Trusted Things & Communities: Understanding & Enabling A Trusted IoT Ecosystem

Lead Research Organisation: University of Aberdeen
Department Name: Computing Science

Abstract

The Internet of Things (IoT) concept refers to the seamless integration of physical objects, sensors and mobile devices onto the Internet. The IoT encompasses many different technologies, services and standards and is seen by many as the cornerstone of the ICT market in the coming years. However, IoT solutions comprise more than just the hardware and software necessary to realize the technical infrastructure, as they also include the human actors, organisations, policies and regulatory systems involved. With some estimates predicting 50 billion devices by 2020, and the proportion of data collected passively through machine-to-machine transactions surpassing that actively generated by individuals - solutions are needed to strengthen trust.

Using an existing community Internet of Things testbed located in the Tillydrone district of Aberdeen, we will explore what it means to realize solutions that are transparent, accountable, and which empower end-users. The TrustLens is our vision of a future toolset that will enable individuals, and the communities of which they are a part, to better understand and manage the data about them. However, before we can realize the TrustLens, several key issues need to be investigated:

What are the appropriate governance arrangements covering IoT deployments? How do we deliver meaningful accountability? How can we develop an understanding of the interplay between individuals and devices, and the wider relationship to social/cultural norms? What are the attitudes of citizens and communities to privacy and risk in an IoT context? How should risks and benefits be communicated? How do users make informed decisions to judge the trustworthiness of information?

Answers to these (and the many other questions that will certainly emerge) will lead us to develop prototype solutions that will be evaluated with members of the Tillydrone community. Our ambition is to create a means by which a user can review the characteristics of an IoT device in terms of its impact on their personal data, answering questions such as: What type of data is it capturing? For what purpose? Who sees it? What are the (potential) benefits and risks? They also should be able to exert a degree of control over their data, and be guided to assess its reliability and accuracy.

Planned Impact

Who will benefit from this research?

The scope of the proposed research means that there are range of organisations and individuals who will benefit:

* Public.
* Public sector organisations (including our partners in Aberdeen City Council),
* Third sector and community organisations interested in the dynamics of personal data solutions.
* Government and policy-makers interested in future legal and regulatory frameworks around trust, personal data and the Internet of Things (IoT).
* Business (inc SMEs) active in the IoT, sensing, and app markets.

How will they benefit from this research?

Members of the public living within our community testbed area will benefit from their direct involvement in the research - through enhanced understanding of emerging technologies and the associated personal data challenges. The wider public will be exposed to these issues via a series of public engagement activities - our aim being to stimulate debate about the need for user-centred IoT solutions that embrace transparency, accountability and empowerment.

Public and third sector organisations will gain greater understanding of the challenges associated with future technology deployments into communities, and models for sustainable governance and future accountability.

Government and policy-makers at local, devolved and national levels will be able to access evidence drawn from a real user community situated at the edge of society. The potential for IoT solutions to transform various aspects of public service is often noted in the policy landscape, but we will present government with greater understanding of the attitudes of individual citizens to data from such devices (including perception of risks and benefits).

Businesses will gain access to a range of solutions necessary to deliver greater trust in the IoT. These will be accessible through a range of opensource software prototypes and frameworks, and via our contributions to open standards (W3C). Through preliminary conversations with Nominet UK, BT, and IBM there is clear evidence of interest in our proposals.
 
Description Our close working with the members of the Tillydrone community in Aberdeen has helped raise awareness of the themes of trust and privacy surrounding the roll out of Internet of Things devices; it has stimulated discussion within that community and has resulted in them questioning local government sensing/sensor deployment initiatives. We have also (through partnership working with the community) begun to develop models of governance of IoT deployments. Discussions with the Future Cities Catapult are exploring how a governance framework for smart city IoT deployments can be co-developed and then pilot tested across a number of scenarios.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Communities and Social Services/Policy,Government, Democracy and Justice
Impact Types Societal,Policy & public services

 
Description PECE Travel Bursary
Amount £4,630 (GBP)
Organisation SICSA Scottish Informatics and Computer Science Alliance 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 11/2018
 
Description Royal Society of Edinburgh - MoST Joint Project Scheme
Amount £21,500 (GBP)
Organisation Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 06/2019
 
Description Aberdeen City - TrustLens Collaboration 
Organisation Aberdeen City Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Engagement with Aberdeen City Council staff spanning a number of departments including IT & Infrastructure, Community Engagement, Economic Development. Team members have briefed Council personnel on ethical issues surrounding Internet of Things (IoT) deployments, shared experience of other smart city deployments (inc. the Array of Things project in Chicago).
Collaborator Contribution The Council has provided access to personnel, expertise, contacts and visibility of Council IoT deployments.
Impact To early to indicate.
Start Year 2016
 
Description NTU Collaboration 
Organisation National Taiwan University
Country Taiwan, Province of China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The collaboration is supported in part by this award, and in part by a joint award made by the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the Taiwan Ministry of Science & Technology. To date, our contribution has been: to host a visitor from NTU (Summer 2017) during which we shared work to date on governance of IoT deployments, and our emerging model of IoT ecosystem transparency. We followed this up with a visit by three members of the TrustLens team to Taipei (November 2017) during which we: presented the Trustlens project to a large multi-disciplinary audience; conducted fieldwork activities with Taiwanese citizens involved in a domestic IoT study - to explore their attitudes to trust and privacy; discussed how semantic models of IoT device characteristics and behaviours could be integrated with work ongoing at NTU.
Collaborator Contribution NTU have shared details of their IoT middleware platform (WuKong) and have provided Aberdeen researchers will access to IoT trial subjects in Taipei. Together, we have begun a shape a common model of IoT device/ecosystem metadata.
Impact None to date.
Start Year 2017
 
Description SHMU - TrustLens Collaboration 
Organisation Station House Media Unit (SHMU)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Sharing our expertise with SHMU on: community Internet of Things deployments, user-centred design methods.
Collaborator Contribution Access to personnel, network of contacts.
Impact Too early to say.
Start Year 2016
 
Title EP-PLAN Ontology 
Description PROV extension for linking Plans and parts of plans to their respective executions 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2019 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact None to date 
URL http://www.w3id.org/ep-plan
 
Title MQTT-PLAN Ontology 
Description The MQTT-PLAN ontology defines a set of concepts for describing plans of MQTT enabled message brokers. The vocabulary for plan descriptions forms an extension to the high level concepts defined in P-PLAN. Execution trace of such plans is then modelled using PROV-O. In order to keep the vocabulary lightweight, this version of the ontology does not cover some of the functionalities specified in MQTT 3.1.1. These include: publish attributes defining the required quality of service and associated acknowledgments, will messages, retaining of messages by the server, session flags. Username and password flags are also not captured explicitly for security reasons. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact None to date 
URL http://w3id.org/mqtt-plan
 
Title PROV-Templates for generating provenance descriptions using the SDPO ontology 
Description PROV-Templates for generating provenance descriptions using the SDPO ontology (https://w3id.org/sdpo/). 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact None to date 
URL https://github.com/TrustLens/sdpo
 
Title Semantic Sensor Network System Deployment Provenance Ontology (SDPO) 
Description The Semantic Sensor Network System Deployment Provenance Ontology (SDPO) is designed to support describing the activities, entities, and agents that have influenced the deployment of a SSN System. 
Type Of Technology Software 
Year Produced 2018 
Open Source License? Yes  
Impact None to date 
URL http://www.w3id.org/sdpo/
 
Description AirAberdeen/Trustlens sensor build workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact In association with the community-led volunteer group AirAberdeen, TrustLens sponsered a build workshop event. 7 air quality sensor boxes were built for deployment in the local Tillydrone area by residents and at the local school. These will contribute to the wider understanding of air quality in the region and educate the public about the IoT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL http://airaberdeen.org
 
Description Article in TillyTattle local news magazine Winter 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact TillyTattle ran an article about the traffic sensor in Tillydrone and the work done surrounding it as part of the TrustLens project, mentioning the work of the project and including a quote from the City Council.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.shmu.org.uk/sites/all/libraries/pdf.js/web/viewer.html?file=/sites/default/files/magazine...
 
Description Attendance at TIPS Networking event: 'Building a Community of UK TIPS Researchers' 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Participation (including poster presentation) at networking event for TIPS researchers
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://pactman.uk/building-a-community-of-uk-tips-researchers/
 
Description Cafe Scientifique: The Things are Coming! (Tarland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Professor Pete Edwards and Dr Milan Markovic gave a talk and demonstrations on 14 Dec, 2016 on the theme "The Things Are Coming!" as part of the Cafe Scientifique series organised by the Cromar Future Group based in Tarland, Aberdeenshire. The event focussed on the privacy and trust issues associated with the Internet of Things; the audience engaged in a lively debate, with many reporting that they were now much more aware of the challenges (technical and social) that need to be addressed.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL http://www.futuregroup.org.uk/talks-and-activities/winter-201617/
 
Description Community-based sustainable smart cities and IoT - EPSRC-sponsored workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Position paper accepted and presented at this workshop, which aimed to broaden the field of sustainable smart cities beyond top-down, utilitarian narratives, had the purpose of discussing potential collaborations and publications in this area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://connectedseeds.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/
 
Description Live segment on SHMU radio about TrustLens 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Naomi Jacobs and Caitlin Cottrill were guests on the TillyTalks show at SHMU radio, a 1 hour show discussing the internet of things, trust, privacy and the work of the TrustLens project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.shmu.org.uk/fm/shows/tilly-talks
 
Description Magazine article: How We Get To Next: One Last Thing 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Magazine article in the online magazine/newsletter 'How We Get to Next'. Introduced the concept of design fiction and the work of the TrustLens project.

Why Designers Are Making Real Versions of Imaginary Objects
Design fiction doesn't predict how things will be - it starts a discussion on what might be

Large circulation of email newsletter, plus publication online via Medium and wide circulation and discussion via Twitter. After 1 week, stats indicate 750 views and 191 reads of online article.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://howwegettonext.com/why-designers-are-making-real-versions-of-imaginary-objects-88345507a60
 
Description National Chiao Tung University Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation entitied "Increasing the transparency of IoT device depoyments using Semantic Web technologies" given to an audience of computing science academics and research students from Professor Yu-Chee Tseng's research group with follow up discussion on IoT, transparency, trust and provenance and challenges for UK and Taiwan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description National Chiao Tung University Talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation entitied "Towards Transparency of IoT Message Brokers" given to an audience of computing science academics and research students from Professor Yu-Chee Tseng's research group with follow up discussion on IoT, transparency, trust and provenance and challenges for UK and Taiwan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description National Taiwan University talk (November 2017) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation entitled "Trusted Things & Communities" to an audience comprising academics (multiple disciplines), clinicians, postgraduate students and IoT trial participants. Generated wider discussion on IoT and data governance and challenges for UK and Taiwan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description PechaKucha Aberdeen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Now running in over 500 cities across the world PechaKucha Nights bring together people in a relaxed, simple and enjoyable format to meet, network and share their ideas and work in public. PechaKucha Nights were developed by two architects in Japan. It means 'chit chat' in Japanese and refers to the format where presenters have 20 slides and 20 seconds to talk about each slide making short, fast moving presentations of 6 minutes and 40 seconds.

This event took place at the Belmont Cinema in Aberdeen on March 16th 2017 and the TrustLens project was presented to members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.abdn.ac.uk/engage/public/pechakucha-aberdeen-217.php
 
Description PechaKucha Aberdeen 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Now running in over 500 cities across the world PechaKucha Nights bring together people in a relaxed, simple and enjoyable format to meet, network and share their ideas and work in public. PechaKucha Nights were developed by two architects in Japan. It means 'chit chat' in Japanese and refers to the format where presenters have 20 slides and 20 seconds to talk about each slide making short, fast moving presentations of 6 minutes and 40 seconds. This event took place at the Belmont Cinema in Aberdeen on March 16th 2017. Various issues investigated in the TrustLens project which relate to the Internet of Things in domestic settings were presented to members of the public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.abdn.ac.uk/engage/public/pechakucha-aberdeen-217.php
 
Description Presentation as part of UK-Taiwan AI in Healthcare Workshop, Taipei - March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation at joint UK-Taiwan workshop on AI & Healthcare organised by the British Office, Taipei and the Taiwan Ministry of Science & Technology (MoST). Workshop had approx. 60 attendees spanning academia, industry and some postgraduate students. Following the event, there were a number of requests for more information on the work of the Trusted Things & Communities project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Royal Society of Edinburgh/Taiwan MoST Internet of Things Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Prof Pete Edwards was an invited participant and speaker at the Royal Society of Edinburgh - Taiwan Ministry of Science & Technology (MoST) workshop on the Internet of Things, held at the Royal Society of Edinburgh on 19-20 October 2016. Edwards presentation was entitled "Trusted Things & Communities Understanding and Enabling a Trusted IoT Ecosystem". Participation in the event has resulted in the development of new contacts within MoST and several universities in Taiwan; a joint funding bid for bilateral travel support was submitted in January 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description SICSA CyberNexus - Workshop on Cybersecurity and the Internet of Things. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The SICSA CyberNexus Workshop on Cybersecurity and the Internet of Things is an academic workshop primarily intended for staff and research students from SICSA institutions.

The workshop website is at: http://cybersecurity.abertay.ac.uk/iot2018

TrustLens work was presented.
Event abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging from the lab into the everyday world, but the sheer number of devices of which it is predicted to comprise mean that current approaches to cybersecurity are unlikely to scale to cope. Aspects of privacy associated with the widespread deployment of sensor devices have yet to find solutions. These and other problems make this a fruitful field for cybersecurity and computer science researchers.

Considering design, technological, human and societal aspects of the IoT, this one-day workshop will examine the challenges, possible solutions and interesting research directions associated with the problem of securing the IoT.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://cybersecurity.abertay.ac.uk/iot2018
 
Description SICSA CyberNexus Workshop on Cybersecurity and the Internet of Things 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation by David Corsar at the SICSA CyberNexus Workshop on Cybersecurity and the Internet of Things. The presentation (title "A Community Driven Transparency Model for the Internet of Things") discussed work of the TrustLens project on developing a model for enhancing transparency of IoT deployments by contextualizing such devices, their behaviours, data, and its usage. This included how requirements for the model are influenced by community engagement activities with local residents and guidance published by the tech industry. Application of the model to an IoT deployment scenario was also presented, along with a discussion of how the model will be used within the TrustLens project to allow citizens to explore details about IoT deployments, assist them in understanding the risks and benefits associated with IoT devices, and to assess the quality of the data produced. Further details of the workshop and presentation slides are available on the workshop website at: http://cybersecurity.abertay.ac.uk/iot2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://cybersecurity.abertay.ac.uk/iot2018
 
Description School visit (May Festival) 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Two classes of school children (P1 and P6 levels) took part in an activity entitled 'Connected Things: Should we trust them?'. Classes were of 21 and 24 pupils respectively.

This was intended to introduce the concept of the Internet of Things and related questions of trust and privacy, and included an introduction to the topic and use of the 'smart dolls house' to prompt discussion and activities. Positive feedback was received from teachers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Scotland Data Science and Technology Meetup: Presentation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation by Milan Markovic and Naomi Jacobs to introduce the work of the TrustLens project, followed by a discussion on IoT trust and governance.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.meetup.com/Scotland-Data-Science-Technology-Meetup/events/253338745/
 
Description Semantic information ecosystems: Don't take your data out of context! 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A departmental seminar at the University of Leeds including an overview of several projects from our research group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Semantic modelling and utilisation of contextual information within¬†intelligent systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact A guest lecture at the Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China including an overview of several projects from our research group.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Smart Because of You: Co-production Between Researchers and Citizens in Nottingham Smart City 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Nearly 100 people attended a workshop to discuss Smart City infrastructure, programming and deployments. The day sparked considerable debate and conversation around governance and the structures in place to ensure sustained community interaction and involvement in decision-making. Attendees reported an increased interest in working on these issues, with two members following up on related research questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Smart Cities and Communities: Connecting Citizens 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The Smart Cities and Communities: Connecting Citizens event explored the most innovative and efficient ways to use technology and data to tackle some of the biggest problems across the UK. Major city leaders and business figures from across the UK and internationally shared their views on how to develop smart and more connected cities. Industry partners and service providers displayed prototypes and information.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Smart city governance models and implications for trust, transparency and accountability. Presentation at Ways of Being Digital Review Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Contribution to interdisciplinary review conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://waysofbeingdigital.com/conference/
 
Description The Internet of Everything: Friend or Foe? 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Dr Caitlin Cottrill, Dr Karen Salt, Dr David Corsar, and Dr Waqar Asif each gave a talk followed by demonstrations on the theme "The Internet of Everything: Friend or Foe?" on April 13 2017 at the Edinburgh International Science Festival 2017. The event focused on the privacy, governance, security, and trust issues associated with the Internet of Things; the audience were very engaged with the topic, participating in insightful debate and discussions throughout the event, with many reporting new awareness of privacy, governance, security, and trust issues in the context of the Internet of Things.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sciencefestival.co.uk/event-details/the-internet-of-everything-friend-or-foe
 
Description Tillydrone Gala 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A TrustLens stall was held at the local 'Tillydrone Gala' event which provides activities and information to the local community. we presented the work of the project as well as activities designed to introduce the concept of the Internet of Things - including a 'wheel of IoT' and 'smart dolls house'. We entered discussion with many members of the public including young people and collected contact information for those who wish to be further involved in the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description TrustLens talk at UK-Japan IoT event 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation entitled "Making Trust Transparent: Realising a Citizen-Centred Internet of Things" as part of the UK-Japan IoT workshop held at the British Embassy, Tokyo - September 7 & 8, 2017. The workshop participants were drawn from UK academia, Japanese academia, industry and science funders. Activities at the workshop have already spawned a new funded collaboration with one of the other UK participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Workshop & Working Session on the Internet of Things 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop brought together several researchers and postgraduate students from the UK and Taiwan to share recent research on the Internet of Things and to discuss the challenges surrounding privacy and trust in such technologies. Taiwan representatives were from National Taiwan University and National Chiao Tung University.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018