In-situ Chemical Measurement and Imaging Diagnostics for Energy Process Engineering

Lead Research Organisation: University of Edinburgh
Department Name: Sch of Engineering

Abstract

The primary focus of the programme proposed here is to build across two universities (Strathclyde and Edinburgh) a world leading UK research, development and applications capability in the field of in-situ chemical and particulate measurement and imaging diagnostics for energy process engineering. Independently, the two university groups already have globally eminent capabilities in laser-based chemical and particulate measurement and imaging technologies. They have recently been working in partnership on a highly complex engineering project (EPSRC FLITES) to realise a chemical species measurement and diagnostic imaging system (7m diameter) that can be used on the exhaust plume of the largest gas turbine (aero) engines for engine health monitoring and fuels evaluation. Success depended on the skills acquired by the team and their highly collaborative partnership working. A key objective is to keep this team together and to enhance their capability, thus underpinning the research and development of industrial products, technology and applications. The proposed grant would also accelerate the exploitation of a strategic opportunity in the field that arises from the above work and from recent recruitment of academic staff to augment their activities. The proposed programme will result in a suite of new (probably hybrid) validated, diagnostic techniques for high-temperature energy processes (e.g. fuel cells, gas turbine engines, ammonia-burning engines, flame systems, etc.).

Planned Impact

Given the above objectives, benefit and economic gain will accrue to the diagnostic instrumentation suppliers to the UK energy process engineering sector, the opto-electronic sub-systems and component suppliers to the former, the energy systems and fuels suppliers, the academic research community and society as a whole. The instrumentation suppliers and their supply chains will benefit from the exploitation of the new diagnostic technologies and commercial products that will arise from them. The energy systems suppliers will benefit from cost savings in testing and R & D, product design improvements such as reduced emissions and better efficiency and reliability from improved system health monitoring and process control. Both of these industry sectors gain from on-going access to world leading research capability. Society, of course, gains from reduced emissions in terms of human health and mitigation of climate change. Finally, impact accrues to academia in the form of new techniques and knowledge (e.g. new spectroscopy data) to underpin research into new fuels development and evaluation and energy generation systems development.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description First demonstration of an intensity-calibrated photoacoustic gas detection technique that uses the acoustic signal generated though optical absorption by a gas cell as the normalisation term. This technique has targeted the measurement of SOx levels in desulphurization processes.

New methods of TDLAS have been demonstrated, particularly the use of 1f/1f normalisation that allows the use of lower-frequency signals for robust measurement in fast processes systems.

Determination of generic optimal beam arrangements for Chemical Species Tomography that tailor the spatial resolution for a given number of beams.

Achieved the first dynamic imaging of (a) swirl-flame stabilisation of lean combustion and (b) the onset of combustion instability and lean blow-out. This was done using a Chemical Species Tomography system in collaboration with the group of Prof. Lijin Xu at Beihang University, Beijing, China.

We greatly improved the robustness of temperature imaging using Chemical Species Tomography by creating a novel algorithm, which we call Relative Entropy Tomographic RecOnstruction (RETRO). Image retrieval is obtained from jointly reconstructed two-line absorbance distributions. RETRO exhibits excellent robustness against tomographic measurement noise, offering great potential for industrial field applications of CST in very harsh environments.

We developed and demonstrated multi-beam CST data acquisition (DAQ) with excellent temporal resolution and greatly reduced cost, using a novel combination of bespoke signal conditioning with commercial embedded processing systems.

By underpinning the continuity of effort between the EPSRC FLITES project and the Cleansky CIDAR project, we achieved the first chemcal species imaging in the exhaust plume of a commercial aero gas turbine engine.

Femtosecond/picoscond Hybrid Rotational CARS (fs/ps R-CARS) has been shown to be robust up to high pressures (70 bar) and temperatures (1000 K), making it applicable to a wide range of energy engineering processes. This was carried out in collaboration with Sandia National Labs, Livernore, USA.

We successfully implemented fs/ps R-CARS to resolve transient thermal boundary layer development for reacting and non-reacting flows, enabling quantification of the transient energy losses through the boundary layer. This has been studied for non-reacting polytropic compression events, flame-wall interaction events, and post-flame exhausting events.

We have developed a dual-probe hybrid rotational CARS methodology to measure 1D temperature, pressure, and O2/N2 ratios simultaneously, achieving novelty in several respects. We have applied it to a heated jet impinging onto a wall, resolving single-shot pressure gradients of 0.04 bar/mm, which successfully captures the kinetic energy conversion to pressure (i.e. stagnation pressure field) as a flow impinges onto a surface.

A new metering technique for wet gas has been developed to measure gas void fraction and gas mass flow rate and its accuracy was validated in the facility of Spirax Sarco.

A novel dual LIDAR retrieval method has been developed, with improved spatial-temporal resolution. This imaging method can retrieve entire wind fields and unlock the potential of complex wind field for efficient energy production.
Exploitation Route Multiple.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Electronics,Energy,Environment,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Transport

URL https://cider-project.uk/
 
Description A combined experimental and numerical investigation of premixed flame-wall interaction in turbulent boundary layers
Amount £642,701 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/V003283/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2021 
End 01/2025
 
Description Diode-pumped Ti:sapphire lasers: a manufacturable platform for precision photonics
Amount £935,451 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T014288/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2020 
End 07/2023
 
Description Energy transfer Processes at gas/wall Interfaces under extreme Conditions
Amount £1,150,000 (GBP)
Organisation European Research Council (ERC) 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 12/2017 
End 11/2022
 
Description H2020 CleanSky2
Amount € 2,007,000 (EUR)
Funding ID CS2-CFP06-2017-01-785539 
Organisation European Commission H2020 
Sector Public
Country Belgium
Start 05/2018 
End 12/2020
 
Description Intelligent ultrasound hand gesture recognition
Amount £158,000 (GBP)
Organisation Huawei Technologies Research and Development UK Ltd 
Sector Private
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2018 
End 03/2022
 
Description Laser Imaging of Turbine Engine Combustion Species (LITECS)
Amount £5,813,733 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/T012595/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2020 
End 08/2024
 
Description NSFC
Amount ¥3,657,000 (CNY)
Organisation National Natural Science Foundation of China 
Sector Public
Country China
Start 05/2016 
End 05/2021
 
Description The feasibility of Measurement System of Two-Phase Flow - Phase II, Fuji Electric, £177,500
Amount £177,500 (GBP)
Organisation Fuji Electric 
Sector Private
Country Japan
Start 03/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Description UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre 2017 (UKCCSRC 2017)
Amount £6,233,759 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/P026214/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 03/2017 
End 03/2022
 
Description UK-China Workshop on Advanced Imaging Techniques for Pulmonary Disease, British Council Newton Fund,
Amount £24,000 (GBP)
Organisation British Council 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 01/2021
 
Description Wet steam monitoring for geothermal power generation in Southeast Asia
Amount £6,795 (GBP)
Organisation University of Edinburgh 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2020 
End 12/2021
 
Description Beihang 
Organisation Beihang University
Country China 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Visits to Beijing; hosting of visitors to Edinburgh; presentation of research seminars in Beijing and training in Beijing and Edinburgh; particiation in experiments and in data analysis and in writing journal papers
Collaborator Contribution Mirror image of our contributions
Impact Recruitment of Beihang alumnus to the academic staff in Edinburgh; graduated research students in Beihang after joint supervision; journal papers; ground-breaking study of swirl-stabilised lean combustion using Chemical Species Tomograph
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDAR 
Organisation DAS Photonics S. L.
Country Spain 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Chemical Spoecies Tomograpohy; Opto-mechanics; Electronics; Image reconstruction
Collaborator Contribution Management; facilities; spectroscopy; electronics
Impact CST system demonstrated to TRL6
Start Year 2018
 
Description CIDAR 
Organisation National Institute of Aerospace Technology
Country Spain 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Chemical Spoecies Tomograpohy; Opto-mechanics; Electronics; Image reconstruction
Collaborator Contribution Management; facilities; spectroscopy; electronics
Impact CST system demonstrated to TRL6
Start Year 2018
 
Description CIDAR 
Organisation Optosci Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Chemical Spoecies Tomograpohy; Opto-mechanics; Electronics; Image reconstruction
Collaborator Contribution Management; facilities; spectroscopy; electronics
Impact CST system demonstrated to TRL6
Start Year 2018
 
Description CIDAR 
Organisation University of Manchester
Department School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Chemical Spoecies Tomograpohy; Opto-mechanics; Electronics; Image reconstruction
Collaborator Contribution Management; facilities; spectroscopy; electronics
Impact CST system demonstrated to TRL6
Start Year 2018
 
Description CIDAR 
Organisation University of Strathclyde
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Chemical Spoecies Tomograpohy; Opto-mechanics; Electronics; Image reconstruction
Collaborator Contribution Management; facilities; spectroscopy; electronics
Impact CST system demonstrated to TRL6
Start Year 2018
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation Gooch & Housego
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation Industrial Tomography Systems
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation Innospec Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation M Squared Lasers Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation Optosci Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation Rolls Royce Group Plc
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation Shell Global Solutions International BV
Department Shell Research Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016
 
Description CIDER 
Organisation Tracerco
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Recruitment and supervision of five jointly-funded PhD students; Determination of feasibility of imaging automotive fuel additives in-cylinder; Fundamental assessment of automotive engine performance under different fuelling conditions; Continuing FLITES work to extend to the CIDAR consortium funding; Fundamantal spectroscopy methods
Collaborator Contribution Provision of materials and expertise; Advice on industry standards; Feedback on prospects for practical implementation; Industrial experience for PhD students;
Impact One graduated PhD student; Four PhD studentships underway; Various papers;
Start Year 2016