Multi-scale ANalysis for Facilities for Energy STorage (Manifest)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Birmingham
Department Name: Chemical Engineering

Abstract

The rapid deployment of variable renewable electricity in the UK will make it more challenging to balance the supply and demand of energy. Over the last five years, the potential for energy storage to meet this challenge has been recognised by industry and policy makers. Other global drivers of energy system change show the wider opportunity: providing remote communities with access to power, increasing urbanisation, and ageing infrastructure. The characteristics of energy storage can range from meeting the needs of individuals and households, to local/city distribution networks, to those of the high-voltage transmission grid. But advances, in energy storage devices themselves and their integration into systems, are needed to meet the required performance and cost levels.

With a strong research and industry base, the UK can be at the forefront of innovation in energy storage, capturing value in the global market. To these ends, the Government invested £30m in energy storage facilities under the 'Eight Great Technologies' call, providing state-of-the-art equipment in five university consortia for the development and testing of technologies that span application areas. However, whilst funding was made available for capital expenditure, no dedicated funding for undertaking research was attached.

We propose a truly interdisciplinary programme building on this investment to tackle some key challenges facing the energy storage community. We have designed a programme which will draw on the collective expertise and facilities that exist in the consortia to tackle research questions that span the storage technologies being developed, and to maximise the impact of the test-bed demonstrators.

Our approach is to address a set of research questions that apply across the technologies supported by the capital investment. We will consider the key challenges, across length scales, from materials to devices, to systems, specifically addressing:
- How the materials used in enery storage technologies, including batteries and thermal energy
- How processes are modelled in the technologies, and validating the models with experiments
- How energy storage devices can be integrated into the energy system most effectively
- How data from operational runs of pilot plants can improve our understanding of the role of energy storage

This project can be the catalyst which leads to improved understanding of physical processes, accelerated technology development, and shared learning from the operation of energy storage technologies. The research will also drive further collaboration between institutions, build the national research and innovation community, increase recognition of the UK's role, and maximise the impact from these facilities in the international energy landscape.

The consortia demonstrated excellence in research capability as part of their original capital grant bids. This project draws on this expertise directly with the involvement of senior investigators who have internationally leading reputations. We will also benefit from the additional support of technology users from across the energy sector, as well as the links through the individual consortia Advisory Boards.

Planned Impact

The direct impacts of this project will be strongly felt across both the public and private sectors:

As the potential role of energy storage in the energy system is still uncertain, a better understanding of how different energy storage technologies perform individually and together will benefit those considering the technology mix under future scenarios. Recent analysis by Imperial College for the Committee on Climate Change ('Value of Flexibility in a Decarbonised Grid and System Externalities of Low-Carbon Generation Technologies', October 2015) has shown that the benefits of flexibility in the electricity system (primarily associated with the deployment of energy storage and demand side response) would be between £7.1-8.1bn per annum to meet a carbon intensity target of 50g/kWh, while the corresponding benefits for the 100 g/kWh target amount to £3-3.8bn annually. Policy makers will be keen to learn of these technological developments to inform thinking around energy markets and policy, and to guide further support for innovation. Funding agencies will value the results that show scientific advances across a wide range of disciplines.

With increasing penetration of variable renewable generation, system and network operators will value the analysis of the characteristics of energy storage technologies in different configurations, and how that could change over time through degradation in performance.

Technology developers will benefit from research into materials and process modelling, so that technology performance can be improved and costs reduced.

These impacts will be enabled for project partners by membership of the Advisory Boards of each consortium, at project research meetings and through the project's Steering Committee. The wider communities will benefit from publications in journals, the publishing of results through the energy storage observatory and presentations at conferences and other relevant meetings.

Students will benefit from having cess to operational energy storage facilities, and the industrially relevant nature of the research being performed across the large number of partner universities.

In a broader sense, improved means of delivering a clean and efficient energy system will benefit the wider economy including the manufacturing sector and society.

People

ORCID iD

Jonathan Radcliffe (Principal Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7671-6265
Luis Fernando Ochoa (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7853-4286
Seamus Garvey (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7472-9000
Yulong Ding (Co-Investigator)
Rebecca Todd (Co-Investigator)
Anthony Kucernak (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5790-9683
Philip Charles Eames (Co-Investigator)
Philip C Taylor (Co-Investigator)
Ainara Aguadero (Co-Investigator)
Patrick Grant (Co-Investigator)
Daniel Gladwin (Co-Investigator)
George Stanley Shire (Co-Investigator)
Peter Joseph Hall (Co-Investigator)
Charalampos Patsios (Co-Investigator)
Daniel Brett (Co-Investigator)
Clare P. Grey (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5572-192X
Nigel Peter Brandon (Co-Investigator)
Andrew Forsyth (Co-Investigator)
David Andrew Stone (Co-Investigator)
P Bruce (Co-Investigator)
Yongliang Li (Co-Investigator)
Daniel James Rogers (Co-Investigator)
Zheng Xiao Guo (Co-Investigator)
Dani Strickland (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2979-4479
Laurence James Hardwick (Co-Investigator)
David Howey (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0620-3955
I Cotton (Co-Investigator)
Robert Angus Dryfe (Co-Investigator)
Martin Paul Foster (Co-Investigator) orcid http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8565-0541
Robert Edward Critoph (Co-Investigator)
Xiao-Ping Zhang (Co-Investigator)
Jim A Halliday (Co-Investigator)
Andrew Cruden (Co-Investigator)
Paul Shearing (Co-Investigator)

Publications

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Abouelamaiem D (2018) Integration of supercapacitors into printed circuit boards in Journal of Energy Storage

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Abouelamaiem D (2018) Integration of supercapacitors into printed circuit boards in Journal of Energy Storage

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Adomkevicius A (2017) Na 0.35 MnO 2 as an ionic conductor with randomly distributed nano-sized layers in Journal of Materials Chemistry A

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Bizeray A (2018) Identifiability and Parameter Estimation of the Single Particle Lithium-Ion Battery Model in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology

 
Description Chair of Advisory Board of Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research Stuttgart
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://www.mpg.de/153319/festkoerperforschung
 
Description Member of Faraday Challenge Innovation Technical Advisory Group
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The Advisory Group has helped shape the scope of funding calls by the Faraday Challenge, which will lead to technological developments for the energy system and auto sector in the future.
 
Description Policy aspects
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
Impact The work has made contributions to Chinese national policy in the use off-peak electricity for space heating, as part of efforts to reduce environmental pollution. The air quality has seen to be improved significantly in large cities in north part of China
 
Description Working group member of EASAC project on "Decarbonisation of Transport"
Geographic Reach Europe 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
URL https://easac.eu/projects/details/decarbonisation-of-transport/
 
Description member of project evaluation committee for Brazilian energy regulator ANEEL
Geographic Reach South America 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
Impact 23 projects were selected for funding by the regulator; as the projects are executed, the results will feed into future policy and regulation such that the Brazilian energy system can be operated efficiently and sustainably.
URL http://www.aneel.gov.br/sala-de-imprensa-exibicao-2/-/asset_publisher/zXQREz8EVlZ6/content/agencia-a...
 
Description Generation Integrated Energy Storage - A Paradigm Shift
Amount £1,040,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P023436/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2017 
End 11/2021
 
Description Infrastructure systems round 3
Amount £371,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 3664 
Organisation Innovate UK 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2018 
End 02/2019
 
Title Development of the UK Energy Storage Observatory - an energy storage data repository 
Description Part of the MANIFEST project, the UK Energy Storage Observatory (UKESTO) delivers free, current information from the UK's energy storage capital grant facilities, new demonstrator projects and research grants. UKESTO works as a portal where users can access comparative studies of energy storage technologies. UKESTO was developed as an idea between thirteen leading Universities in conjunction with the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The key question behind UKESTO's construction is - how do we maximise value from previously funded energy storage facilities and associated research projects in energy storage? The web pages cover the MANIFEST project, the UKESTO database and information on capital funded energy storage facilities in the UK (including an interactive map). Through Manifest's creation of a network of national energy storage facilities and through providing access to their outputs (testing, operational runs, experiments etc.) through UKESTO, the UK can be established as an energy storage hub and leader within the space. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The first experimental datasets from two energy storage calibration exercises have now been uploaded to the database. This has resulted in the development of a detailed schema/pro-forma to be developed by the Science and Technologies Facilities Council (a MANIFEST partner), in order to speed up future dataset uploads. UKESTO has generated interest from other stakeholders in the energy sector, including members of the Energy Systems Catapult (ESC). Dr Jonathan Radcliffe (MANIFEST project PI) met with a member of the ESC and a consultant from the region to discuss an ESC - funded tool called the Energy Knowledge Exchange (EKX). EKX is effectively a search engine for energy related data. In principle, it has been agreed that all of UKESTO's data will be made searchable via EKX in future and discussions are ongoing in how this will be achieved. 
URL http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ukesto
 
Title Energy storage equipment list 
Description This database is a growing repository of information on energy storage related equipment. It covers equipment, apparatus and instruments for experimentation across a huge range of energy storage applications and multiple scales (from atomic level to grid scale). 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Initial discussions have been held with staff from the University of Liverpool and representatives of the Faraday Institute on how we might collaborate or coalesce our work on the equipment list with a related, emerging initiative on battery infrastucture. 
URL https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/activity/energy/research/centre-energy-storage/uk-energy-stora...
 
Description CRRC 
Organisation CRRC Corporation Limited
Country China 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Development of next generation air-conditioning technology based on thermal energy storage for train carriages
Collaborator Contribution Provision of application conditions and funding
Impact Results not allowed to report before the project is completed - will report in the future.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Composite PCM production and demonstration 
Organisation Nanjing Jinhe Energy Materials Co Ltd
PI Contribution We have helped with the process design of the world first large scale commercial demonstration plant using composite phase change materials for the use of the curtailed wind power.
Collaborator Contribution The partner has helped us in the development of our materials for engineering applications. We have also be able to access their facilities for measuring our materials properties.
Impact The collaboration has led to a new collaborative project funded by Innovate UK and Jiangsu Provincial Government.
Start Year 2014
 
Description "Decarbonising UK Energy" Joint Royal Society/RAEng/BA meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talks and discussions
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://royalsociety.org/science-events-and-lectures/2017/10/decarbonising-uk-energy/
 
Description Asessment meeting TCP crossing Annex 'Energy storage with heat pumps' 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a meeting of the International Energy Agency (IEA) to discuss establishing a new Annex relating to low carbon heating and cooling. The meeting was chaired by the Operating Agents leading two Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCPs) in Energy Storage and Heat Pumping Technologies. The intention is to set up a new TCP to investigate integration of thermal energy storage with heat pumps in order to improve heating/ cooling system efficiencies.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description British Council workshop on "Bilateral Cooperation between Mexico and the United Kingdom in Energy Sustainability" 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact A bilateral workshop to identify the strategic priority areas where UK and Mexican researchers can collaborate in joint R&D projects, which led to a call for research proposals under the Newton Fund.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Contribution to IEA Expert Group on R&D Priority Setting and Evaluation 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The goal of the workshop was to learn from examples of how the transition from blue skies research to application has been successfully undertaken in other sectors for example, space research, medicine or solid state physics in the context of microelectronics, and to identify from current basic research selected areas or ideas that might potentially have a huge impact on the energy sector. This should inform an understanding of how different governments engage in, fund, and structure their investments in energy-related basic science programmes.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.ieadsm.org/wp/files/IEA_EGRD_Blue_Sky_Workshop_Final.pdf
 
Description Energy Storage Seminar Series, INEEL, Brasilia 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact A series of seminars over four days, delivered to industry, policy makers and regulators in Brazil, describing technical and non-technical aspects of energy storage. This has led to joint proposals being submitted and further invitations to present in Brazil.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at International Flow Battery Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The purpose of the IFBF is to raise the profile of flow batteries as a crucial technology within the electrical energy storage sector, to educate and inform a wide audience of the benefits, features and attributes of flow batteries. >200 delegates from 24 countries attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.flowbatteryforum.com/ifbf-2017/
 
Description UK-China Energy Storage Forum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The workshop is to bring together academia, industrialists, policymakers, NGOs and government officials between UK and China, building close links for future collaborations, and trading relationships. Over 100 participants attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK-China Workshop on Clean Energy Utilisation 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact This is for building close and sustainable collaborations between UK and Chinese early career researchers working on clean energy generation, storage and utilisation. Over 70 people attended.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017