HI-PROSPECTS - HIgh resolution PRinting Of Solar Photovoltaic EleCTrode Structures

Lead Research Organisation: Queen Mary, University of London
Department Name: Sch of Engineering and Materials Science


PV OEMs face continued pressure to reduce the cost/W of solar cells. Additionally, they face significant price volatility and
overall cost for Ag electrode structures. Second and third generation PV cell manufacturers also face high costs for ITO
and high performance TCO coated glass. Therefore technologies that enable cell efficiency gains and that facilitate the
replacement of expensive materials with cost effective alternatives generate strong business opportunities. The HIPROSPECTS
team will deliver a high resolution (< 3 microns) electrostatic ink jet (ESJET) technology capable of printing
cost effective nano Cu front contact electrodes for Si cells and fine line Cu grid structures as a cost effective alternative to
ITO. In addition, the team will develop Si-Perovskite tandem cells with an efficiency of up to 26% at a cost < £230/ kWp.

Planned Impact

HI-PROSPECTS delivers developments with TRL's from 3 - 6 and will therefore apply industrial research throughout.
.Exploitable results are: 1. Non-contact ESJET process for depositing hi-resolution conductive interconnects, 2. Process for
depositing fine line grid structures , 3. Cu front contact electrode metalisation process, 4. Low cost alternative to ITO & 5.
Process for manufacturing Si-Perovskite tandem cells. We will exploit results in PV applications and the ESJET technology
will be exploited in OLEDs and printed electronics. Foreground IP generated from this work will be owned by the relevant
partner(s) and all valuable IP will be protected where applicable using patents, copyright & trademarks prior to any public
In addition to disseminating our knowledge and results to our potential end users, we also intend to share all the publicly
disseminatable deliverables within the scientific and academic communities related to our end users (subject to agreement
by all partners). We will disseminate our results via the following routes:
1. Project website: For the dissemination of information on the HI-PROSPECTS project to the wider professional community
and the general public.
2. Publications: Authorship of papers in peer reviewed journals, promoting the results of the HI-PROSPECTS project
inclusive of: APL Materials, Nano Letters, Solar Energy Materials and Solar cells, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and
Applications, Energy and Environmental Science, Advanced Energy Materials.
3. Special Interest Groups: Attendance at the Solar PV Special Interest Group
4. Conferences and Events: Presentation posters/exhibition stands at UK and major international academic conferences,
such as: Solar Energy UK, Ser Solar, PVSAT, EU PVSEC, MRS conference, EMRS conference, Electrochemical Society
Meeting, and IEEE Photovoltaic for the presentation of the project results and demonstration to potential partners and end
5. Promotion to professional bodies, networks and trade associations: Actively promoting the outputs and exploitation
opportunities to: European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), British PhotoVoltaic Association (BPVA), open days at

Broader Impact
The HI-PROSPECTS project contributes to a range of community and societal objectives and directly support the
governments Renewables Obligation. There are a number of European directives that relate to PV generation and are
directly addressed by this project, specifically:
Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU that establishes a set of binding measures to enable the EU to reach its 20%
energy efficiency target by 2020;
Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU that sets a target for all new buildings to be nearly zero energy by 2020.
Reduced greenhouse gas emissions (2004/101/EC) - Which established a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance
trading within the EC in-line with the Kyoto Protocol;
Social: The environmental benefits identified above will result in social benefits in terms of reduced air pollution. The direct
social benefits will be achieved through increased UK manufacture, benefitting UK PLC more broadly in terms of increased
turnover, balance of trade and increased employment resulting from the manufacture and supply from 2019 onwards. In
addition, increased commercial activity, resulting in increased employment opportunities will be achieved for the supply
chain partners of each of the industrial partners. In addition, there are expected to be substantial spill-over benefits in other
non-competing manufacturing sectors. HI-PROSPECTS will make renewable solar powered energy generation more cost
effective, delivering significant benefits in terms of addressing fuel poverty. The increased solar capacity installed within the
UK will furthermore improve the security of the UK's energy supply.


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Description The printing process that has been developed during the project that is based on QMUL IPR has shown that very fine line conductive tracks can be achieved at sub-5 microns which can be used as test pieces for solar cells
Exploitation Route commercialization of the printing system
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Electronics,Energy,Transport

Description Publicity material regarding new print processing in trade journals has been carried out which has led to potential leads into further exploitation
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Electronics,Energy
Impact Types Economic

Description track printing 
Organisation Johnson Matthey
Department Johnson Matthey Technology Centre
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Demonstration of printing specialist ink
Collaborator Contribution Formulation of ink properties to required trial
Impact Viability of potential commercial product
Start Year 2018