tidal turbine make the design problem truly challenging. Although some very interesting and useful field measurements of tidal turbulence have been obtained at several sites around the world, only limited measurements have been made where waves and tidal currents co-exist, such as in the PFOW. Also, as these measurements are made at those sites licensed to particular marine energy device developers, the data are not accessible to academic researchers or other device developers.

Given the ongoing development of tidal stream power in the Pentland Firth, there is a pressing need for advanced in situ field measurements at locations in the vicinity of planned device deployments. Equally, controlled generation of waves, currents and turbulence in the laboratory, and measurement of the performance characteristics of a model-scale tidal turbine will aid in further understanding of wave-current interactions. Such measurements would provide a proper understanding of the combined effects of waves and misaligned tidal stream flows on tidal turbine performance, and the resulting cyclic loadings on individual devices and complete arrays. The availability of such measurements will reduce uncertainty in analysis (and hence risk) leading to increased reliability (and hence cost reductions) through the informed design of more optimised tidal turbine blades and rotor structures. An understanding of wave-current-structure interaction and how this affects the dynamic loading on the rotor, support structure, foundation, and other structural components is essential not only for the evaluation of power or performance, but also for the estimation of normal operational and extreme wave and current scenarios used to assess the survivability and economic viability of the technology, and to predict associated risks. The proposal aims to address these issues through laboratory and field measurements.

This research will investigate the combined effect of tidal currents, gravity waves, and ambient flow turbulence on the dynamic response of tidal energy converters. A high quality database will be established comprising field-scale measurements from the Pentland Firth, Orkney waters, and Shetland region, supplemented by laboratory-scale measurements from Edinburgh University's FloWave wave-current facility. Controlled experiments will be carried out at Edinburgh University's FloWave facility to determine hydrodynamic loads on a tidal current device and hence parameterise wave-current-turbulence-induced fatigue loading on the turbine's rotor and foundation.

Planned Impact

On 5th January, 2015, a cargo ship, the Cemfjord, sank in the Pentland Firth, with the loss of eight lives. The disaster was attributed to the ship losing stability in large-amplitude waves, with media statements including '...The Pentland Firth, with such strong westerly winds and an ebb tide can throw up massive standing waves...' and '...The ship sank so fast - in what experts said would have been appalling weather with mountainous waves'. The accident provided a tragic illustration of the threat posed by waves interacting with turbulent tidal currents in the Pentland Firth. As Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters (PFOW) have attracted marine energy device deployments, this threat is particularly acute where tidal stream devices are concerned. Improved understanding of wave-current effects and better design guidance, reduces the technical risk of marine energy industry projects and hence reduces both the investment risk and the operations and maintenance costs of the project.

FloWTurb will provide design solutions for marine energy devices located in the PFOW. It involves a high level of cross-disciplinary research which requires the involvement of experts from different scientific and engineering fields. In return, these experts will benefit significantly in terms of scientific knowledge, experience with site and laboratory measurements and analysis, industrial links, and networking with overseas partners. The project findings will also help reduce the risk of maritime accidents, of obvious benefit to the shipping and insurance industries. Furthermore, the project outcomes will be relevant to offshore wind energy farms under development around the world.

The tests at FloWave will provide an enhanced understanding of wave-current-turbulence interaction in laboratory conditions, and will set guidelines for future industry and academic researchers planning tests at this facility. Unique insight will be obtained into the underlying physics behind multi-directional wave-current interactions, supplemented by a set of publicly available, quality controlled, self-describing, experimental data that can be used by scientists, engineers and mathematicians studying wave-current interactions. These datasets will be of utmost benefit to wave and tidal energy developers who will be able to improve the designs of their devices to account for the combined effects of waves and current.

FloWTurb will use the industry-standard commercial software suite - MIKE21/3 for numerical modelling. Given that this software is used by several marine energy developers in the UK including the Crown Estate, the project outcomes should be readily taken up by industry. The methodologies established to improve turbulence modelling of the public-domain tool, 'TurbSim' and loading calculation in 'FAST' suite (both available from the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory) will be of direct and immediate use to the participating industry partner - 'Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd (see support letter). The archived numerical model, site and laboratory data will also be of use to classification societies including DNV GL-Energy (see support letter) for the development of new design rules, guidance and validation of existing software tools. The results could influence IEC Technical Committee Standards, which provide technical specifications for the performance and resource assessment of marine energy converters. Dissemination of FloWTurb results through collaborations with overseas partners, and presentations at international conferences, workshops and meetings will help to promote the UK as world leader in marine energy. Through its membership of the EU Marine Board, and the Marine Strategy Forum, MASTS will also be well placed to ensure that the outputs from FloWTurb are communicated into national and international fora.
Description This project developed a specific robust and accurate methodology to calculate Turbulence Intensity (TI) from site measurements of waves and tides and the newly calculated TI values are in agreement with those values industry expected to see. A report prepared based on this work has been shared with a tidal energy developer who are a partner with FloWTurb. A coupled wave and tidal current numerical model has been developed for the Fall of Warness region. The model has been thoroughly calibrated and validated with field measurements collected through FloWturb project partners at the University of Highlands and Islands. The coupled model was found to predict wave-current-turbulence interactions accurately. The results are published in the European Wave and Tidal energy conference in Sept 2017 at Cork, Ireland. Further publications are under preparation for Journals and conferences in 2018. Field measurement campaigns have been undertaken at several sites in the Fall of Warness and Orkney Waters in the past two years using a number of sophisticated acoustic type instruments. The data is currently being analysed. The processed data will be soon made available for the industry and research use.

Key outcomes:
Workpackage 1 Numerical modelling of wave-current interactions and turbulences: Among the 3 key tasks identified for this work package, the task 1.3 Characterisation of 3D flow turbulence structure, has been continued further even after the end date given in the work plan for the main reason that new site measurements was made available to WP1 by WP3 for the MeyGen site. As this site is exposed to significant wave and tidal current interaction, the modelling tasks were extended to verify the model's capability in modelling combined interaction with reliable field data. Few key publications were produced for this work (see the publications list [1], [10], [11], [17], [18] ) and many more in preparation. This work package is now complete.

Work Package 2 Quantification of turbulence in combined wave and current situations in energetic tidal channels through field data acquisition: Initially the wave-tidal data have been acquired for the Fall of Warness site. Additional measurements of waves and tidal currents have been undertaken for five different locations in the Innersound at MeyGen tidal site. Further measurements have been conducted Butt of Lewis and Hoy Mouth Orkney. Thus a huge volume of data gathered have been processed and various parameters quantifying turbulence interactions produced. These are now reported in Journal and conference publications (see [3], [8], [9], [13], [14], [15], [16], [20]). This work package is now complete.

Work Package 3 Physical modelling of combined waves and tidal currents and reproduction of flow turbulence characteristics: All individual tasks within this work package have been accomplished. The tests were conducted in the Flowave facility. All experimental data collected have been analysed and used in work package 4. Key results are reported in Journal publications (see [5], [12], [19] , [20]). This work package is complete.

Work Package 4 Dynamic loading on scale model tidal turbine rotors in 3D waves, misaligned tidal currents with varying turbulence intensities: For this work package, a 1:15 scale tidal turbine model was used to measured hydrodynamic loads (on the blades, foundation) and performance (thrust and turbine power) in waves and currents have been measured for a wide range of regular waves, random waves, focussed waves, misaligned waves and reproduced waves from site conditions. Waves are selected and programmed specifically to facilitate frequency domain analysis, and techniques are employed to isolate the effect of non-linear waves on turbine power and thrust. Extensive data analysis was conducted and results are reported in several publications (see, [2], [4], [5], [6], [7]). All tasks except one have been completed. Task WP4.4 Fatigue load measurement on the rotor and support structure is planned in March 2019.

Work Package 5 Methodology for determining wave-current-turbulence-induced fatigue and dynamic loading on tidal turbines: The tasks within this work package are computationally demanding, but started in September 2018, and on-going. When the fatigue analysis tool is completed it will be in the public domain.

1. Reta, M.G., Venugopal, V., Creech, A., 2019. Influence of bathymetry on turbulence parameters in tidal channel flow at the Fall of Warness, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering (in review).
2. Draycott, S., Payne, G., Steynor, J., Nambiar, A., Sellar, B., Davey, T., Noble D R., & Venugopal, V. (2019). Environmental & Load Data: 1:15 Scale Tidal Turbine subject to a variety of Regular Wave Conditions (in Press).
3. Greenwood, C., Cole, D. Vogler, A., Venugopal, V., 2019. Turbulence Characteristics in the Presences of Surface Waves at the MeyGen Tidal Energy Site, Journal of Renewable Energy (in review).
4. Draycott, S., Steynor, J., Nambiar, A., Sellar, B., & Venugopal, V. (2019). Experimental Assessment of Tidal Turbine Loading from Irregular Waves over a Tidal Cycle. Journal of Ocean Engineering and Marine Energy (In Review).
5. Draycott, S., Sellar, B., Davey, T., Noble, D. R., Venugopal, V., & Ingram, D. M. (2019). Capture and Simulation of the Ocean Environment for Offshore Renewable Energy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 104(September 2018), 15-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2019.01.011
6. Draycott, S., Payne, G., Steynor, J., Nambiar, A., Sellar, B., & Venugopal, V. (2019). An experimental investigation into non-linear wave loading on horizontal axis tidal turbines. Journal of Fluids and Structures, 84, 199-217, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2018.11.004
7. Draycott, S., Nambiar, A., Sellar, B., Davey, T., & Venugopal, V. (2019). Assessing extreme loads on a tidal turbine using focused wave groups in energetic currents. Renewable Energy, 135, 1013-1024. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.12.075
8. Greenwood, C., Arne Vogler, A., Venugopal, V. 2019. On the variation of turbulence in a high-velocity tidal channel, Energies, 12, 672,http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en12040672.
9. Wakelam, G., Sellar, B., Venugopal, V. 2018, Multi-year assessment of Reynolds stress and turbulent kinetic energy at the European Marine Energy Centre in the absence of waves, 4th Asian Wave and Tidal Energy Conference (AWTEC 2018), Taipei, Taiwan, September 9-13.
10. Venugopal, V., Sellar, B., Borthwick, A., Wakelam, G. 2018. Characterisation of Wave-Tidal Current-Turbulence Interactions for Tidal Energy Sites in the Orkney Islands, The Twenty-eighth (2018) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, June 10-15, Sapporo, Japan
11. Rahman, A., Venugopal, V. Thiebot, J. 2018. On the accuracy of three-dimensional actuator disc approach for a large size turbine in simple channel, Energies, Special Issue article to Offshore Renewable Energy: Ocean Waves, Tides and Offshore Wind, Energies 2018, 11(8), 2151; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11082151.
12. Draycott, S., Sutherland, D., Steynor, J., Sellar, B., Venugopal, V. 2017. Re-Creating Waves in Large Currents for Tidal Energy Applications, Jl. Energies, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en10111838.
13. Greenwood, C., Vogler, A., Morrison, J. and Murray, A. (2017) The Approximation of a Sea Surface using a Shore Mounted X-Band Radar with Low Grazing Angle. Remote Sensing of Environment, in press (2017), Volume 204, January 2018, Pages 439-447, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2017.10.012.
14. Greenwood, C., Morrison, J., Murray, A. and Vogler, A. (2017) A Method for Approximating Surface Elevation from a Shore Mounted X-Band Radar with a Low Grazing Angle. In: Proceedings of The Twenty-seventh (2017) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference ISOPE2017, San Francisco.
15. Charles Greenwood, Angus Murray, Arne Vogler, James Morrison. 2017. A Method of Approximating Surface Elevation form a Shore Mounted X-band Radar, 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, EWTEC 2017, Cork, Irleand, 27 Aug -1 Sept 2017.
16. A. Vogler, A. Murray, J. Morrison, C. Greenwood, Comparison of X-Band Radar at two sites in the Western Isles, Scotland, 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, EWTEC 2017, Cork, Irleand, 27 Aug -1 Sept 2017.
17. Venugopal, V., Sellar, B., Sutherland, D., Borthwick, A., Wakelam, G. 2017. Numerical Modelling of Combined Wave, Tidal Current and Turbulence Interaction at Tidal Energy Sites in the Fall of Warness, Scotland. 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, EWTEC 2017, Cork, Irleand, 27 Aug -1 Sept 2017.
18. Reta, M.G., Venugopal, V., Sutherland, D. 2017. Turbulence Effects on Tidal Turbines: Modelling of Tidal Turbine Performance in CFD. 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, EWTEC 2017, Cork, Irleand, 27 Aug -1 Sept 2017.
19. Sutherland, D., Sellar, B., Venugopal, V., Borthwick, A. 2017. The Effect of Spatial Variation and Surface Waves on Tidal Site Characterisation. 12th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, EWTEC 2017, Cork, Irleand, 27 Aug -1 Sept 2017.
20. Sellar, B., Sutherland, D, Ingram, D.M. Venugopal, V. 2017. Measuring waves and currents at the European Marine Energy Centre tidal energy test site: campaign specification, measurement methodologies and data exploitation, IEEE/METS OCEANS Aberdeen, 19-22 June 2017.
Exploitation Route The findings have been already taken up by tidal energy industry.
Extensively calibrated and validated 3-dimensional numerical models accounting for combined wave-current-turbulence interactions have been produced for FloWTurb to very high standard which no other research achieved in the past for EMEC's Fall of Warness and Meygen tidal sites. The model results demonstrated that the coupled model worked well in predicting wave-current interaction parameters. The models mesh configuration, bathymetry, and various calibration coefficients have been thoroughly inspected and available for researchers for future use in addition to site data. This would save considerable time for those interested in setting up a combined wave-current model for forecasting and hindcasting.

The project developed new approaches to exploit FloWave's combined wave-current generating capability at higher flow speeds (those required for scale testing of high flow speed channels) and focused extreme waves. The experiments provided increased general understanding of modelling of wave-current-turbulence environment and using it to measure tidal turbine's performance in a controlled experimental facility. The tests provided in depth assessment of wave-induced loads on a tidal turbine, including, the effect of wave frequency & amplitude, opposing and following wave conditions, effect of wave angle and regular, irregular and additional bespoke sea states.

17 field datasets of waves/tidal currents/combined wave and tidal currents measurements have been obtained between July 2016 to January 2018 for FloWTurb project. Some of these data have been stored on the Edinburgh University Data share facility. Many of these data sets can be made available to interested researchers.

Industry partners (MeyGen, Scottrenewables and DPenergy) have provided their feedback and support through attending project management board and steering committee meetings which took place at the interval of 6 months. They found the results and discussions on numerical modelling and field data analysis, in particular turbulence parameters, were useful for their tidal energy projects developments. Meygen used some of the FloWTurb site measurements to validate their energy converters power prediction (see SIMEC Atlantis turbine power curves, https://marineenergy.biz/2018/09/13/simec-atlantis-tidal-turbine-grows-stronger/, for 1.5 MW machine).
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Energy,Environment,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology

URL https://www.flowturb.eng.ed.ac.uk/measurement-data-redapt
Description Background Information: From April 2016, multiple meetings were held with a leading UK TEC developer, ScotRenewables, SR, (Now renamed to Orbital Marine Power), both at their premises and here within the School of Engineering. These meetings were of broad scope and in addition to standard steering group engagements. These meetings uncovered an important Industrial requirement for a robust investigation of a particular turbulence metric, namely Turbulence Intensity (TI). Whilst TI is the simplest of turbulence metrics that can be inferred from field measurements the derived values vary significantly depending on post-processing method and moreover across the presence and absence of ocean waves. This uncertainty in the real value of TI for a given site affects component selection and ultimately levelized cost of energy. Activities: In parallel to existing FloWTurb activities research staff provided SR with an interim report focusing on TI as derived from advanced re-analysis of UEDIN-held field data acquired during the ReDAPT Project (ETI). Our findings matched those of our industrial partner: that more work was needed to quantify the level of turbulence and the level of uncertainty. Given the industrial need (SR are in the process of procuring components for their next machine and purchase decisions are based on component fatigue estimates stemming from TI values) the research team continued this work and produced a journal paper that has recently been accepted. Findings and Impact: It was found that the specification of the region of the water column of interest along with the type of post-processing conducted on the raw measurement data strongly affected the resulting turbulence values. This work is titled: Characterisation of tidal flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the absence of ocean waves and will be published in the ENERGIES Special Edition on Marine Energy. It has been shared with SR and we will continue to update the work e.g., to allow extrapolation of the findings to other industrially-relevant sites. SR have agreed to keep us informed of where they make use of this detailed information to let us track impact. Our findings reveal that the company's previous estimates of TI were too high. They can now use this information in their purchasing decisions for major or critical components in their next generation machine. Ongoing: We continue to collaborate with SR on new avenues - such as investigations on coherent turbulent structures and complex wave-current interactions. This collaboration has led to a new parallel activity: a research student within our team has been granted access to SR's commercial engineering software on a part-time basis. SR has also expressed their support to provide blade loading data which would be used in validating the software tool being developed in FloWTurb for fatigue loading calculations. Duration 2017 onwards : Background information: In 2017 Meygen Simec Atlantis has completed the installation and commissioning phase of four 1.5 MW tidal turbines in the Inner Sound, Pentland Firth. As part of the commissioning process and commercial handover the actual turbine output had to be monitored against the incoming flow velocities across the water column. To facilitate this Power Curve Testing (PCT) process in line with the relevant IEC standard, high resolution flow data from close upstream of the turbines was required. Activities: In collaboration between the FloWTurb project partner University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI), local marine services company Hebrides Marine Services Ltd, and Meygen Simec Atlantis, an agreement was reached how to gather the required datasets to support MeyGen's requirements, but at the same time to make the data available to the FloWTurb project for turbulence assessment, model calibration and validation. The data gathering activities were funded by MeyGen, but implemented and supported with equipment from the UHI in support of the FloWTurb project. Findings and impact: A number of quality ADCP datasets at 2 Hz sample rate and 1 m bin sizes were gathered from a real tidal energy development. These datasets have enabled MeyGen to complete the PCT, but have also led to further collaborative work between MeyGen and the UHI. Based on the datasets a paper was presented at the AWTEC conference in 2018, and another paper on turbulence assessment at the site is currently in the review process at 'Renewable Energy'. The analysis of the data has given a detailed insight into the spatial and time domain based distributions of key turbulence features at the site, including Turbulence Intensity, Turbulence Kinetic Energy, and Turbulence Length Scales. These findings are relevant to the research community to enhance the understanding of turbulence related force fluctuations and stresses at a tidal site. But these findings are also highly relevant the MeyGen to review and inform the control system process, and improve the understanding of fatigue loadings, etc. at the turbine blades. Ongoing: The current data analysis has now been completed. There are some ambitions to build on the existing relationship with the world leading tidal energy developer, and the implementation of these is subject to securing further funding.
First Year Of Impact 2016
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Education,Energy,Environment
Impact Types Economic

Description EPSRC Global Challenges Research Fund Institutional Sponsorship Award 2016 - University of Edinburgh
Amount £70,970 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2016 
End 02/2017
Description European Commission Horizon H2020 - Secure, clean and efficient energy
Amount € 4,974,990 (EUR)
Organisation European Commission 
Sector Public
Country European Union (EU)
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2021
Title Characterisation of Tidal Flows at the European Marine Energy Centre in the Absence of Ocean Waves 
Description The data analyses and results presented here are based on the field measurement campaign of the Reliable Data Acquisition Platform for Tidal (ReDAPT) project (Energy Technologies Institute (ETI), U.K. 2010-2015). During ReDAPT, a 1 MW commercial prototype tidal turbine was deployed and operated at the Fall of Warness tidal test site within the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), Orkney, U.K. Mean flow speeds and Turbulence Intensity (TI) at multiple positions proximal to the machine are considered. Through the implemented wave identification techniques, the dataset can be filtered into conditions where the effects of waves are present or absent. Due to the volume of results, only flow conditions in the absence of waves are reported here. The analysis shows that TI and mean flows are found to vary considerably between flood and ebb tides whilst exhibiting sensitivity to the tidal phase and to the specification of spatial averaging and velocity binning. The principal measurement technique was acoustic Doppler profiling provided by seabed-mounted Diverging-beam Acoustic Doppler Profilers (D-ADP) together with remotely-operable Single-Beam Acoustic Doppler Profilers (SB-ADP) installed at mid-depth on the tidal turbine. This novel configuration allows inter-instrument comparisons, which were conducted. Turbulence intensity averaged over the rotor extents of the ReDAPT turbine for flood tides vary between 16.7% at flow speeds above 0.3 m/s and 11.7% when considering only flow speeds in the turbine operating speed range, which reduces to 10.9% (6.8% relative reduction) following the implementation of noise correction techniques. Equivalent values for ebb tides are 14.7%, 10.1% and 9.3% (7.9% relative reduction). For flood and ebb tides, TI values resulting from noise correction are reduced in absolute terms by 3% and 2% respectively across a wide velocity range and approximately 1% for turbine operating speeds. Through comparison with SB-ADP-derived mid-depth TI values, this correction is shown to be conservative since uncorrected SB-ADP results remain, in relative terms, between 10% and 21% below corrected D-ADP values depending on tidal direction and the range of velocities considered. Results derived from other regions of the water column, those important to floating turbine devices for example, are reported for comparison. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This article is about characterizing turbulent intensities and specifying defined values to different tidal current conditions. A version of this report has been submitted to industry partners within FloWTurb. 
Title Laboratory testing procedure for waves and currents load measurement on tidal turbine 
Description Unsteady wave loading on tidal turbines impacts significantly the design, and expected life-time, of turbine blades and other key components. Model-scale testing of tidal turbines in the wave-current environment can provide vital understanding by emulating real-world load cases; however, to reduce uncertainty, it is important to isolate laboratory-specific artefacts from real-world behaviour. In this paper, a variety of realistic combined current-wave scenarios is re-created at the FloWave basin, where the main objective is to understand the characteristics of testing in a combined wave-current environment and assess whether wave effects on the flow field can be predicted. Here, we show that a combination of linear wave-current theory and frequency-domain reflection analysis can be used to effectively predict wave-induced particle velocities and identify velocity components that are experimental artefacts. Load-specific mechanisms present in real-world conditions can therefore be isolated, and equivalent full-scale load cases can be estimated with greater confidence. At higher flow speeds, a divergence from the theory presented is observed due to turbulence-induced non-stationarity. The methodology and results presented increase learning about the wave-current testing environment and provide analysis tools able to improve test outputs and conclusions from scale model testing. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The methodology developed here will be used in validating the Flowave facility at the University of Edinburgh for combined generation of waves and currents and their associated load generated on any offshore structure. 
URL http://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/recreating-waves-in-large-currents-for-tidal-ene...
Title Matlaab scripts for processing of ADCP data for turbulence and co-ordinate transforms 
Description A series of code written in MATLAB to process raw Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data from a range of manufacturers and process it to extract turbulence parameters. 
Type Of Material Technology assay or reagent 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Comparable processing of a range of ADCPs from different manufacturers for co-ordinate transform, waves, and turbulence parameters. 
Title Site measurement data homogenised, archived and uploaded 
Description Re-analysis of legacy field data (ETI ReDAPT) of waves and tidal currents from Pentland Firth and Orkney waters covering periods of 2012 to 2014. The data is publicly searcherable (eg., google) and available. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2016 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Engagements from industry including eg. BlackFish Engineering. MSc student using it at Loughborough University. Scotrenewables Tidal Ltd downloaded. Many internal PhD students within Edinburgh University across Energy Systems Disciplines using the database. 
URL http://datashare.is.ed.ac.uk/handle/10283/2329
Description Cape Breton University 
Organisation Cape Breton University
PI Contribution Bras d'Or Institute, Cape Breton University, Canada has been an overseas research partner with FloWTurb.
Collaborator Contribution Cape Breton University has supplied site measured tidal current data acquired at Estuarine waters of Fundy to the FloWTurb project. This data is currently being processed and it will be useful to understand shallow water turbulence statics.
Impact Prof Bruce Hatcher from Bras d'Or Institute has been participating in FloWturb bi-annual steering group and management committee meetings in person and online. This collaboration is multi-disciplinary as Prof Hatcher is an environmental scientist contributing to tidal energy development.
Start Year 2016
Description NIOT India 
Organisation National Institute of Ocean Technology
PI Contribution National Institute of Ocean Technology, India, has been an overseas partner with FloWTurb project. NIOT has constructed a CFD model of tidal turbine and simulated wave-current interactions.
Collaborator Contribution FloWTurb team at Edinburgh University conducted laboratory model testing of a tidal turbine and supplied the measured data to NIOT for their CFD model calibration and validation. The process is progressing well.
Impact Initial results of the CFD work done by NIOT were disseminated at the FloWTurb bi-annual Steering group meetings and also at the UKCMER SuperGen assembly in Nov 2017 at Edinburgh. This collaboration is multi-disciplinary as the CFD simulations were carried out by a group of Civil Engineers and Mathematicians.
Start Year 2016
Description Scotrenewables Tidal Power 
Organisation Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd
PI Contribution Scotrenewables Tidal Power is an Industry partner with FloWturb.
Collaborator Contribution Scotrenewables Tidal Power has shared site measured environmental data from Fall of Warness EMEC sites with FlowTurb project. They have also trained a Phd student from Edinburgh University to use a specialised software (Tidal Bladed) for tidal turbine design. They have participated in FlowTurb steering group meetings.
Impact Provided site measurement data. Trained a PhD student on tidal energy research. Talks are on-going in sharing their tidal turbine model scale experimental data to use for FlowTurb turbine model validation.
Start Year 2016
Title OpenFast_Update 
Description OpenFAST is NREL's primary CAE tool for simulating the coupled dynamic response of wind turbines. However, there are some drawbacks noticed when coupled wave and tidal currents are used to compute the loading on the a tidal turbine. Our work is aimed to (1) extend the original wind turbine simulator to the tidal turbine and (2) to simulate the combined effects of the wave-current-turbulent considering proper interaction between these two processes. In order to accomplish this work, three aspects of novel modifications have been developed in the new model which is referred to as OpenFAST_Update. (1) instead of using the original wave-current linear superposition method in the hydrodynamic simulation, the interaction between the waves and currents are considered in the new model developed for FloWTurb by using the updated dispersion relation. (2) In the simulation of the hydrodynamics loads acting on the rotor and blades accounting for the coupling, which are important for the tidal turbine. (3) As the turbulent effect plays an important role in the fatigues prediction of the tidal turbine, a turbulent model for the tidal turbine will be included in the new model. This generates the full turbulent field which will enable the calculation of loading considering the coupled wave-current-turbulent effect. The methodologies behind this OpenFAST_Update model can be validated by using the experimental model tests data (already have been completed as part of FloWTurb work) as input and then compare the results. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact (1) Transfer the OpenFAST from a wind turbine simulation tool to a simulator which also be capable of simulating a tidal turbine. (2) Significantly enhance the capability of the original solver in terms of the complicated working condition simulation, such as the wave-current interaction and wave-current-turbulence coupling. (3) More complex time domain fatigue analysis can be conducted for the tidal turbine structure based on the calculation of the combined wave-current-turbulent scenarios. (4) The tool could be readily taken up by the tidal turbine developers and researchers. The tool is currently under development and will be available for public use on or before August 2019. 
Description Engagement activity - to increase the level of industry participation at Orkney with Scotrenewables Tidal Power Ltd 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Discussions were held on tank testing of the industrial partners' next generation floating tidal turbine model as part of FloWTurb project. It was agreed that new activities will be carried out on a) test tanking to meet industrial partners' request, b) data sharing agreement and c) assessment of an industry standard software to be included.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
Description FloWTurb Steering group and management committe meetings 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Four steering group and management committee meetings were held (April 2016, Sept 2016, April 2017, Oct 2017) at Edinburgh university in which project academic, industry partners and post-graduate students participated. Each meeting was attended by about 12-16 persons. Overseas academic partners were also present in person and over conference calls. The purpose of these meetings were to gauge the project progress and provide support and guidance on the future work tasks.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017
Description FloWTurb project website with links to predecessor project data and technical reports 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact FlowTurb researchers used the University of Edinburgh web content creation system (http://www.flowturb.eng.ed.ac.uk/home) to develop an easy to navigate publicly accessible project information website. Also it links through the newly developed field data portal (http://redapt.eng.ed.ac.uk/index.php) where the system has been demonstrated using existing data. This was developed in order to host, disseminate and exploit the FloWTurb project data and other output. The FloWTurb project has not completed its first year of the program, and the web page will become populated with new results as they become available.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.flowturb.eng.ed.ac.uk/home
Description Industrial Engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A technical poster was presented at the International Conference on Ocean Energy (ICOE), Edinburgh, UK in 2016, which is a global marine energy event focused on the industrial development of renewable marine energy. The poster illustrated site measurement techniques and data analysis of waves and tidal current flow measured at the Fall of Warness sites, Orkney.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
Description SUPERGEN UKCMER Interim Meeting - Project progress update meeting -17th September 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Several of the Supergen Marine UKCMER and EPSRC grand challenge funded projects PIs, Co-Is and Researchers who were present at this meeting in Edinburgh University were given an update on the progress of the FloWTurb project. Prof Venugopal (FloWTurb PI) and two other Research post-docs presented their findings to the wider audience. There were discussions held in sharing FloWTurb numerical model data and site measurements data with other grand challenge funded projects.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
Description Seminar series sponsored by Nortek on Tidal Energy and field measurements 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Brian Sellar, Research Fellow with FloWTurb, was an invited speaker alongside Jim Thomson, University of Washington, Alex Hay Dalhousie University (international leaders in the field) to a seminar series sponsored by Nortek on Tidal Energy and field measurements. June 15-17th 2016, Oslo, Norway.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
Description SuperGen UK Centre for Marine Energy Research Annual Assembly, Edinburgh International Conference Centre - 5th December 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact FlowTurb project outcomes were showcased in the SuperGen UK Centre for Marine Energy Research Annual Assembly though posters and oral presentations to a large number mixed audience from academic institutions, marine energy industry technology developers, research students working in marine energy, policy makers and to government and charity organisations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://supergen-marine.org.uk/events/past-events/assembly-2018
Description Supergen ORE Hub Annual Assembly January 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Venugopal presented key outcomes of the FloWTurb project to the members (Director and Co-directors) of the Supergen ORE Hub Annual Assembly in Plymouth on 22nd Jan 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/research/coast-engineering-research-group/supergen-ore-hub
Description Technical workshop in National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) Goa, India - Oct 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A technical workshop on marine energy was organised in National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa. This was organised as part of a UKIERI project for 3 days in Oct 2018. Prof Venugopal took the opportunity to showcase FloWTurb project to the researchers, who had multidisciplinary background, and educated them about wave-current-turbulence interaction behaviour at tidal energy sites and its impact on a tidal turbine machine. This has initiated great interest among the audience and posed several interesting, and sometimes difficult questions which were challenging to answer/explain to a non-engineering background researchers. NIO was keen in sending research students to Edinburgh University as interns.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018