Joint UK-India Clean Energy Centre (JUICE)

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Wolfson Sch of Mech, Elec & Manufac Eng

Abstract

Energy is a key driver of economic and sustainable social welfare. It is an essential prerequisite for modern industry and commerce. The need to decarbonise the energy supply is generally accepted and solar photovoltaics (PV) will play a large role in this in both the UK and India. The two countries have seen very rapid installation since both countries introduced their respective market stimulation programmes in 2010, cumulative installations have risen to 5GW (India) and 8.5 GW (UK) by December 2015. This has had a very significant impact on the power system and may endanger quality of supply or grid reliability. JUICE will focus on tools to understand and quantify the associated issues, find the most economical way to ameliorate or control the issues generated.

PV can often be located near to load centres but its temporal alignment with conventional demand profiles is far from perfect. Electricity at the wrong time or in the wrong place has very little value and there are already numerous examples of PV (and other sources) having to be curtailed when local demand or capability to transport it are insufficient. As the penetration of installed PV increases, so too does the need for its effective integration into power systems at all levels and including both national and localised networks. Energy storage and demand-side response will play a big role in this as well as managing grid capacity. JUICE would be investigating the amount of generation of PV, the stress this is putting on the network, the cost and benefits of mitigation technology options (storage and demand shift). The inclusion of storage and PV places relatively large power electronic converters into the system, which may also allow further services to stabilise the network to be viable technically as well as economically. It is key to address these challenges across the different research communities, as changes in one technology may change the boundary conditions for others and e.g. economics may change drastically. JUICE will, as an example, look at the viability of storage technologies in dependence of quantity of installed PV, local demand and transfer capacity.

JUICE will bring together internationally leading experts in PV technology, applied PV systems, power electronics, electricity networks, energy storage and demand-side response; and through their combined efforts, will develop integrated solutions to ensure that the value of PV generation is optimised in both India and the UK. The techniques and solutions developed will also be readily transferable to many other countries that face similar challenges and contribute to increase economic and environmental welfare in developing and developed countries. The breadth of experience and skills brought by the collective UK and India teams is appropriate to the scale of the problem and will encourage development of novel concepts and solutions to these global challenges.

In the UK, the team has been drawn from the national flagship SuperGen projects: SuperSolar, HubNet and SuperStore, which specialise in PV, networks and energy storage respectively. In India, world-leading universities and researchers will be led by IIT-KGP and IIT-B. JUICE will focus on a value optimisation for the end user, i.e. meeting demand at the lowest economic and environmental cost. Specific topics to be addressed include: PV yield optimisation and localisation, transmission and distribution network stability and utilisation, microgrids, the control and lifetime of storage and its role alongside demand response.
The overarching integrative management of the centre will ensure that the specific technical developments undertaken by the partners are coordinated and effective in contributing to the overall aims of providing improved energy services, lowering environmental impacts and minimising costs.

Planned Impact

The impact of the Joint UK India Virtual Clean Energy Centre, and its three constituent centres JUICE, IUCERE and UKICERI, will be to reduce the costs of energy provision in general, increase sustainability and security of supply, and importantly enabling remote, poorer communities to get access to electricity. Given that energy is a major driver in economic and social welfare, the impact will be to improve the prosperity of the two nations.

The integration of intermittent sources is currently not well understood, resulting in sometimes wasteful behaviour. E.g. in Germany PV plants are required to down-regulate in certain conditions, i.e. there is energy wasted. Another example of the timing of supply not being synchronised with demand and resulting in significant economic losses are the rolling brown outs experienced in California, which happen despite rapid uptake of distributed energy sources. JUICE will develop a set of tools and databases to minimise these effects for India as well as the UK and internationally.

JUICE involves major industrial players being active in relevant areas. With their guidance, a set of urgently required modelling chains will be created that allow the forecasting, control and optimisation of clean energy supply in power systems as well as microgrids. The integration will minimise wastage and thus decrease costs. This will be achieved by novel multi-parameter optimisations allowing comparative analysis of e.g. increasing storage vs transfer capacity vs demand modifications in areas of high PV penetration.

Tools to ensure safe and robust operation of the power systems in the presence of fast changing intermittent energy sources with or without short-term storage buffers or demand modifications will increase security of supply.

JUICE will also train engineers and practitioners in demand by the clean energy industry, as well as more generically any industry where engineering is relevant. There are integration focussed, industry facing workshops planned for the dissemination of specific findings to relevant industrial participants. This will be supported by the KTN to ensure that the right target group is met. There will also be direct training for the staff involved in the research, the associated PhD cohort as well as training of masters level students at the various partner universities.

By fostering the development of expertise and critical mass in the modelling, characterising and optimisation of network services, this project will meet the EPSRC goal of improving the UK's competitiveness in the fields of energy integration, storage and renewable technologies. The project will also address the aims of DST to enhance the power system and meet the demand of urban and rural dwellers which struggle to have reliable supply, or any supply at all. In addition, the project will deliver against the primary objectives of the Newton-Bhabha fund to provide Official Development Assistance via the parent country to enhance energy provision and security of supply in the partner country (India). This project is fully aligned with the socio-economic development priorities of the Newton- Bhabha Fund since energy is a major growth engine of economic wealth, making energy available to people allows economic and social prosperity to follow. Enhancing access to and the provision of clean energy aligns with all three priorities of the Newton-Bhabha fund, supporting the development of sustainable cities and urbanisation, enhancing public health and wellbeing, whilst further enhancing the energy-water-food nexus. This project will exemplify how the cooperation between the UK and India working on aligned renewable energy challenges will facilitate development and deployment of industrially relevant research hosted in the communities for economic growth and social benefit in the partner country.
 
Description Member of EPSRC Energy Scientific Advisory Committee
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Membership of a guideline committee
URL http://epsrc.ukri.org/research/ourportfolio/themes/energy/programme/further-information-about-the-pr...
 
Description Participation in EASAC, working group on decarbonisation of transport 2018
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a advisory committee
 
Description Peter Bruce hosted of dinners about gas emissions organsied by the RS, Oxford 30 Jan 2019 and London 5 Mar
Geographic Reach National 
Policy Influence Type Participation in a national consultation
 
Description Provided training to engineers from TNB Malaysia
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The engineers have advanced themselves through further knowledge of the field
URL http://www.imperial.ac.uk/people/b.pal
 
Description Training to Engineers from Power Industry in Chile
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact The engineers from grid operator in Chile have now much advanced knowledge about power system and wind energy modelling
URL https://www.linkedin.com/in/bikash-pal-0ba3a413/
 
Description Aritra Ghosh, Exeter JUICE PDRA, Impact Acceleration Award
Amount £67,121 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 03/2019
 
Description Ian Cole -Assessment of Overplanting for Renewable Technologies for BEIS
Amount £75,000 (GBP)
Funding ID TRN 1354/08/2017 
Organisation Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 04/2018
 
Description Tim Green - The Integrated Development of Low-Carbon Energy Systems (IDLES): A Whole-System Paradigm for Creating a National Strategy
Amount £8,000,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R045518/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2018 
End 11/2023
 
Title An open source physics based equivalent circuit model - Billy Wu 
Description An open source physics based equivalent circuit model has been developed which is able to predict battery performance and lifetime. Furthermore, this model can be used to effectively diagnose different degradation mechanisms found in lithium-ion batteries and thus inform improved performance. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775318301861) along with the journal publication detailing its operation and parameterisation. This is available for other researchers to use for integration into system level models and also for industry to download and explore its usage to improve their operation of lithium-ion batteries to improve lifetime. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Will be added soon. 
URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378775318301861
 
Title Domestic Demand Model for India - John Barton 
Description This is a bottom up model of appliance ownership and use for one or more Indian households. This includes cooling technologies, photovoltaic power and solar water heating. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact no impact to date. 
URL https://figshare.com/s/6a1dc7f4b7fe851f1165
 
Title PV Performance data for modelling available generation in DNO areas - Diane Palmer 
Description PV Performance data for modelling available generation in Distribution Network Operator areas: The spreadsheets available for download contain hourly values for 2005-2014 for each of 12 UK Distribution Network Operators for the following parameters: Air Temperature deg.C., Global Horizontal Irradiance (G0) Wh/m^2, In-plane irradiance (due south, 22 deg. Tilt) G.POA Whm^2, Module Temperature deg. C. (Tmod), kWh/kWp. Installed Capacity of Solar Farms 2015 (MWelec) and Overallenergy MWh 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact not reported to date. 
URL http://www.juice-centre.org.uk/resources/data-sources/solar-resource/
 
Title Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) Global Horizontal Irradiance data for Distribution Network Operator areas - Diane Palmer 
Description Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) Global Horizontal Irradiance data for Distribution Network Operator areas The spreadsheets available for download below contain hourly TMY Global Horizontal Irradiance values generated from the 2005-2014 decade for each of 12 UK Distribution Network Operators. Global Horizontal Irradiance in Wh/m^2. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact not reported to date. 
URL http://www.juice-centre.org.uk/resources/data-sources/uk-tmy-data/
 
Description Billy Wu, speaker at a Energy Storage Webinar, July 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Billy Wu, speaker at a webinar "Energy Storage- A Fast Developing Landscape in the Energy Sector in India and UK" organised by the British Deputy High Commission and the UK Science and Innovation Network in July 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description International Energy Agency's Grid Integration of Variable Renewables (GIVAR) Programme meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Invited to the International Energy Agency's Grid Integration of Variable Renewables (GIVAR) Programme meeting in Paris with World Bank Consultation on Energy Storage Partnership; about 30 people at the meeting, with discussions to inform decisions made by the World Bank.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Participation in the UK-India energy storage trade mission 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The British High Commission gathered experts in energy storage from the UK including researchers (Dr. Billy Wu and Dr. Ryan Bayliss) as well as representation from OLEV (Office for Low Emission Vehicles) to visit various India academics and industries with the view to creating a joint UK-India vision on energy storage in order to realise the 2030 target of transitioning to a fully electric vehicle powertrain. Engagement events included: Mumbai to visit IIT Bombay, VJTI energy storage incubator, Bangalore to visiti Mahindra Electric Vehicles and representatives from the Karnataka government and New Delhi for a round table discussion on electric vehicles.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Tapas Mallick, round table meeting for large scale solar programme at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in April 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Tapas Mallick had round table meeting with ministers, educationalist, researchers, and business such as Saudi Aramco for large scale solar programme at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in April 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description UK - China Future Energy workshop in Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I gave a presentation on "Ancillary service requirement and optimisation in the future low carbon system" and the message was well received by the audiences.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018