Control and Trust as Moderating Mechanisms in addressing Vulnerability for the Design of Business and Economic Models (ConTriVE)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Warwick
Department Name: WMG

Abstract

Personal data holds great potential to benefit commerce and society, but, at the institutional level, concerns are rising over the risks associated with data access, ownership, privacy and confidentiality. The main purpose of this project is to investigate whether and how these institutional concerns are reflected in the perceptions of individual users. This proposal will establish a new programme of research in digital economy by understanding how individual subjective perceptions of users with regard to cybersecurity relate to organizational and institutional views on cybersecurity. By gaining this understanding we seek to develop new business models which would allow businesses to minimize individual perceptions of vulnerability with regard to issues of privacy, security, and trust.

We propose that individual subjective vulnerability with regard to cybersecurity issues is an important factor which impact upon business models and the development of digital economy. We consider vulnerability from three perspectives:
1) An individual's perspective of their own vulnerability;
2) The perspective of the entity the individual is interacting with in the digital domain (which could be another individual, or a business); and
3) The institution that is tasked to regulate and protect all entities within the system (e.g., the state, regulatory body, etc.).
All three entities are likely to assess individual vulnerabilities in different ways and would have a separate sets of trade-offs against the risks. An individual considers the trade-off between the choice/freedom to use a service against the risk of being vulnerable. A business, on the other hand, approximates individual's vulnerability and makes an assessment of risk which is important for its business model in order to trade off revenues and provide additional service to mitigate that risk to the extent that it would pacify the user and the regulator. Finally, from a state point of view, the aggregation of a large numbers of users creates a complex system of data sharing which bears a systemic risk that may result in individual vulnerabilities which are hard to quantify and manage.
Proposed project will implement "in-the-wild" strategy in order to:
(i) Measure individual vulnerability with regard to cybersecurity issues using different contexts and taking into account individual heterogeneity;
(ii) Using these context-dependent measure, propose new business models which would mitigate perceptions of cybersecurity risks;
(iii) Suggest tools for policy makers and regulators to decrease cybersecurity risks via bridging the gap between subjective vulnerability of users and objective vulnerability measured by businesses and other institutions.

Planned Impact

We will focus on: businesses, consumers, wider society and the academic community. Our "in-the-wild" strategy is of integrated nature and represents an extensive eco-system of which involves users and businesses. (1) Users: ConTriVE will suggest ways to improve technology used by individuals and households to incorporate user preferences into making demand predictions. This would allow users to make "better" (more optimal) use of technology and inform product and service consumption decisions which would increase their quality of life. In addition to users participating in our research directly, we will also provide educational feedback to the general public. (2) Private sector: Our project will provide a practical tool in the form of user preferences prediction models which would propose ways of anticipating future consumer needs/wants through behavioural and decision-theoretic modelling. Proposed models will be converted into a practical tool useful to businesses developing technology. Technology providers will be able to use this tool to decrease user feelings of vulnerability, increase user satisfaction, and thereby increase business profitability by offering better value for money. (3) Policy-makers: ConTriVE will offer new ways in which users will interact with ICT which will make useful policy recommendations as to how the interactions between consumers and their self-generated data could be regulated and supported by the public sector. ConTriVE will also extensively cover the problem of cybersecurity which will help create more effective data protection policies for the future. (4) Scientific community: ConTriVE will contribute to all disciplines involved in the project via new knowledge.

Our impact strategy includes: (a) Exploration: we will engage all stakeholders of personal data, particularly individuals and firms, for discovering emerging scenarios, usages and behaviours through live scenarios in real environments. We will explore the legal, technological and market framework around which data can be secured and protected and, more importantly, how the cybersecurity issues are being perceived by users and organizations. (b) Experimentation: the living lab will implement the HAT for individuals to experience live cybersecurity scenarios, live market exchanges with firms with permission from data donors (at both user and business level) which will be analysed in their context during the evaluation activity. Individuals will have the ability to decide what type of data, how the data is collected, what kind of device to be used in the data collection and the contexts for the data collection. The intention here is to help develop a new type of 'smart' and empowered consumers, aware of the new horizons for the use of metadata which are offered by the digital economy, and who understand how these opportunities can be turned into better well being and effective purchasing decisions through decreasing vulnerability to cybersecurity issues. This experimentation on data, human decisions and new business models will also provide both opportunities for emerging business models and research contributions to academia. (c) Evaluation: Through "in-the-wild" strategy, we will assess new ideas and innovative concepts emerging from the HAT technology in real life situations through various dimensions such as socio-ergonomic, socio-cognitive and socio-economic aspects; making observations on the potential for business transformations. ConTriVE will evaluate and assist firms in their transformation capability to move into the personal data and digital economy through an assessment and understanding of how their business models can be transformed to decrease vulnerability. (d) Co-creation: ConTriVE lab will bring together users and businesses who will be able to co-create in order to develop new products and services providing better individual sense of security bridging the gap between subjective and objective vulnerability.
 
Description Trust, Identity, Privacy and Security in the Digital Economy 2.0
Amount £1,200,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R033838/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 06/2020
 
Title Individual Ambiguity Attitude Dataset 
Description This dataset is related to research output: Li, Zh., Loomes, G. & G. Pogrebna (2016) Attitudes to Uncertainty in a Strategic Setting. Economic Journal, forthcoming, Open Access coming soon. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact In order to meaure individual vulnerability towards cybersecurity risks, we need to take into account individual attitudes to ambiguity/uncertainty. This paper develops methodology of eliciting individual ambiguity attitude. 
URL http://www.gannapogrebna.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2017-EJ-Data.xlsx
 
Title Preference Reversals General Method Dataset 
Description This dataset is related to output: Loomes, G. & Pogrebna, G. (2017). Do Preference Reversals Disappear When We Allow for Probabilistic Choice? Management Science,Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 166-184 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact The "preference reversal phenomenon," a systematic disparity between people's valuations and choices, poses challenges for theory and policy. Using a very general formulation of probabilistic preferences, we show that the phenomenon is not mainly due to intransitive choice. We find a high degree of regularity within choice tasks and also within valuation tasks, but the two types of tasks appear to evoke very different cognitive processes, even when the experimental environment tries to minimise differences. We discuss possible implications for modelling and eliciting preferences.This method has significant implication for measuring individual attitudes towards cybersecurity risks. 
URL http://www.gannapogrebna.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/2016-MS-raw.xlsx
 
Title Owl Numerical Library¬∂ 
Description Owl is a dedicated library for engineering and scientific computing. It is designed in the functional programming language OCaml, and aims to provide programmers a powerful numerical framework to write concise, high-performance and type-safe applications. Documentation (latest): http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~lw525/owl/ 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2017 
Impact Owl is an emerging numerical library for scientific computing and engineering. The library is developed in the OCaml language and inherits all its powerful features such as static type checking, powerful module system, and superior runtime efficiency. Owl allows you to write succinct type-safe numerical applications in functional language without sacrificing performance, significantly reduces the cost from prototype to production use. 
URL https://github.com/ryanrhymes/owl/releases/tag/0.3.0
 
Description - Article on Medium.com - Image Recognition with Owl 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Explanatory article about Image Recognition with Owl that appeared on Medium.com
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://medium.com/@matriXanger/image-recognition-with-owl-a5a6d0caef33
 
Description A Functional Numerical Software, Invited Talk at Bloomberg Headquarter London, December 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presenting the design of Owl and its parallel computation engine to an industry audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description All the web's 'read next' algorithms suck. It's time to upgrade - article in the WIRED World in 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article by Natalia Kucirkova on how systems controlled by individuals and not corporations, like the Hub of all Things (HAT), can help everyone find what they should be reading next
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.wired.co.uk/article/how-decentralised-data-will-make-better-reading-recommendations
 
Description Behavioural Machine Learning for Media, BBC, Media City, Salford, Mancester 7-9th March, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Academic only speaking event. Networking and sharing knowledge from the grant. Focused on the HAT learning.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Data Needs to Be More Personal in the 21st Century - Inc Magazine article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact HAT featured in an article on Inc magazine's website about how consumers want more data privacy and how that's a big opportunity for entrepreneurs
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.inc.com/drew-hendricks/data-needs-to-be-more-personal-in-the-21st-century.html
 
Description Distributed Data Analytics in Functional Language, Invited Talk at MathWorks, November 2017, Cambridge UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presenting the Owl's parallel computing and system design to an industry audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description From GDPR to blockchain, we're getting more power over our data - The WIRED World in 2018 article 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article authored by project PI Professor Irene Ng on private data accounts hosted by data stores like the Hub of All Things (HAT) may be the first step towards the internet as a civil society, paving the way for a governing system where digital citizens, in the form of their private micro-server data account, do not merely have to depend on legislation to champion their private rights, but also have the economic power to enforce them as well.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.wired.co.uk/article/gdpr-personal-data-private-data-accounts
 
Description HAT as one of five ground-breaking tech projects being worked on at UWE Bristol - techspark.co 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Hub of all Things featured as one of five ground-breaking tech projects being worked on at UWE Bristol
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://techspark.co/guest-blog-5-ground-breaking-tech-projects-worked-uwe-bristol/
 
Description IoT Applications- Bishop Fleming Seminar, 4th October 2017, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Morning event for business people who have accounts with Bishop Fleming. All interested in personal data and how it impact on business models.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description IoT and Use SimpleWeb Seminar, 25th October 2017, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact At this IT company, internal seminar. 20 people, all coders / software experts. Sharing knowledge and pushing the message on personal data. Great networking that has led to numerous new introductions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Let's make this the year we reclaim control of our data - The WIRED World in 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Article authored by project Co-I Jon Crowcroft on how differential privacy, homomorphic encryption, and GDPR could help consumers wrestle back control of their personal information
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.wired.co.uk/article/2018-data-privacy-control
 
Description Medium Article: Inception as a Service 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Article about Inception as a Service on Medium.com
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://medium.com/@matriXanger/inception-as-a-service-54d3afa1fed7
 
Description Our personal data are precious - we must take back control - Financial Times 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Article in the Financial Times about the HAT and its role in helping individuals reclaim future personal data control
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.ft.com/content/3278e6dc-67af-11e7-9a66-93fb352ba1fe
 
Description Owl - A General Numerical Library, OCaml workshop colocated with ICFP (International Conference on Functional Programming), 7th Sept, 2017, Oxford, UK. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presenting the Owl's parallel computing and system design to an industry audience
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://ocaml.org/meetings/ocaml/2017/
 
Description Owl - Data Science in OCaml, Tutorial at CUFP (Commercial Use of Functional Programming), 7th Sept, 2017, Oxford, UK 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation to an industry and academic audience on how to use Owl to address realwold data science challenges.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Personal Data as an Asset: Design and Incentive Alignments in a Personal Data Economy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presentation argued that a person-controlled personal data (PPD), technologically, legally and economically architected such that the individual owns a personal micro-server and therefore have full rights to the data within, much like owning a PC or a smartphone, is potentially a route to reducing transaction costs and innovating in the personal data economy. There was good engagement through discussion and debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://infolawcentre.blogs.sas.ac.uk/2018/01/17/personal-data-as-an-asset-design-and-incentive-alig...
 
Description Presentation at DSI Annual Meeting: SERVICE SYSTEMS: Service Experience Design (Austin, Texas) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact to be added
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
URL https://convention2.allacademic.com/one/dsi/dsi16/index.php?cmd=Online+Program+View+Event&selected_b...
 
Description Presentation at workshop on Responsible Research and Innovation by PRISMA, Brussels, Feb 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Responsible Research innovation becomes increasingly important with the emerging technologies in the digital economy. Dr Susan Wakenshaw, a Research Fellow on the project, attended the workshop on Responsible Research and Innovation by PRISMA (http://www.rri-prisma.eu/) from 6th-7th February 2018 in Brussels. Dr Wakenshaw presented the latest development of the Hub of all Things (HAT) and discussed with participants about the implications (social, ethical, technical, economic and legal) of HAT for Responsible Service Innovation (RRI). HAT as a pilot case in the responsible reserach and innnovation network, makes substantial contribution to the development of the roadmap for RRI. HAT aims to contribute to RRI in the UK by engaging in more substantive research on RRI for the emerging digital technologies such as AR, machine learning. The presentation was well received, and a few team has already in discussion for collaboration on upcoming research bids.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Servitization of the Home: IoT Development of Use-Visibility Measures, Technology and Innovation: Balancing Freedom and Progress, British Computer Society - Bristol, June 21st 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Computing experts and business people from Bristol and region. Very interested in application of the IoT in practice and how we have developed HAT. Lots of networking and subsequent contacts
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk at Glasgow University Computer Science GIST: "Containing Personal Data Processing with the Databox" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Project Co-I Richard Mortier presented on Containing Personal Data Processing with the Databox at Glasgow University Computer Science GIST (their HCI research group) on Nov 23 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description The Internet of Us: What does privacy mean in the Digital Age?", Gregg Latcham Solicitors, 1 September 2016, Watershed, Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Speech and panel session on personal data and how HAT solves issues of GDPR, and helps with privacy and trust. Good networking and knowledge sharing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016
 
Description The New Data Economy - Connect-World.com 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Article by Irene Ng on the new data economy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://connect-world.com/2017/11/30/new-data-economy/
 
Description What is your Business Model? Understanding business models and value. Leading Edge Thinking Workshop; Bristol Distinguished Address Series, 12th October 2016 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 10 business people in a workshop. Explaining business models and data and then having them think through their particular business and what they do. Explanation of HAT and the approach. Networking and knowledge sharing.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016