ADEPT - Advanced Devices by ElectroPlaTing

Lead Research Organisation: University of Southampton
Department Name: School of Chemistry

Abstract

Almost the whole of modern technology and life is underpinned by methods for depositing and shaping materials. For instance the transistors which power our mobile phones, tablets, etc. consist of areas of silicon whose dimensions are now of the order of only tens of atoms across. Whilst current materials deposition technologies are truly impressive, there is still a need for more innovative, better and reduced cost methods for depositing technologically important materials in order to increase energy efficiency, improve their functional properties and break through into potential new markets. This is particularly true when we consider materials beyond the narrow range of those used in electronics and telecoms. A clear example of this is in the field of thermoelectric materials which can already be used in devices such as refrigerators, but more importantly in generating electricity directly from waste heat. Fundamental science has shown that if we could produce such materials in the form of dense parallel arrays of ultrathin wires that are each only 10-100 atoms across, the efficiency of these devices would be massively enhanced. However, the technology to achieve the necessary high quality materials at this size scale does not currently exist.

In the field of computer memory, materials whose electrical resistances can be altered by rapid heating and cooling, so called phase change materials, are being developed The key barriers to the wide spread application of these materials are their relatively high switching energy and reliability of many billions of switching cycles. These could be overcome if a materials deposition technique existed which allowed us to deposit smaller elements than can currently be achieved.

Finally the materials that are used in heat, i.e. infrared, sensing cameras could have a much wider range of applications, e.g. in home security and short range communications between smart appliances, if the cost of depositing them wasn't so high.

This project will directly address these challenges, by building upon our recent breakthroughs in using electrodeposition, in which an electrical current causes the deposition of a material, from unusual, 'weakly-coordinating' solvents, to develop methods for depositing high quality materials for advanced applications in the fields of thermoelectric devices, phase change memory and infrared sensors and cameras.

Planned Impact

The non-academic beneficiaries from this research can be divided into 2 broad groups; companies that develop deposition tools, manufacture devices or integrate those devices into products; and the wider public who use those products and will also have the opportunity to engage with our outreach activities.

In the medium term (5-10 years) companies specialising in developing deposition tools and device manufacturers will benefit from the creation of a disruptive technology. This technology will allow the fabrication of sub 10 nm thermoelectric structures with significantly increased figures-of-merit, sub 5 nm phase change memory structures that can overcome current limitations in switching energies and cycle stability, and the necessary material quality with scalability and lower cost for mid-IR detectors. Our concept devices will provide examples of how new structures can be commercially implemented. These advances will open up significant new commercial market opportunities in each application area, with benefits for companies that integrate these new devices into larger products.

Over the longer term (>10 years) the wider public will benefit in terms of improved quality of life from the introduction of new commercial products and devices exploiting the new deposition technology. In the area of thermoelectrics the general public will benefit from the introduction and application of more efficient thermoelectric devices for energy harvesting and cooling, leading to greater energy efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. The general public will benefit from phase change memory through enhanced performance of a range of electronic devices, particularly in mobile computing where the fast boot and low energy burden offered by non-volatile memory will give major benefits. The benefit of IR-detectors to the general public will come from the availability of lower cost devices and their wider application in chemical sensing, short range communications for internet of things connections at home and at work, and medical diagnostics.

On a more general level the public will benefit immediately and directly from the public understanding and outreach activities that will be undertaken by investigators and researchers with a range of experiences and expertise within this multidisciplinary project.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Our work across a range of p-block elements such as in, Ge, Te, Sb and different weakly coordinating solvents has shown that by careful choice of the chemistry and the conditions we can deposit a range of functional semiconducting compounds and alloys. Current work points to the importance in correctly selecting the types of ions in solution present as the electrolyte (the ions allow the solution to conduct electricity) and their concentration since this can alter the speciation of the elements in solution and the kinetics of their reaction at the electrode surface.
We have also demonstrated that we can design and fabricate patterned substrates using state of the art lithographic techniques, electrodeposit functional materials onto these substrates at pre-defined locations, and then return these structures to the clean room for further lithographic processing to fabricate functional devices.
Exploitation Route Our research is relevant to the fabrication of future functional devices for application in memory storage, neuromorphic computing, thermoelectric energy generation, infra red detection and a range of other areas.
Sectors Chemicals,Electronics,Energy

URL https://www.southampton.ac.uk/adept/index.page
 
Description We have contributed to a number of pubic awareness of science events and continue to develop a number of outreach activities which we have brought together under the umbrella of the Electrochemical Circus (https://www.southampton.ac.uk/adept/engage/electrochemical-circus.page and https://twitter.com/electchemcircus?lang=en). This allows us to draw together exhibits and activities around electrochemistry to explain the importance of the subject to the general public. We have a particular focus in working with schools and school teachers in response to research that has shown that electrochemistry is a part of the curriculum with which teachers are the least comfortable.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Impact Types Cultural,Societal

 
Description IOP Public Engagement Grant
Amount £2,988 (GBP)
Organisation Institute of Physics (IOP) 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Description University of Southampton REF Impact Fund
Amount £2,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Southampton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Description A Pint of Science (Gabriela Kissling) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Talk title: What's this? Technology for ants??! ... Or how did computers get so small and powerful? This ticketed event was held at Ebb & Flow bar in Southampton as part of the Pint of Science series of lectures. The event was sold out, with 69 people in attendance. 93% of the audience were able to choose the correct definition for phase change memory after the talk.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Chalcogenides research meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A day meeting focussed on the chalcogenides research area, scoping interest for a national research network
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Chemfest at the Science Musuem 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Contributing to IYPT activities held at the Science Museum - 4 days of activity provided
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference presentation (David Cook) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 232nd ECS meeting: Invited speaker in the session: E04: Electrochemical Processing from Non-aqueous Solvents
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference presentation (Gabriela Kissling) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact International Society of Electrochemistry, 68th Annual Meeting, talk title: Electrodeposition of Functional Nanomaterials
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference presentation (Kees de Groot) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Talk presented at European Materials Research Symposium (EMRS):  thermo-electric symposium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference presentation (Kees de Groot) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk at European Phase Change and Ovonics Symposium (EPCOS) 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference presentation (Samantha Soule) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact UK Automated Synthesis Forum (UKASF) summer meeting: talk given, and prize received
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Conference presentation - invited lecture (Phil Bartlett) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact 232nd ECS meeting. Talk title: Electrodeposition of functional materials from weakly coordinating solvents
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description ECS 236, Atlanta US 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk title: Electrodeposition of bismuth telluride from a weakly coordinating, non-aqueous solution
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description E\PCOS 2019 - European Phase-Change and Ovonic Symposium (Grenoble, France) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited talk title: 3D cross-bar GeSbTe Phase Change Memory by non-aqueous electrodeposition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019,2020
 
Description Electrochem 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation: Fundamental Electrochemistry of P-Block Halometallates in Non-Aqueous Solvents
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Electrochemical Circus Twitter Feed 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Established @electchemcircus as a twitter feed for The Electrochemical Circus public engagement activity
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description Electrodeposition from supercritical fluids 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact AiMES 2018: 234th ECS meeting
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Electrodeposition of HgTe and Related Compounds from Dichloromethane (Gabriela Kissling) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at the ISE 22nd topical meeting, Tokyo, Japan
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://topical22.ise-online.org/
 
Description Electrodeposition of porous silica templates inside lithographed substrates for nanofabricated devices (Andrew Lodge) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk at the ISE 22nd topical meeting, Tokyo, Japan.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description European Materials Research Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster title: Pulsed electrodeposition of bismuth telluride thin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description European-Material Research Society 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk title: Tunable ternary Bi2(Se1-xTex)3 Thermoelectric Thin Film via Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description High-Density Ge2Sb2Te5 Phase Change Memory by Electrodeposition (Richard Beanland) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at the ISE 22nd topical meeting: Materials Engineering and Process Optimization at Electrified Solid/Liquid Interfaces in Tokyo, Japan
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description ISE 70th Annual meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk title: The electrodeposition of tellurium from non-aqueous solution
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Conference on Materials Chemistry 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk title: Pulsed electrodeposition of bismuth telluride thin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Conference on Thermoelectrics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Pulsed electrodeposition of bismuth telluride thin
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International Conference on Thermoelectrics 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk title: Performance optimisation of thin film vertical thermoelectric generators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description International conference on materials chemistry 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster title: electrochemically-assisted self assembly of mesoporous silica thin films
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Invite Lecture (Kees de Groot) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact meeting: UK Thermoelectric Network meeting

date 14/2/2017

audience: 100-120

title: Non-aqueous electro-deposition of metal chalcogenides for thin film thermo-electric generators
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Light Up Poole - The Photon Shop & The Electrochemical Circus 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public engagement activity with colleagues in physics and optoelectronics. Performing gold fingerprints to the public as part of Light Up Poole digital light art festival. 1100 visitors to pop-up-shop in total, ~300 fingerprints made. Activity was awarded funding by the Institute of Physics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://lightuppoole.co.uk/
 
Description Main Group interest meeting and AGM 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Poster title: Neutral and cationic complexes of tin(IV) chloride with phosphine ad arsine ligands: Synthesis, structure, and spectroscopy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Materials Research Exchange 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Presented ADEPT technologies on a trade stand at the MRE 2020 event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Outreach activity - Gold fingerprinting at Redbridge School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We took our gold fingerprinting activity to the Christmas Fete at Redbridge School and interacted with ~150 people.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Performance optimisation of thin film vertical thermoelectric generators (Daniel Newbrook) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at Electroceramics XVI, Hasselt, Belgium
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description RACI Centenary Congress - Breyer Medal Invited Lecture (Philip Bartlett) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Title: New opportunities for electrodeposition at the nanoscale
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Schools workshops - electrochemical circus and water transistor 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact A series of workshops held at Winchester Science Centre engaging year 8 pupils with ADEPT research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Schools workshops follow up 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Schools were visited a few months after the initial session at Winchester Science Centre for follow up, evaluation of first engagement and deeper engagement with research
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Southampton Science and Engineering Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Participation in large public open day for science and engineering general interest (not recruitment)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Structural control of mesoporous silica in confined spaces (Samantha Soule) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact A talk given at the MRS Spring meeting 2018, Phoenix (USA)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Synthesis, characterisation and integration of mesoporous silica films for the fabrication of semiconductors nanodevices (Samantha Soule) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at Materiaux 2018, Strasbourg, France
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Electrochemical Circus at Bath Cub Camp 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Invited to demonstrate our electrochemistry outreach programme at the annual Bath Cub Camp, May bank holiday weekend, 2018
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description The Water Transistor - at Winchester Science Centre 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact A large scale public engagement exhibit installed in Winchester Science Centre from 2019-2024
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Through-template electrodeposition on the nanoscale for device applications (Philip Bartlett) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Keynote lecture at the 69th annual ISE meeting, Bologna, Italy
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Towards a 3D GeSbTe phase change memory with integrated selector by non-aqueous electrodeposition (Ruomeng Huang) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Faraday Discussion New memory paradigms: memristive phenomena and neuromorphic applications, Aachen Germany. Presentation of Faraday Discussion paper
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Understanding the grafting behaviour of porous nanostructures using a surface science approach: towards the fabrication of nanoscale devices (Samantha Soule) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Oral presentation at Materiaux 2018, Strasbourg, France
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UoS Open Days: gold fingerprinting 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Demonstrating the gold fingerprint activity as part of communication about chemistry/electrochemistry research at the University of Southampton Open Days.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018,2019
 
Description neaspec nanoscale analytics workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Training: Understanding the capability and results of SNOM measurement
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description radio broadcast - Southampton Science and Engineering Festival 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Interviewed live on air about the Southampton Science and Engineering Festival, demonstrated gold fingerprint activity live in the studio
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019