Energy Resilient Manufacturing 2: Small is Beautiful Phase 2 (SIB2)

Lead Research Organisation: Cranfield University
Department Name: Sch of Aerospace, Transport & Manufact

Abstract

Context: Applying the concept of "small is beautiful" into a conservative relatively low technology manufacturing sector where the "economies of scale" argument has been used for the last decade to build ever more so-called efficient process lines is a major challenge. The UK is at the forefront of casting technologies with investment by EPSRC at Brunel, in the LiME CIM and new Research Hub focused on developing a novel disruptive melt treatment process especially aimed at recycled alloys, and at the MTC in the New High Temperature Alloy research laboratory part funded by Rolls-Royce and EPSRC. Manufacturing expertise, including casting, in super-alloys, titanium, copper, aluminium and new alloys, underpins advancements in design and energy-efficiency of the end product. This research is vital for the global aerospace and automotive industries but doesn't specifically address the Energy and sustainability challenges from a systems viewpoint. Thus the energy efficiency of the casting process has only been investigated in a limited fashion, for example by a previous EPSRC funded project (Jolly (PI) EP/G060096/1/2) Energy Saving in the Foundry Industry. Since that proposal was written and the research carried out the whole energy landscape has changed. New concepts of "energy harvesting" and "design for sustainability and the circular economy" have been developed and capturing low grade heat is now an important concept.
Aims & Objectives: The aim of this project is to introduce the concept of "small is beautiful" into a conservative relatively low technology manufacturing sector where the "economies of scale" argument has been used for the last decade to build ever more so-called efficient process lines. This will be a major challenge. The new philosophy, "small is beautiful", starts by encouraging the use of high quality feedstock, only melting what is required and only when it is required. Recycling of internal scrap is not necessarily acceptable but an aim for higher yields is. Applying counter gravity casting methods to improve yield and give enhanced quality is encouraged as is the recovery low grade heat from solidification.
Driven by the findings in the feasibility study the project will aim to develop a methodology and a modelling toolkit, to enable true energy resilient manufacture with the production of castings at maximum yield rates with minimal energy and material usage through process routes that maximise profit, while meeting customer needs accurately and timely. In contrast to existing approaches the methodology and toolkit will determine the optimal balance between those often conflicting objectives through integrated and through-process models of the energy, materials and manufacturing process chains.
Potential Applications and Benefits: The project will achieve this by the development of a software tool incorporating a new philosophy/methodology and metric for the handling of materials and energy throughout the process in foundries using computer numerical process simulation to support the decision making. The project will also look at the full energy chain from charge materials through to waste heat and energy in the process and identify the opportunities for scavenging waste heat and the costs associated with the whole process. This will therefore enable cost/benefit analysis to be undertaken so that companies will be able to make informed decisions about design, material and process at a very early stage.

Planned Impact

The DECC report on UK energy published in July 2013 showed the total UK energy usage in 2012 as being 206 million tonnes oil equivalent (mtoe) or 8.7 ExaJ (8.7 x 1018 J) of which about 17% was used by industry. An estimate has been made that approximately 4% (about 60,000 TJ) of this is used by the foundry industry. By adopting the new philosophy proposed in this research for foundry manufacturing processes then this could be more than halved.

In order to get industrial engagement and develop potential pathways into manufacturing we have been initially working with the Cast Metals Federation and a core of foundry companies. These same companies will be involved in meetings to help define the research direction and support the implementation of the software code. Professor Jolly already works closely with the Cast metals Federation (CMF) and the Institute of Cast Metals Engineers (ICME) sitting on both technical and education committees. By involving both these organisations in understanding the new philosophy the concepts can be introduced into the industry's training courses which are delivered by these organisations.

This research has potential to be to be massively impactful on UKplc Manufacturing sector as a whole. The benefits of reducing energy demand in the sector will make the supply of energy within the UK more resilient and therefore have less impact on the public. Manufacturers are always the first organisations requested to reduce power use when there are shortages. By making and demonstrating that their processes are the most efficient they may be able to influence the energy providers in winning preferential prices and supply. The on-cost to the consumer should therefore be reduced.

The Major Beneficiaries from the proposed Energy Resilient Manufacturing Proposal: Small is Beautiful 2 would initially be materials and manufacturing engineers in design, materials selection and manufacturing across the breadth of the UK foundry sector. This covers aerospace, automotive, biomedical, electronics, general engineering, marine, power generation & primary metal sectors. If the concepts are adopted by the software companies supporting the industry then they would potentially benefit from enhanced product and possibly concomitant increase in sales.
Recent work considering metal losses and low material yields has shown that the through process energy efficiency in the foundry sector is between 0.1 and 1%. The UK has 50% of the European Investment Casting sector and about 400 other foundries so is a significant contributor to manufacturing UK. Estimate Al foundry sector 1% of industrial Energy (about 11 TJ pa). The foundry sector as a whole in the UK based on the 2012 world census [5] is some 5 x larger being of the order of 57,000 TJ pa or approximately 4% of the UK Industrial energy usage. Theoretical melting energy is of the order of 1GJ/t but by the end of processing between 90 to 1,000 GJ/t are used. Specifically in life cycle analysis aluminium is more energy intense and produces more CO2/t than most engineering materials [6]. Recent work on CRIMSON has shown that the energy burden/tonne of aluminium casting could be reduced to about 35 GJ. If this level could be replicated across the foundry sector the potential reduction is estimated to be about 65%. Low grade heat recovery based on the number of tonnes shipped and assuming an efficiency of about 40% to represent the whole Al foundry sector industry in the UK would equate to 320 TJ pa. Estimates of the total energy usage for casting and the wasted heat from solidification suggest that the industry is using 1,500 TJ/annum, about 0.1% of the total UK Industrial energy.
 
Description Material selection for sustainable production of automotive engine blocks
Geographic Reach Multiple continents/international 
Policy Influence Type Influenced training of practitioners or researchers
Impact Reduce the overall amount of energy consumption and emissions associated with light duty vehicles engine blocks.
 
Title Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of solidification processes 
Description The Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation method makes use of the Newton's equations of motion and interatomic potentials or force fields for calculating the trajectories of atoms. Atomic trajectories are then used for calculating macroscopic properties of materials via statistical mechanics techniques. Time integration is performed via the Verlet Algorithm. MD has the advantage of atomic resolution while no ab initio assumptions are made in contrast to CFD and FEM. MD is used to study the nucleation (solidification) process of metal casting typical metals, examining the effect of cooling rates on the final structural properties (grain size/grain growth/atom types). Monitoring the potential and kinetic energy distribution over the simulation domain during solidification made possible to capture the exothermic nature of this process for the first time through this technique. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2019 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method has been published in the scientific literature (title: "Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Homogeneous Nucleation of Pure Aluminium", journal: "Metals" IFQ1 11-25%) and it has been proposed to metal casting enterprises. 
 
Title Manufacturing systems energy and material flow analysis tool 
Description A computer program able to effectively and flexibly represent energy and material flows based on data collected in the industry. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The tool has been used in foundries to quickly analyse industrial practices and it has been cited in the scientific literature. 
 
Title Manufacturing systems measurement framework to assess energy efficiency 
Description A framework to systematically measure and assess energy consumption in manufacturing systems with a focus on foundries. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method has been published and cited internationally in the scientific literature and it has been used in the foundries. 
 
Title Multi Criteria Decision Analysis for sustainable metal casting 
Description An original Multi Criteria Decision Analysis framework to promote sustainability in manufacturing systems and, in particular, foundries has been developed. The original method extends traditional approaches with a systematic method to automatically weight criteria, provide a high-resolution view of the decision making space and require minimal supervision by the decision maker(s). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This method has been disseminated in the scientific literature with international reach. A first publication has been selected among the best papers presented at the Global Conference of Sustainable Manufacturing in 2018 and it has been accepted by the International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing (ranked second by Scopus in the area of Decision Sciences, title "Multi-criteria decision-making for the life cycle of sustainable high pressure die casting products"). A more comprehensive development of this methodology has been presented in the Journal of Cleaner Production (top 10% IFQ1) with an article titled "Automatically weighted high-resolution mapping of multi-criteria decision analysis for sustainable manufacturing systems". The method has been applied to real industrial cases not only in the mentioned publications but generated other international, peer-reviewed outputs (currently under review). The first one is "Sustainability assessment of rapid sand mould-making using multi-criteria decision making mapping" to be presented at the forthcoming 7th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2020, if accepted. Another one was submitted to the CIRP-Annals journal (top 10% IFQ1 journal, title "Multi-criteria sustainability assessment of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing") as the outcome of the adoption of this methodology by a group working outside the "Energy Resilient Manufacturing 2: Small is Beautiful Phase 2 (SIB2)" project. 
 
Title Optimisation of metal casting process 
Description An optimisation framework coupled to a Computational Fluid Dynamics code to simulate metal casting processes has been developed to promote more energy efficient designs. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method has been published in the scientific literature and it has been proposed to metal casting enterprises. 
 
Title Set of thermodynamic metrics to measure energy efficiency in foundries 
Description A novel set of thermodynamic metrics that retain the minimal amount of data necessary of traditional metrics but providing more insight in the metal casting processes have been suggested. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This contribution to knowledge has been published internationally in the scientific literature and has been applied to industries. 
 
Title Manufacturing systems energy and material flow analysis tool 
Description A computer program able to effectively and flexibly represent energy and material flows based on data collected in the industry. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The tool has been used in foundries to quickly analyse industrial practices and it has been cited in the scientific literature. 
 
Title Manufacturing systems measurement framework to assess energy efficiency 
Description A framework to systematically measure and assess energy consumption in manufacturing systems with a focus on foundries. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method has been published and cited internationally in the scientific literature and it has been used in the foundries. 
 
Title Multi Criteria Decision Analysis for sustainable metal casting 
Description An original Multi Criteria Decision Analysis framework to promote sustainability in manufacturing systems and, in particular, foundries has been developed. The original method extends traditional approaches with a systematic method to automatically weight criteria, provide a high-resolution view of the decision making space and require minimal supervision by the decision maker(s). 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This method has been disseminated in the scientific literature with international reach. A first publication has been selected among the best papers presented at the Global Conference of Sustainable Manufacturing in 2018 and it has been accepted by the International Journal of Sustainable Manufacturing (ranked second by Scopus in the area of Decision Sciences, title "Multi-criteria decision-making for the life cycle of sustainable high pressure die casting products"). A more comprehensive development of this methodology has been presented in the Journal of Cleaner Production (top 10% IFQ1) with an article titled "Automatically weighted high-resolution mapping of multi-criteria decision analysis for sustainable manufacturing systems". The method has been applied to real industrial cases not only in the mentioned publications but generated other international, peer-reviewed outputs (currently under review). The first one is "Sustainability assessment of rapid sand mould-making using multi-criteria decision making mapping" to be presented at the forthcoming 7th International Conference on Sustainable Design and Manufacturing 2020, if accepted. Another one was submitted to the CIRP-Annals journal (top 10% IFQ1 journal, title "Multi-criteria sustainability assessment of Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing") as the outcome of the adoption of this methodology by a group working outside the "Energy Resilient Manufacturing 2: Small is Beautiful Phase 2 (SIB2)" project. 
 
Title Optimisation of metal casting process 
Description An optimisation framework coupled to a Computational Fluid Dynamics code to simulate metal casting processes has been developed to promote more energy efficient designs. 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The method has been published in the scientific literature and it has been proposed to metal casting enterprises. 
 
Title Set of thermodynamic metrics to measure energy efficiency in foundries 
Description A novel set of thermodynamic metrics that retain the minimal amount of data necessary of traditional metrics but providing more insight in the metal casting processes have been suggested. 
Type Of Material Data analysis technique 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact This contribution to knowledge has been published internationally in the scientific literature and has been applied to industries. 
 
Description CASTCon 2018 conference and exhibition 
Organisation Cast Metals Federation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Host, organise and run the conference and exhibition.
Collaborator Contribution Organise and run the conference and exhibition.
Impact Strengthen the relationship between the Cast Metals Federation and Cranfield University. Build relationships with foundries and other stakeholders of the sector (e.g. simulation software companies).
Start Year 2018
 
Description Durham foundry visits 
Organisation Durham Foundry
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Provide feedback and suggestions for energy efficient improvements of the process.
Collaborator Contribution Time dedicated to show the process and discuss energy efficient measures
Impact Understanding industrial practice in UK foundries, strengthen links of the University with the industry, a potential research collaboration to investigate and implement energy efficient improvements was discussed.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Foundry sector census with the CMF 
Organisation Cast Metals Federation
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution A research team of three academics and five students have gathered and analysed data about the foundry industry.
Collaborator Contribution Provided support and data.
Impact Better understanding of the UK foundry sector situation and future trends.
Start Year 2018
 
Description PMS Diecasting visit 
Organisation PMS Diecasting
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Visit the foundry providing feedback on energy efficient and sustainable practices. Show previous research carried out by our research group.
Collaborator Contribution Provide information on industrial practice of high pressure die casting of zinc alloys. Show the process.
Impact Understanding industrial practice in the UK foundries, strengthen links between the University and the industry.
Start Year 2018
 
Description Research Project with Saint Gobain PAM 
Organisation Saint-Gobain S.A.
Country France 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Investigation of lean manufacturing improvements in the production system carried out by eight students working in group over three months and one student working for additional three months on his master thesis. It involved three academics.
Collaborator Contribution Provided support for the development of the project.
Impact The group project generated a report with a technology review for automation in fettling, a plan to implement lean-philosophy recommendations and a discrete event simulation model of the finishing area that provided insight into the relevant operations. This project led to the agreement of a follow-up master thesis project that expanded the capabilities of the discrete simulation model and deepened the relevant analysis of the finishing area.
Start Year 2019
 
Description Timsons Engineering visit 
Organisation Timsons Engineering
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Visit the foundry and provide feedback and suggestions on energy efficient practices
Collaborator Contribution Host the visit, show and provide some information about the process
Impact Understanding industrial practice in the UK foundries, strengthen links between the University and the industry.
Start Year 2017
 
Description 3 Presentations at Casting Technology New Zealand 2017 Annual Conference and AGM, Dunedin New Zealand 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Professor Mark Jolly
Professor of Sustainable Manufacturing
Cranfield University

Mark is Professor of Sustainable Manufacturing and head of the Sustainable Manufacturing Systems Centre at Cranfield University. He has 35 years' experience in manufacturing. He has a degree in metallurgy from Sheffield University and PhD from Cambridge. Mark spent 13 years working in industry in automotive and tier 2 suppliers into manufacturing both in the UK and abroad before moving back into academia in 1995. In 2012 he took up his current position at Cranfield after 17 years at the University of Birmingham. Mark's main areas of current research are resource efficient manufacturing, process modelling and novel casting processes. Resource efficient manufacturing targets traditional processes and aims at reducing the materials usage and energy with the ultimate aim of lowering carbon and water footprints of final components. He has recently won over 5 years of funding from EPSRC for his concept of "Small is Beautiful" which is investigating Design for Energy Resilient Manufacturing. He has worked with many large names across a number of sectors including Rolls-Royce, Depuy-Synthes (Johnson & Johnson), GKN and Coca-Cola - but he has also championed working with many small companies especially SMEs who supply to large companies.
Mark has managed over £8 M of research projects since being in academia. He has over 330 lectures, publications, technical reports and articles including over 60 invited lectures and seminars. He has edited 8 books and has 3 patents. He has taught at Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels.
Mark is a Chartered Engineer, a Chartered Environmentalist, a Fellow of the Institute of Materials (IOM3), Minerals and Mining, a Fellow of the Institute of Cast Metals Engineers (ICME) and a Member of TMS (TMS) and the American Foundry Society. Mark has sat on the EPSRC Peer Review College since 2003. Mark is currently chair of the Materials Science and Technology Division of IOM3, vice-Chair of the Sustainable Development Group of IOM3 and Chair of the Solidification Committee of TMS. He was the 2008 recipient of the Oliver Stubbs Gold Medal (ICME) and the University of Birmingham's 2010 Josiah Mason award for Business Achievement.

"Sustainable Manufacturing in Foundries"
The UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) has funded two research programmes entitled title Small is Beautiful 1 and 2 under the framework of Energy Resilient Manufacturing. The aim of the feasibility phase of Small is Beautiful was the development of a new philosophy/methodology and a software tool incorporating metrics for the handling of materials and energy throughout the process in foundries using computer numerical process simulation to support the decision making. For the next phase of Small is Beautiful we have the following objectives:
• To develop a plant wide measurement framework based on a set of specific metrics for energy and material usage in foundries
• To develop through-process integrated engineering design and operational models with those metrics at their core for enabling the concurrent product and process design of cast parts
• To implement those models into a software toolkit
• To validate the methodology, models and toolkit through a demonstrator using the CRIMSON process in Cranfield
• To conduct a series of industrial engagement activities to validate the SiB methodology and toolkit with collaborators and disseminate the findings to industrial end-user audiences
This paper present a study the energy efficiency of a number of UK foundries. In the context of this research 80 foundries were studied, 60 were contacted and 10 were visited. General energy data were collected using structured questionnaires, interviewing energy managers and process operators. A number of foundries are operating to a good standard, by employing energy managers and regularly auditing; they are in control of their process and working rigorously to improve their efficiency. Simultaneously though, smaller foundries have not adjusted to the new market demands and are not operating in the most energy efficient manner. Important barriers to energy efficiency in these foundries include lack of knowledge on auditing methods, poor knowledge in managing energy consumption, the inefficiency of individual process steps, production disruptions, aging equipment, personnel behaviour, inadequate maintenance and lack of in-vestment, automation and research.

"Disruptive Novel Technology"
Instead of using the traditional batch casting process, the CRIMSON (Constrained Rapid Induction Melting Single Shot Up-Casting)1 method employs a high-powered furnace to melt just enough metal to fill a single mould in a closed crucible. The crucible is transferred to a station for computer-controlled counter gravity filling of the mould for optimum filling and solidification. The CRIMSON method therefore holds the liquid aluminium for a minimum of time drastically reducing the energy losses attributed to holding the metal at temperature. With the rapid melting times achieved, of the order of minutes, there isn't a long time at temperature for hydrogen to be absorbed or for thick layers of oxide to form. The metal is never allowed to fall under gravity and therefore any oxide formed is not entrained within the liquid. Thus higher quality castings are produced leading to a reduction in scrap rate and reduced overall energy losses.
This paper will present will present some key features of the CRIMSON process and discuss how it fits in with sustainable manufacturing and energy saving for future sustainable foundries.

"Sustainable Factories of the Future"
Materials conversion processes from extraction through to the final product in the consumer's hands are the basis for manufacturing industries. Essentially these make up manufacturing systems with nested and linked loops of materials chains. Often, waste materials from one process (e.g. Pt group metals, Te, Se and Co from the primary production of Cu) become the primary materials in other chains. This is one aspect of Industrial Symbiosis but it can be difficult to take advantage of this in lower value streams such as low-grade heat and waste products for a variety of reasons such as geographical proximity or material contamination levels.
Since the industrial revolution, materials conversion processes have tended to increase in size to take advantage of what has been called "economies of scale". The philosophy being the bigger the "process" the more cost effective and thus the cheaper the product is to make. However, most economists have worked in a linear form of production without consideration for the non-market costs of using the planets resources or of the effect of waste products on society and natural eco systems, or the limitations that resource availability sets on economies. Most models have focussed solely on product cost. With the move towards a more sustainable systems approach to materials and the circular economy business model aimed at sustainable processes the argument for "economies of scale" is not so clear and the potential of an approach along the lines of "small is beautiful" and localised production becomes more attractive (i.e. economies of scope).
All sectors in manufacturing are investigating the possibilities of sustainable closed loop manufacturing with a circular economy, and revisiting the way it views its manufacturing strategy and footprint decisions. Historic off-shoring decisions were driven primarily by a desire to reduce manufacturing costs. There are three key drivers to re-shoring and localisation of manufacturing: first; where taking a total landed cost perspective, costs are comparable and supply chain risk is reduced, second; by increasing responsiveness for more unpredictable demand, particularly for customised products, third; the development of a localised supply chain to support the development and production of innovative new products. The recent review of German manufacturing strategy, Industrie 4.0, calls for the ICT enablers' convergence of business and technological processes to herald the next generation of manufacturing. This calls for industry and academia to work in close collaboration to identify the next generation of business models that can make this a reality.
Recent developments and sustainable thinking encouraged by increasing material/energy costs and security of supply are forcing companies to re-think their strategies for materials conversions. Disruptive technologies such as Metal Injection Moulding (MIM), Additive (Layer) Manufacturing (AM/ALM) and Constrained Rapid Induction Melting Single Shot Net Shape Up-Casting (CRIMSON) are maturing rapidly and becoming realistic alternative processes that challenge the larger scale processes by offering materials and design flexibility unachievable within large-scale processes.
The pharmaceuticals industry is facing a patent cliff and challenges from generic medicines to the tune of $150 B p.a. The methods being used to address this situation include reduction of inventory, improving right-first-time (from 3s to 5s) and reducing development costs. Pharma companies are increasingly being driven down the route of personalised medicines and thus have a requirement for highly flexible single patient batch sizes which cannot be retro fitted to existing plants. In the consumer goods manufacturing sector companies such as Amazon and Apple are using information on customers' spending patterns to "know what you want before you buy it". We are living in a time where more products are personalised in terms of features and functions such that the burden of personalised configurability has to be just-in-time. Some examples below will be presented.
Ownership of "stuff" is now not so aspirational for a younger generation in the developed world for those living in cities. This is changing business models with examples like AirBnB, Uber, Zip Car, River Simple and Buzzbikes showing how the old methods are impacted by the internet and sustainable thinking.
This paper will present a vision of massive changes to come for our traditional factories prompted by the sustainability agenda supported by the internet.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.castingtechnologynz.org/files/CTNZ_Newsletter_Sept_2017.pdf
 
Description A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue - TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP FOR THE EMAS SECTORAL REFERENCE DOCUMENT ON BEST ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING SECTOR 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This EMAS Working party creates the standards by which companies are audited and achieve Eco accreditation during the Manufacture of Metallic Products.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://susproc.jrc.ec.europa.eu/activities/emas/fab_metal_prod.html
 
Description CASTCon2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Close to 200 delegates form the UK and International Foundry Sector attended the CASTCon2018 event hosted at Cranfield University and co-sponsored with the Cast Metals Federation, FESA and IOM3.
It was agreed that the even should be held again in Cranfield in 2020
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.castmetalsfederation.com/news/2018/03/castcon-2018-open-for-business
 
Description EU funded project Cradle-to-grave approach to light alloys CRAL: 27th June 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Brembo, coordinator of CRAL project , together with its partner CANNON, is pleased to invite you to the workshop "Cradle-to-grave approach to light alloys". The workshop is organized in the frame of the EU funded LIFE CRAL project.
Started in July 2016, CRAL project aims to implement a Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) pilot line breakthrough, capable of producing high-quality and light-weight automotive cast components from both recycled low-purity aluminium alloys and new ECO-magnesium alloys in a safe and clean manner.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://allevents.in/provincia%20di%20bergamo/workshop-cradle-to-grave-approach-to-light-alloys/1000...
 
Description GCSM 2019 conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Scientific conference presentation of the hybrid - optimisation / FEA tool for the design of the casting system. Raised the interest with the attendees and initiated discussions for collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://gcsm.eu/
 
Description Seminar at University of British Columbia, Vancouver Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Life Cycle Energy Analysis for the Sustainable Production of Passenger Vehicle Engine Blocks
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Seminar at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact RMIT Melbourne
Abstract for presentation
Primary Manufacturing, Engine Production and on-the-road CO2:
How can the Automotive Industry Best Contribute to Environmental Sustainability?

Prof. M.R. Jolly, Professor of Sustainable Manufacturing
Dr. K. Salonitis, Senior Lecturer in Manufacturing Systems

Legislation in the automotive industry currently focusses on tailpipe CO2 emissions, with no consideration for the CO2 footprint of the materials used in the manufacture of vehicles. This has led OEMs to adopt lower density materials, to contribute to weight reduction and fuel economy, in the expectation that the weight reduction will provide a net CO2 benefit to society.
This paper will present the results of a full assessment of the energy and CO2 impact during the manufacture of diesel and petrol engine cylinder blocks. The research is based on inputs from over 100 world experts from across the automotive supply chain, including raw material mining and smelting companies, alloy recyclers, iron and aluminium foundries, OEM engineers, independent manufacturing specialists, design consultants, heat treaters and impregnators. Despite current perceived wisdom, the use of lower density materials frequently results in net energy and CO2 penalties, when considering the complete life cycle of manufacture and use. For the 1.6 litre cylinder block investigated in this study, more than 200,000 km of on-the-road driving is required to compensate for the up-front energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the production of aluminium cylinder blocks. The paper also comments on other environmental impacts from the iron and aluminium manufacturing routes. These results provide new insights for OEM decision-makers, and a new perspective for legislators to define regulations that truly contribute to the environment and to society.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description TMS 2019 Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Presentation of projects result on casting system design to relevant experts. Q&A discussions increased interest from the scientific audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019