Listening to Infrastructure

Lead Research Organisation: Loughborough University
Department Name: Architecture, Building and Civil Eng

Abstract

Infrastructure is vital for society - for economic growth and quality of life. Existing infrastructure is rapidly deteriorating, the rate of which will accelerate with increasing pressures from climate change and population growth, and the condition of the large majority of assets is unknown. Stewardship of infrastructure to ensure it continuously performs its function will be a colossal challenge for asset owners and operators. The performance of new infrastructure assets must be monitored throughout their life-cycle because they are being designed and constructed to withstand largely unknown future conditions. The UK must be better prepared to face these grand challenges by exploiting technology to increase understanding of asset deterioration and improve decision making and asset management.

This research is central to EPSRC's priority area of Engineering for Sustainability and Resilience. The goal is to transform geotechnical asset management by developing new, low-cost, autonomous sensing technologies for condition appraisal and real-time communication of deterioration. This new approach will sense Acoustic Emission (AE) generated by geotechnical assets. AE is generated in soil bodies and soil-structure systems (SB&SSS) by deformation, and has been proven to propagate many tens - even hundreds - of metres along structural elements. This presents an exciting opportunity that has never been exploited before: to develop autonomous sensing systems that can be distributed across structural elements (e.g. buried pipes, pile foundations, retaining walls, tunnel linings, rail track) to listen to AE - analogous to a stethoscope being used to listen to a patient's heartbeat - and provide information on the health of infrastructure in real-time. The idea to use AE sensing to monitor geotechnical assets in this way is novel - it is expected to lead to a disruptive advance in monitoring capability and revolutionise infrastructure stewardship.

AE has the potential to increase our understanding of how assets are deteriorating, which could lead to improved design approaches, and to extract more information about asset condition than existing techniques: not only deformation behaviour, but also, for example, changes in stress states, transitions from pre- to post-peak shear strength, and using correlation techniques it will be possible to locate the source of AE to target maintenance and remediation activities. AE sensing will also provide real-time warnings which will enable safety-critical decisions to be made to reduce damages and lives lost as a result of geotechnical asset failures.

The number of asset monitoring locations required per unit length to achieve sufficient spatial resolution will be less than other monitoring techniques, and significantly lower cost. Piezoelectric transducers, which sense the AE, are now being developed at costs as low as a few tens of pence per sensor - this recent technological advance makes this research timely. AE sensors could be installed during construction to monitor condition throughout the life-cycle of new-build assets (e.g. HS2), and retrofitted to existing, ageing assets.

This will be the most fundamental and ambitious investigation into the understanding of AE generated by SB&SSS yet attempted. The findings will mark a major leap forward in scientific understanding and our ability to exploit AE in novel asset health monitoring systems. The fellowship aims to develop robust diagnostic frameworks and analytics to interpret AE generated by geotechnical assets. This will be achieved using a powerful set of complementary element and large-scale experiments. The outcomes will be demonstrated to end-users and plans will be developed with collaborators for: full-scale field testing with in-service assets to demonstrate performance and benefits in intended applications and environments; and implementation in commercial products that could have significant societal and economic impact.

Planned Impact

The outcomes of this research have the potential for impact with exceptional reach and significance world-wide. This work will develop new and improved infrastructure health monitoring capability, which will benefit communities exposed to risks posed by geotechnical assets, in addition to the organisations that design, construct and own/operate geotechnical infrastructure.

The potential significant economic and societal impacts of Dr Smith's research are through commercialisation and global deployment (Technology Readiness Level 9) in the medium to long term (expected to be 10-15 years). This will transform geotechnical asset management through enabling targeted and timely intervention, and real-time warnings of limit states (serviceability and ultimate) which will protect people and infrastructure.

The fellowship impact plan has been formulated to engage end-users, develop plans for exploitation and to inspire, inform and educate general public groups.

Fellowship impact activities will include:
- The fellowship will have an industry advisory panel comprising an asset owner (Severn Trent Water), contractor (Costain) and consultant (CH2M). These end-users have been involved in developing this proposal and confirmed their plans for co-creation and engagement with the research from conception through to commercialisation; this will ensure the research and development is informed by user needs and expectations. Regular meetings will be held with these end-users, which will facilitate two-way knowledge exchange. The advisors will share industry challenges and expertise to inform both the research work packages and the impact activities, and Dr Smith will share the research progress. Two workshops will be held to bring together the advisory panel with other practitioners, in addition to technology providers (e.g. electronics engineers and computer scientists), to engage a range of end-users in the research.
- Applications will be developed for further funding with partners and collaborators to support full-scale field testing with in-service geotechnical assets to demonstrate the performance and benefits of the research in its intended applications and environments. This will progress the research through TRLs and build evidence to support commercialisation. It is envisaged that commercialisation will be through licensing to a technology provider(s) that offers products to appropriate end-users.
- A high profile end of project dissemination event will be held at, e.g., One Great George Street in London (ICE headquarters) to draw a large audience. This will be an opportunity to engage a range of end-users, share the research outcomes (e.g. demonstration of the prototype analytics), steer the future direction of the research and plan exploitation.
- To further engage end-users Dr Smith will: participate in industry-led events such as Ground Engineering conferences (e.g. Instrumentation and Monitoring) and the British Geotechnical Association's annual conference; and publish articles in trade outlets such as Ground Engineering and New Civil Engineer magazines.
- Short, high-profile news stories will be coordinated with Loughborough University's press office and project partners to disseminate key achievements, events, papers and outcomes. This could lead to radio, TV, news and web coverage for the research.
- A dedicated fellowship website will be developed to report research progress, in addition to a social media presence (e.g. @Alister_Smith10). These outlets will be used to disseminate to academia, industry and the wider public.
- Exhibition materials including a video and interactive physical model will be developed to facilitate engagement with practitioners at industry events and general public groups at outreach events.
- Dr Smith will become a STEM ambassador to engage with and inspire young people to pursue a STEM career.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description Assessment, Costing and enHancement of long lIfe, Long Linear assEtS (ACHILLES)
Amount £4,872,904 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R034575/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 12/2022
 
Description PhD studentship to support EPSRC Fellowship
Amount £60,000 (GBP)
Organisation Loughborough University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2020
 
Description Collaboration at the world-leading buried infrastructure research facility at Queen's University, Canada 
Organisation Queen's University
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Acoustic emission sensing of pipe/soil interaction during full-scale normal faulting experiments on buried pipelines.
Collaborator Contribution Hosting of my visit, access to facility, supply of materials and technician time.
Impact A journal publication on this collaborative research is currently under review (26/02/2019)
Start Year 2017
 
Description Landslide monitoring and early warning, Hakha, Myanmar, using the Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission system 
Organisation Datalink Electronics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supply of Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Datalink were contracted to manufacture the Community Slope SAFE sensor systems. FHI360 are contributing to the field work, project meetings and workshops.
Impact Initial phase of trial in progress, no impact yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Landslide monitoring and early warning, Hakha, Myanmar, using the Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission system 
Organisation FHI 360
Country United States 
Sector Charity/Non Profit 
PI Contribution Supply of Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Datalink were contracted to manufacture the Community Slope SAFE sensor systems. FHI360 are contributing to the field work, project meetings and workshops.
Impact Initial phase of trial in progress, no impact yet.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Landslide monitoring and early warning, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using the Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission system 
Organisation Datalink Electronics
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supply of Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Datalink were contracted to manufacture the Community Slope SAFE sensor systems. JKR, SlopeWatch and USM are contributing to the field work, project meetings and workshops.
Impact Engagement and increased awareness of landslide monitoring and early warning.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Landslide monitoring and early warning, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using the Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission system 
Organisation Government of Malaysia
Department Malaysian Public Works Department
PI Contribution Supply of Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Datalink were contracted to manufacture the Community Slope SAFE sensor systems. JKR, SlopeWatch and USM are contributing to the field work, project meetings and workshops.
Impact Engagement and increased awareness of landslide monitoring and early warning.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Landslide monitoring and early warning, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using the Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission system 
Organisation SlopeWatch
PI Contribution Supply of Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Datalink were contracted to manufacture the Community Slope SAFE sensor systems. JKR, SlopeWatch and USM are contributing to the field work, project meetings and workshops.
Impact Engagement and increased awareness of landslide monitoring and early warning.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Landslide monitoring and early warning, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, using the Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission system 
Organisation University of Science Malaysia
Country Malaysia 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of Community Slope SAFE acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Datalink were contracted to manufacture the Community Slope SAFE sensor systems. JKR, SlopeWatch and USM are contributing to the field work, project meetings and workshops.
Impact Engagement and increased awareness of landslide monitoring and early warning.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Monitoring of an Environment Agency flood embankment, South Ferriby, UK, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Environment Agency
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution EA funded the installation of the instrumentation. They also provided staff time to support the work and attend project meetings.
Impact Low cost real-time slope monitoring to inform risk management for the protection of people and infrastructure.
Start Year 2016
 
Description Monitoring the Flat Cliffs and Scarborough Spa slopes, North Yorkshire, UK, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation CH2M HILL
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution SBC provided funds for the boreholes at both the Scarborough Spa and Flat Cliffs sites, in which the Slope ALARMS systems were installed. CH2M provided in-kind support through staff time for project meetings and field data collection.
Impact Conference paper: Performance of an acoustic emission monitoring system to detect subsurface ground movement at Flat Cliffs, North Yorkshire, UK. PhD thesis: Quantification of slope deformation behaviour using acoustic emission monitoring. Journal article: Photographic feature: Acoustic emission monitoring of coastal slopes in NE England, UK
Start Year 2011
 
Description Monitoring the Flat Cliffs and Scarborough Spa slopes, North Yorkshire, UK, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Scarborough Borough Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution SBC provided funds for the boreholes at both the Scarborough Spa and Flat Cliffs sites, in which the Slope ALARMS systems were installed. CH2M provided in-kind support through staff time for project meetings and field data collection.
Impact Conference paper: Performance of an acoustic emission monitoring system to detect subsurface ground movement at Flat Cliffs, North Yorkshire, UK. PhD thesis: Quantification of slope deformation behaviour using acoustic emission monitoring. Journal article: Photographic feature: Acoustic emission monitoring of coastal slopes in NE England, UK
Start Year 2011
 
Description Monitoring the Peace River landslide, Alberta, Canada, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Government of Alberta
Department Ministry of Transportation
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Queen's University provided time to help with the field work and participated in regular project meetings. Alberta Transportation provided funds for the borehole drilling, in which the instrumentation was installed. Thurber Engineering provided time to help with the field work and ongoing maintenance of the system at the site, and made arrangements to facilitate Dr Alister Smith's visits to Canada to perform the field work. Thurber also provided materials for the installation and participate in project meetings.
Impact Conference paper: Listening for Landslides: Method, Measurements and the Peace River Case Study Journal paper: Correlation of acoustic emissions with patterns of movement in an extremely slow moving landslide at Peace River, Alberta, Canada
Start Year 2013
 
Description Monitoring the Peace River landslide, Alberta, Canada, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Queen's University
Department Faculty of Civil Engineering
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Queen's University provided time to help with the field work and participated in regular project meetings. Alberta Transportation provided funds for the borehole drilling, in which the instrumentation was installed. Thurber Engineering provided time to help with the field work and ongoing maintenance of the system at the site, and made arrangements to facilitate Dr Alister Smith's visits to Canada to perform the field work. Thurber also provided materials for the installation and participate in project meetings.
Impact Conference paper: Listening for Landslides: Method, Measurements and the Peace River Case Study Journal paper: Correlation of acoustic emissions with patterns of movement in an extremely slow moving landslide at Peace River, Alberta, Canada
Start Year 2013
 
Description Monitoring the Peace River landslide, Alberta, Canada, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Thurber Engineering Ltd
Country Canada 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution Queen's University provided time to help with the field work and participated in regular project meetings. Alberta Transportation provided funds for the borehole drilling, in which the instrumentation was installed. Thurber Engineering provided time to help with the field work and ongoing maintenance of the system at the site, and made arrangements to facilitate Dr Alister Smith's visits to Canada to perform the field work. Thurber also provided materials for the installation and participate in project meetings.
Impact Conference paper: Listening for Landslides: Method, Measurements and the Peace River Case Study Journal paper: Correlation of acoustic emissions with patterns of movement in an extremely slow moving landslide at Peace River, Alberta, Canada
Start Year 2013
 
Description Monitoring the Ripley landslide, British Columbia, Canada, using Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Canadian National Railway
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring system. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution University of Alberta provided time (staff and students) to help with the field work, and made arrangements to facilitate Dr Alister Smith's visit to Canada to perform the field work. Canadian National Railway provided funds for materials, travel and subsistence for Alister to complete the field installation. They also provided staff time to support the field work. Canadian Pacific Railway provided staff time to support the field work. All collaborators participate in periodic project workshops.
Impact No outputs as of yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Monitoring the Ripley landslide, British Columbia, Canada, using Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Canadian Pacific Railway
Country Canada 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring system. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution University of Alberta provided time (staff and students) to help with the field work, and made arrangements to facilitate Dr Alister Smith's visit to Canada to perform the field work. Canadian National Railway provided funds for materials, travel and subsistence for Alister to complete the field installation. They also provided staff time to support the field work. Canadian Pacific Railway provided staff time to support the field work. All collaborators participate in periodic project workshops.
Impact No outputs as of yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Monitoring the Ripley landslide, British Columbia, Canada, using Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation University of Alberta
Department Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Country Canada 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring system. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations at workshops and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution University of Alberta provided time (staff and students) to help with the field work, and made arrangements to facilitate Dr Alister Smith's visit to Canada to perform the field work. Canadian National Railway provided funds for materials, travel and subsistence for Alister to complete the field installation. They also provided staff time to support the field work. Canadian Pacific Railway provided staff time to support the field work. All collaborators participate in periodic project workshops.
Impact No outputs as of yet.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Monitoring the Ruthlin Mill and Duffryn Cottages landslides, Wales, UK, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Monmouthshire County Council
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution MMC provided £2000 for the field installations of Slope ALARMS at the two sites. They also provided staff time to support the work and attend project meetings. Parsons provided in-kind support to help with planning the field work and to attend project meetings.
Impact Low cost real-time slope monitoring to inform risk management for the protection of people and infrastructure.
Start Year 2015
 
Description Monitoring the Ruthlin Mill and Duffryn Cottages landslides, Wales, UK, using the Slope ALARMS acoustic emission system 
Organisation Parsons Brinckerhoff
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Supply of Slope ALARMS acoustic emission monitoring systems. Field work for installation of the instrumentation and ongoing support services. Presentations and contributions to project meetings.
Collaborator Contribution MMC provided £2000 for the field installations of Slope ALARMS at the two sites. They also provided staff time to support the work and attend project meetings. Parsons provided in-kind support to help with planning the field work and to attend project meetings.
Impact Low cost real-time slope monitoring to inform risk management for the protection of people and infrastructure.
Start Year 2015
 
Title Worldwide exclusive license - Acoustic Emission monitoring of slope stability (Slope ALARMS and Community Slope SAFE) - RST Instruments Ltd 
Description The Acoustic Emission systems for slope stability monitoring (Slope ALARMS and Community Slope SAFE) have been licensed by Loughborough University to RST Instruments Ltd. 
IP Reference  
Protection Protection not required
Year Protection Granted 2017
Licensed Yes
Impact We have licensed Slope ALARMS and Community Slope SAFE to RST Instruments Ltd who will further develop, manufacture and distribute the sensors world-wide, maximising economic and societal impact.
 
Description Article and interview on Listening to Infrastructure 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An article and interview on Listening to Infrastructure has been produced and disseminated by Open Access Government.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/bitstream/2134/36603/1/Listening%20to%20Infrastructure%20-%2...
 
Description Article and interview on Listening to Infrastructure 
Form Of Engagement Activity A magazine, newsletter or online publication
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact An article and interview on Listening to Infrastructure has been produced and disseminated by Impact. Impact is a series of high-quality, open access and free to access science reports designed to enable the dissemination of research impact to key stakeholders.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Article and interview on Listening to Infrastructure EPSRC Fellowship 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Interview for Research Professional and Research Fortnight: Fine-tuning an EPSRC postdoc Fellowship
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Listening to Infrastructure website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Website to support EPSRC Fellowship, Listening to Infrastructure, launched and continuously updated.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation and meeting - Listening to Infrastructure - Severn Trent Water 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact I delivered a presentation to a team of practitioners at Severn Trent Water, who are a partner on my EPSRC Fellowship, to explain the project plan and progress that has been made. This engagement activity supported discussions around potential collaborative projects for field trials.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation and meetings with RST Instruments Ltd 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure as part of a visit to RST Instruments Ltd. Vancouver
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at Queen's University, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure and Slope ALARMS research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at University of California, Berkeley 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure as part of a visit to discuss potential collaborations with UC-Berkeley.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at the University of Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure and Slope ALARMS research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation at the University of British Columbia, Canada 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure as part of a visit to the University of British Columbia, Canada
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Presentation at the University of Cambridge 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure and Slope ALARMS research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at the University of Oxford 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure and Slope ALARMS research by Alister Smith.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure to BC Hydro, Vancouver 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Presentation on Listening to Infrastructure as part of a visit to BC Hydro, Vancouver
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017