Unified modelling framework of sub- and super- critical injection dynamics

Lead Research Organisation: University of Brighton
Department Name: Sch of Computing, Engineering & Maths

Abstract

Despite many previous (mostly experimental) efforts to characterise super-critical injection conditions, they still remain a challenging fluid dynamics problem due to the multi-scale, multi-phase character of the complex physical phenomena that governs it.

This proposal aims to offer a systematic approach towards a better understanding and prediction of the transition of sub- critical to super- critical injection phenomena, combining novel state of the art simulations with experiments already performed by the University of Brighton and Sandia National Laboratories for diesel engine conditions. The model will include real gas effects and target both primary and secondary atomization regions at the limit of transition between sub- critical to super- critical conditions.

Such an approach is currently lacking from commercial and open source simulation tools. The new framework will be developed within Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and will be based on the extension of ideas also used in probabilistic modelling of flame interfaces (surface density approaches). The major strength of the approach is that it does not include any a priori region-dependent assumptions for the liquid-gas volume fraction in the computational cells, and bypasses the spherical vision of the liquid structures that compose the spray. Thus, it can be applicable both to the near-nozzle and the dilute spray areas, and represent both sharp (as in the case of sub- critical injection) and diffused (more representative of super-critical conditions) interfaces.

Our suggested numerical models have the potential to capture the underlying physics of the phenomena even at extreme thermodynamic conditions and therefore can play the role of "virtual experiments", providing valuable access to flow areas and conditions where real experiments face limitations. The numerical framework that will be presented in the proposed research aspires to lead to the creation of the new generation of equipment design tools that will be available to both academic and non-academic sectors and will facilitate the cost effective design of novel high pressure injection systems. Moreover, the outcomes of the research will be disseminated to the academic community through publications in high impact journals and national and international conferences as well as an outreach workshop. These could change the way we currently view the modelling of multiphase problems not only for automotive application but for other disciplines involving super-critical fluids.

Planned Impact

The social, environmental and economic importance of maximising energy efficiency and minimising emissions from the use of liquid fuels in the power generation and transportation fields is significant. Using the RCUK Typology, this project has impact in the three fields shown below:

- Commercialisation & Exploitation: This project will take an innovative modelling approach to unveil the mechanism of the transition of sub to super-critical injection, pushing forward towards novel, energy efficient future engines. While seeking to unlock the physics of a very complex fluid dynamics problem at a fundamental research level, the proposal has been formulated to also address the current needs of the automotive industry. The code to be developed aims to model realistic pressure and temperature scenarios unsatisfactorily modelled by existing methodologies. A leading companies in the field, Ricardo UK Ltd, has indicated in their Letter of Support the various ways in which this project could impact their design and manufacturing process. Apart from the automotive sector, this proposal has the potential for a wider impact in various other fields that supercritical sprays are involved, since is expected that some of the results will be directly applicable to the modelling of other spray phenomena (e.g. aerosol sprays in medicine or agriculture).

- Environmental sustainability and improving social welfare:A large number of deaths are currently linked to air pollution according to the World Health Organisation. Moreover pollution and environmental degradation is negatively affecting people's overall quality of life. Considering that by some estimates, the total number of vehicles worldwide could reach 2.5 billion by 2050, the pressing need for improved fuel efficiency in order to keep carbon emissions within acceptable limits is clear. This project aims to make a significant contribution to the design of a new generation of computational tools resulting in a technology with the potential to reduce harmful engine emissions.

- Evidence based policy making & influencing public policies: Pushing the technology frontiers in terms of engine manufacturing indirectly affects
the way that policies are made. If the technology is available that allows minimum emissions then a greater pressure can be put to industries to reduce their emissions.

Publications

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Navarro-Martinez S (2019) An investigation on the impact of small-scale models in gasoline direct injection sprays (ECN Spray G) in International Journal of Engine Research

 
Description - One assumption when the proposal started was that real fluid dynamics play a very important role in the modelling of transcritical and supercritial sprays. However a key finding of the work is that in reality transcritical sprays can be treated with conventional modelling approaches given sophisticated tuning of the coefficients.

- As part of this grant we also investigated in nozzle phenomena and we developed an new compressible caviaiton model which accounts for the efect of the surface tension. In most existent models this effect is ignored however we found that the inclusion for this effect is very important in order to better model the in-nozzle dynamics of low viscosity fuels.

- To address the problem of unreliable tuning for in-cylinder simulations, a comprehensive approach based on tabulation of the constants which paves the way for automation in in-cylinder CFD and use of machine learning techniques in the future has been developed.

- A multiphase flow solver for interface capturing has been developed and evaluated against well established benchmark cases. Wide range of control param eters of the VoF methodology have been tested, aiming to shed light to their effect on physical properties of micro-scale flows as well as how they interlink. The suggested methodology is targeting the efficient and yet rigorous simulation of complex interface motion at capillary dominated flows (low capillary number). Such flows are encountered in various configurations ranging from micro-devices to naturally occurring porous media. In a follow up grant we are working on extending the methodology to high We numbers.
Exploitation Route -Develop collaborations with colleagues from various fields: This grant gave me the opportunity to develop various innovative methods and tools for modelling multi-phase flows. With the funds available to me to participate to various conferences (see publicaitons) and research visits (see engagement activities) I had the opportunity to present my work to diverse audience which currently lead to the development in collaborations that aim at applying my findings in different field (and not only IC engines). Just to give a few examples: The collaboration with MIT gave me the opportunity to explore the use of the tools developed to desulfurization and upgrading of high-sulfur crude oil into high-value, cleaner fuels. Another example is a proposal I am currently in preparation in collaboration with the University of Southampton for bubble collapse close to porous media that will have as main application membrane cleaning

- Bridging the gap between novel ideas and final product: This grant gave me the opportunity to further strengthen with Ricardo a leading automotive consultancy (project partner) and actively help them improve their modelling tools. Although we mainly used OpenFoam as the basis of the development of our tools we are currently in the process of also performing a direct comparison with their own software (VECTIS) and we help them improve the existent models they use to improve the efficiency of the simulations. As an exmaple we have helped them to establish a new framework based on Design of Experiment approach that allows for an adaptive model coefficient tuning which has been proven very useful for the design of future engines.

Also the grant gave me the opportunity to perform invited talks for other companies as well (BP, Caterpillar - see engagement activities). These activities help to strengthen the potential of commercialization of my research that aspires the help the cost effective design of zero emission engines.
Sectors Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Chemicals,Energy,Healthcare,Transport

URL https://www.brighton.ac.uk/women-of-impact/dr-konstantina-vogiatzaki.aspx
 
Description The main focus of the project is to develop a unified modelling toolkit to predict the transition from trans and super-critical injection conditions. We are currently in the process of developing a unique spray modelling approach using Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) that is specifically tailored for high pressure sprays. Now that the project has reached to each end there are three important outcomes that can bring positive economical impact and environmental impact a) We work in close collaboration with Ricardo Ltd, a leading automotive consultancy (project partner) and we actively help them improve their modelling tools. Although we mainly use OpenFoam as the basis of the development of our tools we are currently in the process of also performing a direct comparison with their own software (VECTIS) and we help them improve the existent models they use to improve the efficiency of the simulations. As an example we have helped them to establish a new framework based on Design of Experiment approach that allows for an adaptive model coefficient tuning which has been proven very useful for the design of future engines. Part of this work has already been published (*) and we are also in progress of submitting two more journal publications in collaboration with colleagues from Ricardo. The impact of this collaboration is to strengthen the competitiveness of the UK since through this collaboration the project facilitates innovation in product design. The outcomes of the project enable more efficient and thus more economical engine operation. In the 1980s and 90s the UK was a leader in design tools supporting R&D in large industries worldwide. In order to maintain this lead, it is vital to develop innovative and easy-to-use design tools, such as those developed in this project b) Through this project I had the opportunity also to give invited talks at major stakeholders (BP, Caterpillar, JLR) (see engagement activities) to discuss the outcomes of my work. This had an impact in terms of helping these companies understand better what CFD can offer in a variety of multiphase flow problems. With some of these companies we are currently in discussions of extending our collaboration and helping them with the design of their equipment. c) In the long term, the project will strengthen CFD as industrial design tool, delivering more accurate predictions at cheaper cost. This will have a strong impact in areas where fluid mechanics design is critical, such as in the aero-space sector, car manufacturing and the energy sector; strong proof being the industrial support provided to this project. c) Because of this continuing collaboration that has been established with Ricardo (and extended to other companies as well) I have been invited to a newly formed consortium (see Collaborations and Partnerships ). This consortium is formed in order to support further the development of a new engine technology that will significantly increase fuel efficiency and reduce harmful emissions for heavy goods vehicles (CryoPower). Trials have produced a 20 per cent reduction in fuel consumption against the most fuel-efficient lorries and a 30 per cent reduction against the average fleet. Researchers estimate the new engine could bring an estimated fuel saving of £9,000 per annum per truck. My team contributes in the optimization of the air fuel mixing under super-critical conditions through numerical simulations. If the product is successful then the economical and environmental gain is massive and a considerable boost to UK competitiveness. d) It is only through continuous research, focused on addressing innovative fluid dynamics concepts such as supercritical injection, that truly transformative change to our energy future and climate sustainability beyond 2050 can occur, securing the wellbeing of society. According to the World Health Organisation, about 7% of deaths are caused or contributed to by air pollution; the effect on people's quality of life being even greater. Considering that by some estimates, the total number of vehicles worldwide could reach 2.5 billion by 2050, the pressing need for improved fuel efficiency in order to keep carbon emissions within acceptable limits is clear. This project has made a significant contribution to the design of a new generation of computational tools, resulting in a technology with the potential to reduce harmful engine emissions e ) Finally the grant had a very positive impact to my career since it allowed me strengthen my track record in multi-phase flows and obtain a follow up EPSRC fellowship (EP/S001824/1). This will allow to further grow my research team, and help me positively contribute to the training of the next generation of skillful CFD engineers that will strengthen the UK competitiveness. (*) 1. D. Nsikane, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan "Predictive Engine Simulations based on a novel DoE/RANS approach with coefficient tabulation", IMechE, Fuel Systems-Engines, 2018, London, UK 2. D. M. Nsikane, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan, M. Heikal: Assessment of the performance of conventional spray models under high pressure and high temperature conditions using a "Design of Experiments" approach, at 14th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems ICLASS 2018 3. F. Khalid, S. Harvey, R. Morgan, K. Vogiatzaki, A. Atkins, D. Mason, M. Heikal, Towards zero emission engines through the adoption of combustion lead engine design realised through a split cycle topology, Proceedings of the Conference on Thermo-and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Direct Injection Engines (THIESEL) 2018
First Year Of Impact 2018
Sector Aerospace, Defence and Marine,Energy,Environment,Transport
Impact Types Societal,Economic

 
Description Department of Energy Network Program
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation Department of Energy and Climate Change 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2018 
End 01/2022
 
Description EPSRC CASE studentship
Amount £77,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2021
 
Description Institutional Support
Amount £205,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R512977/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 09/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description University Of Brighton Doctoral Center
Amount £55,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Brighton 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 10/2021
 
Description Unveiling the injection dynamics of cryogenic energy carriers for zero-emission high-efficiency systems
Amount £449,994 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/S001824/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 06/2018 
End 06/2021
 
Title Eulerian Lagrangian Solver in OpenFoam for Supercrital Fluids 
Description A new tool based on the Eulerian Lagrangian Methodology for spray dynamics is currently under development within OpenFoam. The framework specifically targets ultra high injection pressure conditions which are present in modern automotive engines. The fact that the tool is developed as an additional library to OpenFoam (Open Scource Computaitonal Fluid Dynamics ToolKit) allows for the dissemination of the outputs to a wider community since no licensees are required to use the tool. 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2017 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact A number of publications have resulted from this work 1) 2. C. Bilger, M. Aboukhedr, K. Vogiatzaki, R. Cant, Evaluation of two-phase flow solvers using Level Set and Volume of Fluid methods, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol 345, pp 665-686, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2017.05.044, 2017 2) 1. C. Li, C. Crua, K.Mustafa, R. Morgan, K. Vogiatzaki, LES investigation of the effect of small scale turbulence to the prediction of the break up dynamics of a high speed evaporating spray, will appear c) at the Proceedings of the Conference on Thermo-and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Direct Injection Engines (THIESEL) 2018 3) 2. P. McGinn, C. Li, C. Crua, K. Vogiatzaki, Assessing the Performance of Conventional Turbulence Models for Simulating Sub-Grid Scale Turbulence Cavitation Interaction in Fuel Injectors, will appear at the Proceedings of the Conference on Thermo-and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Direct Injection Engines (THIESEL) 2018 4) 5. K. Vogiatzaki, C. Crua, R. Morgan, M.R. Heikal, A study of the controlling parameters of fuel air mixture formation for ECN Spray A, Proceedings 28th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ILASS) 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/ILASS2017.2017 
 
Title A novel numerical framework for modelling micro-scale multiphase flows with sharp interfaces 
Description A numerical framework for modelling micro-scale multiphase flows with sharp interfaces has been developed. . The methodology uses as a basis the Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method combined with additional sharpening smoothing and filtering algorithms for the interface capturing. These algorithms help the minimisation of the parasitic currents present in flow simulations. The framework is implemented within a finite volume code (OpenFOAM) using a limited Multidimensional Universal Limiter with Explicit Solution (MULES) implicit formulation, which allows larger time steps at low capillary numbers to be utilised. In addition, an adaptive interface compression scheme is introduced for the first time in order to allow for a dynamic estimation of the compressive velocity only at the areas of interest and thus has the advantage of avoiding the use of a-priori defined parameters. The accuracy and stability of the proposed model is verified against five different benchmark test cases. Moreover, numerical results are compared against analytical solutions as well as available experimental data, which reveal improved solutions relative to the standard VoF solver. M. Aboukhedr, A. Georgoulas, M. Marengo, M. Gavaises, K. Vogiatzaki, Simulation of micro-flow dynamics at low capillary numbers using adaptive interface, Computer &Fluids, Vol 165, pp: 13-32, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compfluid.2018.01.009, 2018 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Apart from work on Eulerian-Lagrangian mehtdologies, additional research has been performed with Eulerian-Eulerian methodlologies since the aspiration is in the future to develop a unified framework that treats cavitation and primary spray formation with pure Eulerian schemes and then treat the secondary atomisation with Eulerian-Lagrnagian shemes. The suggested methodology is targeting the efficient and yet rigorous simulation of complex interface motion. The adaptive method is found to increase the numerical accuracy and to reduce the sensitivity of the methodology to tuning parameters. 
URL https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0045793018300094
 
Title Database of the numerical parameters influencing predictions of transcritical sprays 
Description During this project we performed an extensive sensitivity analysis of the numerical parameters influencing the prediction of ECN Spray A (grid structure, grid size, droplet sub-models, initial droplet distribution, computational time) using Eulerian - Lagrangian methodologies and LES. The data base is currently published in various conferences (*) and one journal publication is at the rebuttal stage (International Journal of Multi phase flows) (**). (*) 1. C. Li, C. Crua, R. Morgan, K. Vogiatzaki, Assessment of the grid requirements for the modelling of the dynamics of high speed evaporating sprays using LES / Eulerian-Lagrangian frameworks, at 14th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems ICLASS 2018 2. K. Vogiatzaki, C. Crua, R. Morgan, M.R. Heikal, A study of the controlling parameters of fuel air mixture formation for ECN Spray A, Proceedings 28th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ILASS) 2017 http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/ILASS2017.2017 (**) 1 C. Li, C. Crua, R. Morgan, K. Vogiatzaki, Effect of the scale resolution on the two phase coupling characteristics of high speed evaporating sprays using LES / Eulerian-Lagrangian methodologies, under rebuttle, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact ECN Spray A is characteristic of a high speed spray injected at high pressure high temperature ambient environment approaching the critical point of the liquid fuel. It can be used by modellers to a-priori calibrate their models in modelling similar sprays saving computational time. 
 
Title Novel compressible cavitation model for better prediciton of surface desnity 
Description An OpenFOAM based solver (cavitatingFoam) was modified to account for interfacial phenomena such as surface tension in order to predict better wrinkling effects in low viscosity fuels. The model was extensively validated against published data for a single injector nozzle and for a range of fuels. The model has been presented in two conference papers (*) and a journal article is currently under preparation. (*) 1. P. McGinn, C. Crua, K. Vogiatzaki, Assessing the Importance of Surface Tension Effect for Simulating the Sub-Grid Scale Interaction of Turbulence and Cavitation in Micro-Channel Flows, at 14th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems 2. P McGinn, C Crua and K Vogiatzaki, "Assessing the role of surface tension force to the simulation of sub-grid scale interaction of turbulence and cavitation under realistic diesel injection conditions" IMechE, Fuel Systems-Engines, 2018, London, UK 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact With the ever increasing operating pressures of modern fuel injectors, the spray formation processes are increasingly influenced by the inception and development of cavitation inside the injector orifices and nozzle. This model provides a better description of the in -nozzle phenomena and also is suitable for use in the unified approach developed within this grant based on the "evolving surface concept". 
URL https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326493266_Assessing_the_Importance_of_Surface_Tension_Effec...
 
Title Nover Framework in DoE/RANS approach with coefficient tabulation for predictive engine simulations 
Description To address the problem of unreliable tuning for in-cylinder simulations, a comprehensive approach based on tabulation of the constants which paves the way for automation in in-cylinder CFD and use of machine learning techniques in the future is developed. Starting from the conditions of a simplified environment of constant volume experiments (ECN Spray A) , coefficient matrices that correspond to individual operating points were derived. Then these coefficient matrices were used to extract a mapping between the trend in the value change of these coefficients and the underlying physical conditions. The next step was an inversion of the mapping process where areas of different physics were identified in progressively more complex configurations (Rapid Compression Machine (RCM) and Engine). A self-adjusted set of coefficients based on tabulation is introduced to correspond better to the changing conditions in the cylinder as the piston moves. The work is published already in various conferences (*) and one more journal paper has been submitted at Fuel in 2019 (**). (*) 1. D. Nsikane, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan "Predictive Engine Simulations based on a novel DoE/RANS approach with coefficient tabulation", IMechE, Fuel Systems-Engines, 2018, London, UK 2. D. M. Nsikane, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan, M. Heikal: Assessment of the performance of conventional spray models under high pressure and high temperature conditions using a "Design of Experiments" approach, at 14th International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems ICLASS 2018 (**) 1. D. M. Nsikane,2, K. Vogiatzaki, R. E. Morgan, M. Heikal, K. Mustafa, A. Ward, N. Winder Novel approach for adaptive coefficient tuning for the simulation of evaporating high-speed sprays injected into a high temperature and pressure environment, Under submission, Fuel, 2019 
Type Of Material Computer model/algorithm 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact The model paves the way for very fast and fully predictive engine simulations. This work is also in direct collaboration with industry and the model has been implemented in VECTIS (Ricardo's software). 
URL https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330926665_Predictive_Engine_Simulations_based_on_a_novel_Do...
 
Description Cool Combustion Project 
Organisation Loughborough University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been invited to participate to a consortium activity under the umbrella of Advanced Propulsion Center. The consortium focus is to investigate advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency. It involves partners from various Universities (Sussex, Southampton Loughboroug,Brighton) and is driven by Ricardo LtD a global engineering, environmental and strategic consultancy.. The specific focus of the Brighton team (Myself and Dr Rob Morgan) is a) To identify test cases from the literature (not necessarily an engine) with experimental data to test the validity of the code for super-critical injection conditions for both air and fuel and b) Run test case, test the code and identify the CFD parameters for engine analysis. My involvement to the consortium resulted through my work in EP/P012744/1 which allowed me to create a working relation with Ricardo Ltd as well as gain expertise in the field of super-critical fluids.
Collaborator Contribution Within the consortium we are currently at the stage where we all share technical knowledge around combustion. We hold monthly meetings where each partners is sharing their new findings and their progress. Sussex University is contributing with their expertise to chemical modelling, Southampton their expertise in mixing, Loughborough in combustion experimentation techniques and Riccardo with their industrial experience.
Impact The collaboration is at its initial stages (4th months into the pilot study). The outcomes are a) One review paper on the current state of ultra low emissions ultra high efficiency energy systems currently under preparation b) A large scale EPSRC proposal involving the partners that currently participate to this pilot study that will be submitted the next three months c) As a specific output of our team (University of Brighton) we have one conference paper submitted and accepted to Thiesel Conference 2018
Start Year 2017
 
Description Cool Combustion Project 
Organisation Ricardo UK Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution I have been invited to participate to a consortium activity under the umbrella of Advanced Propulsion Center. The consortium focus is to investigate advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency. It involves partners from various Universities (Sussex, Southampton Loughboroug,Brighton) and is driven by Ricardo LtD a global engineering, environmental and strategic consultancy.. The specific focus of the Brighton team (Myself and Dr Rob Morgan) is a) To identify test cases from the literature (not necessarily an engine) with experimental data to test the validity of the code for super-critical injection conditions for both air and fuel and b) Run test case, test the code and identify the CFD parameters for engine analysis. My involvement to the consortium resulted through my work in EP/P012744/1 which allowed me to create a working relation with Ricardo Ltd as well as gain expertise in the field of super-critical fluids.
Collaborator Contribution Within the consortium we are currently at the stage where we all share technical knowledge around combustion. We hold monthly meetings where each partners is sharing their new findings and their progress. Sussex University is contributing with their expertise to chemical modelling, Southampton their expertise in mixing, Loughborough in combustion experimentation techniques and Riccardo with their industrial experience.
Impact The collaboration is at its initial stages (4th months into the pilot study). The outcomes are a) One review paper on the current state of ultra low emissions ultra high efficiency energy systems currently under preparation b) A large scale EPSRC proposal involving the partners that currently participate to this pilot study that will be submitted the next three months c) As a specific output of our team (University of Brighton) we have one conference paper submitted and accepted to Thiesel Conference 2018
Start Year 2017
 
Description Cool Combustion Project 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been invited to participate to a consortium activity under the umbrella of Advanced Propulsion Center. The consortium focus is to investigate advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency. It involves partners from various Universities (Sussex, Southampton Loughboroug,Brighton) and is driven by Ricardo LtD a global engineering, environmental and strategic consultancy.. The specific focus of the Brighton team (Myself and Dr Rob Morgan) is a) To identify test cases from the literature (not necessarily an engine) with experimental data to test the validity of the code for super-critical injection conditions for both air and fuel and b) Run test case, test the code and identify the CFD parameters for engine analysis. My involvement to the consortium resulted through my work in EP/P012744/1 which allowed me to create a working relation with Ricardo Ltd as well as gain expertise in the field of super-critical fluids.
Collaborator Contribution Within the consortium we are currently at the stage where we all share technical knowledge around combustion. We hold monthly meetings where each partners is sharing their new findings and their progress. Sussex University is contributing with their expertise to chemical modelling, Southampton their expertise in mixing, Loughborough in combustion experimentation techniques and Riccardo with their industrial experience.
Impact The collaboration is at its initial stages (4th months into the pilot study). The outcomes are a) One review paper on the current state of ultra low emissions ultra high efficiency energy systems currently under preparation b) A large scale EPSRC proposal involving the partners that currently participate to this pilot study that will be submitted the next three months c) As a specific output of our team (University of Brighton) we have one conference paper submitted and accepted to Thiesel Conference 2018
Start Year 2017
 
Description Cool Combustion Project 
Organisation University of Sussex
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution I have been invited to participate to a consortium activity under the umbrella of Advanced Propulsion Center. The consortium focus is to investigate advanced combustion modes that can simultaneously reduce exhaust emissions and improve thermal efficiency. It involves partners from various Universities (Sussex, Southampton Loughboroug,Brighton) and is driven by Ricardo LtD a global engineering, environmental and strategic consultancy.. The specific focus of the Brighton team (Myself and Dr Rob Morgan) is a) To identify test cases from the literature (not necessarily an engine) with experimental data to test the validity of the code for super-critical injection conditions for both air and fuel and b) Run test case, test the code and identify the CFD parameters for engine analysis. My involvement to the consortium resulted through my work in EP/P012744/1 which allowed me to create a working relation with Ricardo Ltd as well as gain expertise in the field of super-critical fluids.
Collaborator Contribution Within the consortium we are currently at the stage where we all share technical knowledge around combustion. We hold monthly meetings where each partners is sharing their new findings and their progress. Sussex University is contributing with their expertise to chemical modelling, Southampton their expertise in mixing, Loughborough in combustion experimentation techniques and Riccardo with their industrial experience.
Impact The collaboration is at its initial stages (4th months into the pilot study). The outcomes are a) One review paper on the current state of ultra low emissions ultra high efficiency energy systems currently under preparation b) A large scale EPSRC proposal involving the partners that currently participate to this pilot study that will be submitted the next three months c) As a specific output of our team (University of Brighton) we have one conference paper submitted and accepted to Thiesel Conference 2018
Start Year 2017
 
Description One month visit at MIT 
Organisation Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Department Department of Mechanical Engineering
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Dr. Cuicui Li (the post doc hired in this grant) focused on research related to numerical simulation for modelling sprays and multi-phase flows under supercritical conditions. Modelling of fluids under these conditions requires the modelling of real fluid dynamics and the implementation in the code that Dr Li was using of new equations of state. Dr Cuicui Li visit to MIT aimed at participating in ongoing projects relevant to supercritical multiphase flows, and to develop collaborations with the team members of Prof Ghonem;s group. The ongoing work at MIT mostly focuses on supercritical water technology for the desulfurization and upgrading of high-sulfur crude oil into high-value, cleaner fuels (https://www.greencarcongress.com/2015/07/20150718-mit.html). What Dr Li offered to the group was extending the applicability of their tool's for modelling supercritical water to modelling supercritical fuels for engine applications.
Collaborator Contribution As mentioned above Prof Ghoniem's group have developed unique expertise in modeling supercritical flows for fuel treatment [*]. For this purpose they have developed a new framework within OpenFoam (the same code) that Dr Li was using for modelling supercritical fluids . During her visit Dr Li had the opportunity to work withe the main creator of this framework (Dr Raghavan), gain access to the code (which was shared with us) and stat building her own tools based on this work for her own research for supercritical fuels. [*] Ashwin Raghavan, Ahmed F. Ghoniem (2014) "Simulation of supercritical water-hydrocarbon mixing in a cylindrical tee at intermediate Reynolds number: Impact of temperature difference between streams," The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, Volume 95, Pages 325-338 doi: 10.1016/j.supflu.2014.09.030
Impact A full report was produced upon the return of Dr Li back in UK that was distributed to my group so more students could benefit from this work Also this vist helped strengthen the collaboration between my group and Prof Ghoniem's group that lead this year (February 2019) in a publication at Physics of Fluids as part of a new EPSRC proposal (EP/S001824/1) which was also selected as the editor's pick. (https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5065508)
Start Year 2018
 
Description UK Fluid Network (EP/N032861/1) 
Organisation UK Fluids Network
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution I became member of the Coordination Team of three recent Special Interest Groups (SIGs) 1. Sprays in engineering applications: modelling and experimental studies (https://ukfluids.net/sig/Sprays) 2. Combustion science, technology and applications https://ukfluids.net/sig/Combustion 3. Multicore and Manycore Algorithms to Tackle Turbulent flows (MUMATUR) https://ukfluids.net/sig/MUMATUR , 2016-2019. My team contributes in the bi-annual meetings with presentations and helps with the organization of the meetings
Collaborator Contribution Through the UK Fluid Network all the partners contribute to: a) develop cross-institution bottom-up research programs and proposals; b) promote links with researchers and organisations in Europe and beyond; c)provide resources to the research community worldwide; d) act as a broker between UK academics and industry.
Impact Participation in all SIG meetings with invited talks
Start Year 2017
 
Description 2rd Special Interests Group (SIG) workshop, 'Sprays in engineering applications: modelling and experimental studies (University of Oxford) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a talk at University of Oxford the within the 2rd Special Interests Group (SIG) workshop, 'Sprays in engineering applications: modelling and experimental studies", 19th of September 2018. The title of my talk was "Physics and modelling of high " and presented some of the key findings of the grant.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 3rd Special Interests Group (SIG) workshop, 'Sprays in engineering applications: modelling and experimental studies (Coventry Unviersity) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Dr Cuicui Li (the post-doc funded by this grant) gave a talk at Coventry University the 2nd of May 2018 within the 3rd Special Interests Group (SIG) workshop, 'Sprays in engineering applications: modelling and experimental studies. The title of her talk was "LES study of evaporating spray dynamics under high speed and high temperature conditions" and presented some of the key findings of the grant
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description End of project dissemination event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was an one day conference to disseminate the results of the both EP/M009424/1 and EP/P012744/1 grants I am part of. Apart of helping at the organization of this event I gave a talk entitled "Physical insight and recent modelling trends in the dynamics  of high speed sprays "

The event included presentations of key findings from researchers and a key note from an industrial partner. Many posters were included from students associated with the project. The event gave a very helpful overview of what the project had achieved and promoted discussions on what the next steps should be.

The reason for co-organising the event was because the ULTRA project (EP/M009424/1) was a large scale project that had a very strong industrial participation (BP, Delphi Diesel Systems, Jaguar Land Rover, Ricardo Group ). This workshop and the presentation I gave were a great opportunity for me to disseminate the major outcomes of my first grant award (EP/P012744/1) to a wider audience and increase the visibility of my research.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Talk at BP 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I gave a talk entitled "An overview of the modelling capabilities of multi-phase flows at the University of Brighton" November 2018 at BP, UK. The focus of the talk was to demonstrate the tools that have been developed within my group and explore the possibilities for potential new collaborations. My talk attracted their interest and we are currently in discussions for a follow up project relevant to gasoline injection dynamics.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Talk at Caterpillar 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact I gave a talk entitled " Complex flows modelling capabilities: Droplets, Sprays • Microfluidics, Combustion" October 2018 at Cterpillar UK in front of people from the R&D department in UK but in US as well (through skype). The focus of the talk was to demonstrate the tools that have been developed within my group and explore the possibilities for potential new collaborations
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Invited Talk at the University of Southampton 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact I gave a talk entitled "LES modelling of in nozzle flow and spray formation in modern energy system, 15th of November 2017" at the University of Southampton. I had also the opportunity to meet and discuss with the members of Aerodynamics and Flight Mechanics Research Group. Through this visit I met Dr Ivo Peters who specialises in experiments with the collapse of bubbles close to solid boundaries. We are currently in the process of submitting a new EPSRC proposal that will combine experimental and numerical observations in order to better understand the collapse of bubble close to porous surfaces.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description University of Brighton Open Days 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact I participate regularly at the Open Days of our University with interactive talks relevant to Flight Simulators. I do equipment demonstration allowing the students to try our simulators (Plane and Flying Oculus platform) while I explain them the basic Fluid and Programming knowledge they need in order to build such simulators. I also discuss with them the basics of aeronautical gas turbines and how our research in sprays can help manufacturers improve fuel efficiency and safety. This gives me the opportunity to reach a wide audience and promote the understanding of parents and future students regarding the subject area of aeronautical engineering from the perspective of multiphase flows.

The feedback we got after these Open Days was that the students seemed very enthusiastic learning about the research activities of my group (as well as other groups)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018