Geometric Mechanics of Solids: new analysis of modern engineering materials

Lead Research Organisation: University of Manchester
Department Name: Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Eng

Abstract

The cost and safety of the important elements of our life - energy, transport, manufacturing - depend on the engineering materials we use to fabricate components and structures. Engineers need to answer the question of how fit for purpose is a particular component or a system: a pressure vessel in a nuclear reactor; an airplane wing; a bridge; a gas turbine; at both the design stage and throughout their working life. The current cost of unexpected structural failures, 4% of GDP, illustrates that the answers given with the existing engineering methods are not always reliable. These methods are largely phenomenological, i.e. rely on laboratory length- and time-scale experiments to capture the overall material behaviour. Extrapolating such behaviour to real components in real service conditions carries uncertainties. The grand problem of current methods is that by treating materials as continua, i.e. of uniformly distributed mass, they cannot inherently describe the finite nature of the materials aging mechanisms leading to failure. If we learn how to overcome the constraint of the lab-based phenomenology, we will be able to make predictions for structural behaviour with higher confidence, reducing the cost of construction and maintenance of engineering assets and thus the cost of goods and services to all individuals and society. For example, by extending the life of one civil nuclear reactor the produced electricity each hour will cost £10k-15k less than from a new built nuclear reactor, or from a conventional power plant.
This project is about the creation of a whole new technology for high-fidelity design and assessment of engineering structures. I will explore an original geometric theory of solids to overcome the phenomenological constraint, produce a pioneering software platform for structural analysis, validate the theory at several length scales, and demonstrate to the engineers how the new technology solves practical problems for which the present methods are inadequate.
In contrast to the classical methods, the engineering materials will be seen as discrete collections of finite entities, or cells; importantly this is not a discretization of a continuum, such as those used in the current numerical methods, but a reflection of how materials organise at any length scale of observation - from atomic through to the polycrystalline aggregates forming engineering components. The cellular structure is characterised by distinct elements - cells, faces, edges and nodes - and the theory proposes an inventive way to describe how such a structure behaves by linking energy and entropy to the geometric properties of these elements - volumes, areas, lengths, positions. This theory will be implemented in a highly efficient software platform by adopting and modernising existing algorithms and developing new ones for massively parallel computations, which will enable engineers and scientists to exploit the impending acceleration in hardware power. With the expected leaps of computing power over the next five years (1018 operations per second by 2020) the new technology will allow for calculating the behaviour of engineering components and structures zooming in and out across length-scales from the atomic up to the structural. The verification and validation of the theory at multiple length-scales are now possible due to exceptionally powerful experimental techniques, such as lab- or synchrotron-based tomography, combined by image analysis techniques, such as digital volume correlation. Once verified, the technology will be applied to a series of engineering problems of direct industrial relevance, such as cleavage and ductile fracture and fatigue crack growth, providing convincing demonstrations to the engineering community. The product of the work will make a step change in the modelling and simulation of structures, suitable for the analysis of high value, high risk high reward engineering cases.

Planned Impact

Important industries, such as energy, manufacturing, construction and transport, can reduce the cost of their products and services by improved analysis of their engineering systems and structures. For example, advanced knowledge of the life-long behaviour of a particular component can improve its design and reduce the cost of its manufacturing. Scientifically-underpinned methods can demonstrate for how long a component, already in service, will be fit for purpose. To a large extend, the current engineering practices for design and assessment have reached their limits of applicability due to inherent difficulties to incorporate new experimentally derived knowledge at length scales below the classical laboratory size specimens - from single crystals down to individual atoms. This proposal is about resolving these inherent difficulties by a new theory of solids, and providing an unique computational platform by which experimental evidence across the length scales can be incorporated to provide high-fidelity assessments of structural performance.
I am offering a step change in capability over a 10-20 year period that will open up all the benefits of high-fidelity structural design. This is not a replacement for routine finite element analysis, but a much more sophisticated approach that will suit certain high value, high risk, high reward situations - the life extension of power plant, ageing aircraft, energy efficient designs for low environmental impact, new materials for specialist applications, to name a few. In one specific case, the low-carbon nuclear energy sector will benefit in the UK and internationally, with impact on environmental sustainability and protection. New understanding and predicting degradation of plant components in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors and Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) are relevant to the UK ONR, EdF Energy NG, as well as world-leading engineering consultancy companies, such as AMEC FW. The new-build programme also involves PWR and Boiling Water Reactor systems, where this research and development will inform more efficient inspection planning. Improved design methods, underpinned by this project's outputs, will increase the confidence in structural integrity and improve the monitoring of material ageing. In another case, the vendors of scientific and engineering software will benefit internationally with a positive impact on the knowledge society evolution and job generation. The prominent vendors of engineering software, members of NAFEMS, are presently engaged in incremental improvements of well-established numerical methods, such as the finite element method. In the majority of the cases the software platforms are not capable of taking full advantage of the expected leaps in computing power. The development of a new software platform, directly for massively parallel computations, will create significant opportunities for growth of scientific and engineering software vendors, such as Simpleware, and start-up companies, such as PlayGen.
The postdoctoral researchers will gain unique skills, benefiting from the cross-disciplinary approach with close links between theory, software and engineering applications. Planned academic collaborations will enhance the profile and influence of the team by sharing original theoretical advances, innovative modelling tools, important insights into real-world phenomena, and by giving exposure to wider networks of academic partners. Further impact will be ensured by publications in international journals and conferences relevant to advanced materials, engineering structural integrity and computational modelling of materials. The outputs will be disseminated to industry and its stakeholders through interactions with the steering board members and own networks, and through workshops. The general public will be engaged via active participation in science festivals.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description The project started with the understanding that the discrete exterior calculus (DEC) has been developed for all physical (scalar, e.g. temperature, concentration, pressure) as well as mechanical (vectorial, i.e. displacements) problems. While the approach has indeed been developed by mathematicians for scalar problems, notably with 2D demonstrations and limited cases for boundary conditions, in the course of work we realised that DEC for mechanical problems was far from being properly formulated. The very few publications on DEC for elasticity (the simplest mechanical) problems, apart from showing mathematical elegance to some extent, did not address the key issue of how to implement a specific material constitutive law. It turned out that within the previously proposed formulations this issue was not solvable, with the only possible application being to solve truss structures, which is trivial. So far we pursued two lines of work. In the first place we developed a 3D formulation for physical (scalar) problems and implemented it in a parallel code for massively parallel computations. This is presently used to simulate selected problems with thermal and mass diffusion in order to demonstrate the advantages of this approach over "classical" finite element methods in a journal paper. The code will be released in open domain with the submission of the paper. Secondly, we explored a number of different approaches to reformulate elasticity for finite discrete domains. One of the simpler approaches, based on volume and shape changes of discrete cells, has been tested for elasticity and plasticity and the paper is currently under review in IJSS. Other two approaches have also been developed. The first is based on direct calculation of strain energy in discrete cells using barycentric coordinates and subsequent minimisation of energy to determine mechanical equilibrium, and this is being prepared for publication as showing good results from simulations. The second is based on specific mappings between the discrete fields (relative displacements and traction forces) and imaginary continuum fields (strains and stresses) in order to apply material constitutive laws. This approach is promising and has been tested with a number of classical examples with excellent agreement, hence a paper has been prepared for submission. During the course fo the work we developed collaborations with a number of mathematicians in order to establish clearly the missing constituents of DEC for mechanical problems and to gain insights on possible ways forward. These include: Prof Hirani from University of Illinois, who was the inventor and first proponent (for scalar problems) of DEC; Prof Gennady Mishuris from Aberystwyth University, who is an expert in mathematics of solids and lattice structures; and Prof Marian Mrozek from Jagiellonian University, who is an expert in finite discrete topological spaces. We are hopeful that the conversations started with these experts will lead to closing the problem.
Exploitation Route Presently, the 3D formulation for physical problems is implemented and can be used by all researchers dealing with transport problems (diffusion, convection, etc.) in media with complex microstructures. The 3D formulation for mechanical problems will be made available when ready.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Construction,Energy,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL https://mapos.manchester.ac.uk
 
Description EdF-NNL LA
Amount £326,000 (GBP)
Organisation National Nuclear Laboratory 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 04/2018 
End 03/2021
 
Description RAEng Newton Fund
Amount £24,000 (GBP)
Funding ID NRCP1617/6/19 
Organisation Royal Academy of Engineering 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 02/2018
 
Title Finite element analysis results from simulation of fusion energy heat exchange component: hybrid CAD/IBSim model including a graphite foam interlayer 
Description Temperature profile data from a finite element analysis of a conceptual design for a fusion energy heat exchange component (monoblock). The mesh is a hybrid from a computer aided design (CAD) drawing for the pipe and armour and IBSim for the interlayer. The IBSim interlayer is generated directly from a 3D volumetric image of a graphite foam block (KFoam). The 3D image was generated with an X-ray tomography scan performed by Dr Llion Evans with Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility equipment, which was funded in part by the EPSRC (grants EP/F007906/1, EP/F001452/1 and EP/I02249X/1). Conversion of the data to FE mesh was achieved using ScanIP, part of the Simpleware suite of programmes, version 7 (Synopsys Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). The mesh used for the analysis is available as a separate dataset: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3522319 This data was used originally for the following publications (please cite if re-using the data): Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Image based in silico characterisation of the effective thermal properties of a graphite foam", Carbon, Vol. 143, pp. 542-558, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.031 Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Improving modelling of complex geometries in novel materials using 3D imaging", Proceedings of NEA International Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems, Manchester, UK, July 2016. https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/smins4/documents/P1-18_LlME_SMINS4_paper_reviewed.pdf 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Finite element analysis results from simulation of fusion energy heat exchange component: hybrid CAD/IBSim model including a graphite foam interlayer 
Description Temperature profile data from a finite element analysis of a conceptual design for a fusion energy heat exchange component (monoblock). The mesh is a hybrid from a computer aided design (CAD) drawing for the pipe and armour and IBSim for the interlayer. The IBSim interlayer is generated directly from a 3D volumetric image of a graphite foam block (KFoam). The 3D image was generated with an X-ray tomography scan performed by Dr Llion Evans with Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility equipment, which was funded in part by the EPSRC (grants EP/F007906/1, EP/F001452/1 and EP/I02249X/1). Conversion of the data to FE mesh was achieved using ScanIP, part of the Simpleware suite of programmes, version 7 (Synopsys Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). The mesh used for the analysis is available as a separate dataset: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3522319 This data was used originally for the following publications (please cite if re-using the data): Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Image based in silico characterisation of the effective thermal properties of a graphite foam", Carbon, Vol. 143, pp. 542-558, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.031 Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Improving modelling of complex geometries in novel materials using 3D imaging", Proceedings of NEA International Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems, Manchester, UK, July 2016. https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/smins4/documents/P1-18_LlME_SMINS4_paper_reviewed.pdf 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Finite element mesh of fusion energy heat exchange component: hybrid CAD/IBSim model including a graphite foam interlayer 
Description Image-Based Simulation (IBSim) mesh:
A finite element mesh of a conceptual design for a fusion energy heat exchange component (monoblock). The mesh is a hybrid from a computer aided design (CAD) drawing for the pipe and armour and IBSim for the interlayer. The IBSim interlayer is generated directly from a 3D volumetric image of a graphite foam block (KFoam). The 3D image was generated with an X-ray tomography scan performed by Dr Llion Evans with Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility equipment, which was funded in part by the EPSRC (grants EP/F007906/1, EP/F001452/1 and EP/I02249X/1). Conversion of the data to FE mesh was achieved using ScanIP, part of the Simpleware suite of programmes, version 7 (Synopsys Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). The FE mesh data uses the EnSight Gold file format and may be visualised using Paraview (https://www. paraview.org). The CT data used for the mesh is available as a separate dataset: This data was used originally for the following publications (please cite if re-using the data):
Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Image based in silico characterisation of the effective thermal properties of a graphite foam", Carbon, Vol. 143, pp. 542-558, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.031 Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Improving modelling of complex geometries in novel materials using 3D imaging", Proceedings of NEA International Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems, Manchester, UK, July 2016. https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/smins4/documents/P1-18_LlME_SMINS4_paper_reviewed.pdf 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Finite element mesh of fusion energy heat exchange component: hybrid CAD/IBSim model including a graphite foam interlayer 
Description Image-Based Simulation (IBSim) mesh:
A finite element mesh of a conceptual design for a fusion energy heat exchange component (monoblock). The mesh is a hybrid from a computer aided design (CAD) drawing for the pipe and armour and IBSim for the interlayer. The IBSim interlayer is generated directly from a 3D volumetric image of a graphite foam block (KFoam). The 3D image was generated with an X-ray tomography scan performed by Dr Llion Evans with Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility equipment, which was funded in part by the EPSRC (grants EP/F007906/1, EP/F001452/1 and EP/I02249X/1). Conversion of the data to FE mesh was achieved using ScanIP, part of the Simpleware suite of programmes, version 7 (Synopsys Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). The FE mesh data uses the EnSight Gold file format and may be visualised using Paraview (https://www. paraview.org). The CT data used for the mesh is available as a separate dataset: This data was used originally for the following publications (please cite if re-using the data):
Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Image based in silico characterisation of the effective thermal properties of a graphite foam", Carbon, Vol. 143, pp. 542-558, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.031 Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Improving modelling of complex geometries in novel materials using 3D imaging", Proceedings of NEA International Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems, Manchester, UK, July 2016. https://www.oecd-nea.org/science/smins4/documents/P1-18_LlME_SMINS4_paper_reviewed.pdf 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Finite element meshes of graphite foam samples for Image-Based Simulation (IBSim) of experimental laser flash analysis 
Description Image-Based Simulation (IBSim) meshes:
Finite element mesh of laser flash analysis (LFA) disc samples made of a graphite foam material (KFoam). The IBSim meshes are generated directly from a 3D volumetric image of a graphite foam block. The 3D image was generated with an X-ray tomography scan performed by Dr Llion Evans with Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility equipment, which was funded in part by the EPSRC (grants EP/F007906/1, EP/F001452/1 and EP/I02249X/1). Segmentation of the data into a binarized image was achieved with ImageJ. Conversion of the segmented data to FE mesh was achieved using ScanIP, part of the Simpleware suite of programmes, version 7 (Synopsys Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). The graphite foam has anisotropic properties partly due to its microstructure. This dataset contains three meshes, one for each alignment along cartesian axes. The FE meshes use the EnSight Gold file format and may be visualised using Paraview (https://www.paraview.org). The CT data used for the mesh is available as a separate dataset: This data was used originally for the following publications (please cite if re-using the data):
Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Image based in silico characterisation of the effective thermal properties of a graphite foam", Carbon, Vol. 143, pp. 542-558, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.031 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Title Finite element meshes of graphite foam samples for Image-Based Simulation (IBSim) of experimental laser flash analysis 
Description Image-Based Simulation (IBSim) meshes:
Finite element mesh of laser flash analysis (LFA) disc samples made of a graphite foam material (KFoam). The IBSim meshes are generated directly from a 3D volumetric image of a graphite foam block. The 3D image was generated with an X-ray tomography scan performed by Dr Llion Evans with Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility equipment, which was funded in part by the EPSRC (grants EP/F007906/1, EP/F001452/1 and EP/I02249X/1). Segmentation of the data into a binarized image was achieved with ImageJ. Conversion of the segmented data to FE mesh was achieved using ScanIP, part of the Simpleware suite of programmes, version 7 (Synopsys Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA). The graphite foam has anisotropic properties partly due to its microstructure. This dataset contains three meshes, one for each alignment along cartesian axes. The FE meshes use the EnSight Gold file format and may be visualised using Paraview (https://www.paraview.org). The CT data used for the mesh is available as a separate dataset: This data was used originally for the following publications (please cite if re-using the data):
Ll.M. Evans, L. Margetts, P.D. Lee, C.A.M. Butler, E. Surrey, "Image based in silico characterisation of the effective thermal properties of a graphite foam", Carbon, Vol. 143, pp. 542-558, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.031 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
 
Description Aberystwyth University 
Organisation Aberystwyth University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided introduction to the mathematical methods we are developing to make the discrete formulation of solid mechanics
Collaborator Contribution Provided advise and insights in the potential avenues to be explored in the continuation of the work
Impact No outputs so far
Start Year 2019
 
Description Jagiellonian - Dept of Computational Mathematics 
Organisation Jagiellonian University
Country Poland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Delivered a lecture on Geometric Mechanics of Solids to establish first contact and start the conversation
Collaborator Contribution Hosting the PI with discussions and suggestions for project continuation
Impact New collaboration - no outputs yet
Start Year 2020
 
Description University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Organisation University of Illinois
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Three members of the team visited Prof Anil Hirani, Department of Mathematics, one of the pioneers of discrete exterior calculus (DEC) and its application to physical problems. The visit lead to the development of a joint paper, which is still under preparation. The application of DEC to solid mechanics is an entirely new area and requires the joined efforts of the two teams to resolve a number of challenges. Our team contribution is in clarifying the physical significance of all operators involved in the mathematical description and test a number of different approaches numerically.
Collaborator Contribution Prof Anil Hirani visited Manchester at the start of the collaboration. He delivered a lecture to the entire research group of the PI and clarified in discussions with us a number of possible mathematical approaches to the problem at hand.
Impact Multi-disciplinary collaboration between solid mechanics and mathematics teams, the first output is under preparation
Start Year 2018
 
Description University of Ljubljana 
Organisation University of Ljubljana
Country Slovenia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Provided theoretical basis and computational tool for the development of geometric elastoplasticity
Collaborator Contribution Tailored the code and executed simulations to demonstrate the approach in a publication
Impact Seruga D, Kosmas O, Jivkov AP (2020). Geometric modelling of elastic and elastoplastic solids with separation of volumetric and distortional energies and Prandtl operators. International Journal of Solids and Structures, under review (minor revision underway)
Start Year 2019
 
Description University of Saint Petersburg 
Organisation Saint Petersburg State University
Country Russian Federation 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Members of my research team have contributed to modelling efforts to understand better and predict the evolution of microstructures during severe plastic deformations
Collaborator Contribution Partners have contributed with experimental data and numerical modelling
Impact [1] Borodin EN, Bratov VV (2018). Non-equilibrium approach to prediction of microstructure evolution for metals undergoing severe plastic deformation. Materials Characterization, 141, 267-278. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2018.05.002) [2] Borodin EN, Morozova A, Bratov V, Belyakov A, Jivkov AP (2019). Experimental and numerical analyses of microstructure evolution of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys during severe plastic deformations. Materials Characterization, 156, 109849. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchar.2019.109849) [3] Borodin EN, Jivkov AP (2020). Evolution of triple junctions' network during severe plastic deformation of copper alloys - a discrete stochastic modelling. Philosophical Magazine, 100(4) 467-485. (https://doi.org/10.1080/14786435.2019.1695071) Multidisciplinary research - physics and mechanics of solids
Start Year 2018
 
Title Massively parallel software with Discrete Exterior Calculus 
Description Software based on discrete exterior calculus for calculation of physical (scaler) problems defined on finite discrete topological spaces 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2020 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact Possibility to explore different options for development of new geometric mechanics of solids 
 
Description Group webpage with project dedicated space 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Created a web-space for the Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group with dedicated space to the Fellowship projects GEMS looking at engaging the general public, student population, media and other researchers (specialised space for industrial project partners is also created). Activity attracted interest from students and researchers around the world, inquiring more information regarding research possibilities and collaborations. Information attracted media attention too and a company Science Impact Ltd is presently preparing an impact article for Ingenta Connect dedicated to the projecy and the group
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL https://mapos.manchester.ac.uk
 
Description Interview by Science Impact Ltd 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I and selected members of my research group were interviewed by Research Impact Ltd for the production of publication dedicated to GEMS and the wider activities of the group. The publication will come out in April 2017 with anticipated wide international reach.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk at MMU 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of project GEMS aims, methodology and anticipated outcomes to academic staff and postgraduates of MMU by invitation. The talk was visited by about 40 people and was followed by a lively discussion of the ideas presented and potential for collaboration later on in the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at University of Sao Carlos, Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A talk on GEMS during a visit to USC attracted about 40 participants, academic and PhD students, who expressed particular interest during the discussion about the opportunities to collaborate on this topic in the future.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A workshop organised in relation to my visit to the USP was attended by about 50 participants from industry, military, academic staff and PhD students. The talk related to GEMS attracted significant interest and was followed by a discussion of anticipated applications to industrial problems.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017