Antimicrobial Bandages for the Treatment of Wound Infections

Lead Research Organisation: University of Liverpool
Department Name: Mech, Materials & Aerospace Engineering

Abstract

Infection is the main cause of delayed healing in closed surgical wounds, traumatic and burn wounds, and chronic skin ulcers. Infection control for wounds is a contentious issue, particularly against a background of the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) epidemic. Furthermore, treatment of wound infections represents a significant economic burden on NHS resources and the quality of life of patients. Dressings and bandages have a major part to play in the modern management of wounds, with silver-containing dressings being the most commonly used for skin wounds. While these treatments have made great strides in reducing microbial bioburden, there may be potential cytotoxic issues regarding high concentrations of silver needed for reducing infection.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent antimicrobial agent and has a proven role in wound repair which makes it an excellent candidate for the treatment of wound infections. The aim of this HIP is to improve upon the current silver technologies by embedding NO releasing silver nanoparticles (NP) into state of the art prototype bandages that will exploit NO's dual wound repair and antimicrobial function. These nanoparticles have been developed with previous EPSRC-funded funding (EP/M027325/1 Engineering Nitric Oxide Delivery Platforms for Wound Healing Applications) and we have shown the NO releasing nanoparticles to be extremely potent at killing bacteria present at very high concentrations. This proposal builds on this work by taking on a "personalised medicine" approach and tailoring release rates and concentrations of NO in different formulations for treating infections in the skin and eye.

We have brought together clinical project partners with specific and complementary skills in skin wound infection and healing, and surface ocular wound infection and healing. Our commercial partners include a world leading US company that specialises in the fabrication, characterisation, and integration of nanomaterials into products and systems and a UK based SME that is at the forefront of reconstructed in vitro skin technologies that is innovating skincare research and development. Through this partnership, we will develop the clinical applicability, and the technical and commercial viability of antimicrobial NO releasing nanoparticles and their incorporation into bandages to accelerate the bench-to-clinic impact of the proposed research.

NO-releasing nanoparticles will be fabricated and optimised to deliver a controlled and sustained release of the therapeutic. We have successfully tethered NO releasing functional groups to silver and gold nanoparticles with control over NO payload. These are first linked to a high molecular weight polymer coatings and then the polymer is conjugated to the particle to ensure high stability. We will optimise the rate of delivery and the amount of site-specific generated NO by controlling the size and shape of the NPs. All NP preparations will be evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against clinically relevant bacterial and fungal strains and their cytocompatibility. These nanoparticles will then be embedded into prototype bandages made from either electrospun polyurethane and alginate or peptide hydrogels depending on their potential application to skin or corneal wounds, respectively. The efficacy of the bandages containing the NO releasing NPs will be tested in in vitro assays and in ex vivo and in vitro 3D models. The development of this technology offers sustainable effective and economic solutions without contributing to the AMR epidemic while simultaneously participating in scientifically excellent, industrially relevant research.

Planned Impact

The partnership aligns with the investment priorities set out by the prosperity outcomes of the EPSRC delivery plan, specifically in terms of productivity and health. The technology developed will be world-leading and if successful, can be used to improve the quality for health and resilience of communities as it does not lead to AMR and is revolutionary in its ability to treat infections.

Academic: The development of smart dressings to prevent infection without causing AMR while simultaneously encouraging tissue regeneration will have an impact on wider academic communities working in antimicrobial surfaces, wound healing, biomaterials and tissue engineering. The University of Liverpool (UoL) has seven institutional research themes, three of which (Materials for the Future, Global Health and Personalised Medicine) have direct impact on the proposed research. Engagement with these themes will bring together multi-disciplinary collaborators on a new area of research which will impact the university's research strategies. UoL has Open Innovation Hub for Antimicrobial Surfaces which interfaces with industry and health institutes. The PI has membership in this Hub which will allow for the research to be ideally placed for achieving maximum impact.
Commercial: The global epidemic of AMR is the driving force behind the EPSRC'S Grand Challenge for developing future therapies that enhance efficacy of treatment, minimise cost and reduce risk to patients without causing AMR. Indeed the Department of Health has a five year plan with 'Smart surfaces and dressings to prevent infection' as a key research area. The development of antimicrobial bandages to treat wound infections holds a considerable market opportunity, which may stimulate the economic competitiveness of the UK while boosting the UK's global economic performance. This technology that has been developed during previous EPSRC funding is currently filed with the UoL Business Gateway department for IP protection. It should be noted that both the PI and CoI have prior experience of IP protection, patent application processes and the licensing of technologies. This follow on funding will accelerate the impact of this healthcare technology via the industrial partners. nanoComposix, Inc, a world leading nanoparticle company is keen to feed the technology into their product pipeline, to accelerate maximum impact of the research. Innovenn Ltd, is a UK based SME that has a strong background in wound care and regulatory pathways and as such will enable us to take the first step towards clinical trials should the technology reach the appropriate stage, in order for it to be on the fast-track to achieving maximum impact.

Clinical: The National Prescribing Centre (NPC) has stated that there is no robust clinical evidence that dressings containing antimicrobials are more effective than unmedicated dressings for the prevention or treatment of wound infections. Indeed, the NPC has stated that NHS health professionals will routinely choose the least expensive dressing unless a specific dressing can be adequately justified on clinical grounds and this indiscriminate selection of antimicrobial dressings is not the best way forward given risks of AMR and toxicity issues. Therefore, the development of new wound care technologies needs to have appropriate clinical input to achieve impact in clinic. Engagement with the clinician partners Professor Stephen Kaye and Dr Keli Kolegraff ensure that maximum impact of research outputs aligned with clinically relevant endpoints are reached.

Personnel: The multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral nature of the project will ensure that the PDRAs employed will build on their research expertise and will have a major impact on their career and should lead to future leadership roles, thereby, benefitting the UK as a whole through strengthening its research base and bringing forward new talent.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Title Antimicrobial Animals 
Description This art-science collaborative project investigated the impact of a number of creative methods to inform the public about antimicrobial resistance. A series of superhero and animal characters were developed, and presented as comic book stories and sculptures to engage the public. Helen Birnbaum, a ceramic artist and MA Art in Science student designed and produced a set of ceramic animal sculptures featuring macroscopic antimicrobial surfaces, to communicate ideas about antibacterial surfaces and their role in antibiotic resistance to a diverse public audience. This collection of Antibacterial Animals includes a Komodo dragon, a family of Geckos, and sharks, created using stoneware clay that was fired and glazed using a mixture of ceramic stains and glazes to achieve the final effect. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact This work was displayed at a public engagement event Liverpool Light Night and the impacts were published in the Journal of Visual Medicine. The event was visited by over 500 people within the city. The sculptures are now used in School Outreach Events, and on Roadshows. We have spoken to the Science Museum in London about perhaps incorporating it as part of their superbugs exhibit. 
 
Title Antimicrobial Avengers 
Description An Artist in Residence was employed to develop activities and a Graphic Artwork related to Antimicrobial Resistance. Jessica Irwin spent a few months in our laboratory exploring the concept of antimicrobial resistance and engineering strategies to fight infections. She developed 3 comic book to explain how antimicrobial resistance happens and 2 bioinspired approaches to tackling this problem. 
Type Of Art Artistic/Creative Exhibition 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact The activities and artwork was taken on a road show to school outreach events. 60 primary school students were introduced to the concepts, year 3 and yea 6. There were varying degrees of previous knowledge about the topic, but there was an immediate impact in terms of increasing knowledge and interest in the topic. The activity was also taken to a drama group in an underprivileged area. The kids in the drama group had simultaneously engaged with Alder Hay Children's Hospital to put on a play on Antimicrobial resistance. We developed a poster artwork with them. Finally we hosted a patient group activity at Alder Hey Children's Hospital as part of NIHR's "Be part of Research" day, which targeted about 60-100 people. All of this activity culminated a public engagement event at Liverpool Light Night that got over 500 people through the exhibition. The artwork was noticed and commended upon by Dame Sally Davies on her visit to Liverpool, who found the activity on her own when googling antimcirobial resistance and Liverpool. The outcome of this was presented as as paper at the Institute of Medical Illustrators Conference In Belfast. https://10times.com/imi-conference. 
URL http://germwars.co.uk
 
Title Fight of the Antimicrobials 
Description Throughout the academic year (2019-2020) paired scientists and composers have spent time together reflecting on each other's practice. The composers have immersed themselves in understanding the scientists' work, visiting laboratories, taking part in experiments The scientists have had the opportunity to gain insight into an artistic process, and reflect on their own practice as they discuss their research and methodologies with the musicians and the other scientists - within their pairings and with the wider cohort. 
Type Of Art Performance (Music, Dance, Drama, etc) 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact The performances of these exciting new works were planned for 22 April 2020 at RNCM and 13 May 2020 at The University of Liverpool. Whilst they had to be postponed due to COVID-19, the scores are complete and we hope to be able to share world premiere performances as soon as we can. 
URL https://www.rncm.ac.uk/research/research-centres-rncm/prism/prism-blog/prism-8-cubed/fight-of-the-an...
 
Description We have developed several antimicrobial medical materials including contact lenses, coatings for titanium implants and electrospun bandages that are able to releasethe antimicrobial nitric oxide to treat infections in the eye, skin and bone. The advantage of these antimicrobial materials is that they can eradicate the infection without the use of antibiotics and therefore will not contribute to the global epidemic of antimicrobial resistance.

Through this research, we have demonstrated that our antimicrobial technology has the ability to denature proteins. It has also been demonstrated through the literature that affecting the spike protein on theSARS-CoV-2 prevents it from infecting cells. NO has the ability to affect this protein and this finding allowed us to leverage funding from the UKRI COVID19 Rapid Response Call to develop antiviral PPE.
Exploitation Route We have successfully demonstrated that our technology can be used for antiviral applications and we have been successful in obtaining a UKRI COVID19 Rapid Response grant be used for developing antiviral PPE.

In line with the original objectives of the grant, we are developing antimicrobial bandages for the treatment of skin and ocular wound infections. We have currently published 3 manuscripts that are associated with this grant to demonstrate this technology: 2 in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces and 1 in Polymers. We have disseminated the results at international conferences such as EUChem, USKB-TCES, EuroBiofilms, ESB, TERMIS, RSC Materials Chemistry, RSC Biomaterials Chemistry and American Ceramics Society. We have also expanded on the reach of this technology onto titanium implants which will be used for bone tissue engineering applications. The work developed here has allowed us to branch out into other areas (medical and industrial) for infection control.
Sectors Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology

 
Description This funding has allowed us to develop strategic partnerships with several key stakeholders and Industrial Partners which have extended the significance and reach of the impact. For instance, based on the expertise we have developed here, we have partnered with an SME 5DHPG, Inc and Feedwater under the EDRF funded Eco-Innovatory Fund. Both of these SME are currently co-funding studentships in our laboratoy. Our interest in expanding our portfolio has also linked us with an NGO (CSRI-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute) in India to develop antimicrobial surfaces for marine structures and for water purification with GCRF institutional pump-priming funding. We have also developed a collaboration with Lucid innovations and Ultravision to generate potential pathways forward for our research. We have also been able to adapt what we have learned through this grant to transfer knowledge over to fighting the current pandemic. Our materials also have antiviral capabilities and we have successfully secured funding with the UKRI COVID19 Rapid Response Call to develop antiviral PPE.
Sector Energy,Healthcare,Manufacturing, including Industrial Biotechology,Pharmaceuticals and Medical Biotechnology
Impact Types Societal

 
Description British Council Researcher Links Workshop: Prevention of microbial contamination of biomaterials for tissue regeneration and wound healing
Amount £3,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lancaster University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2018
 
Description British Council sponsored "Biomaterials Symposium"
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation Lancaster University 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2019 
End 02/2019
 
Description Cytotoxicity mechanisms on antibiofilm nanoparticles
Amount £100,000 (GBP)
Funding ID 1946400 
Organisation Imperial College London 
Department EPSRC Centres for Doctoral Training
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 09/2021
 
Description Development of antifouling strategies for renewable energy devices
Amount £13,000 (GBP)
Organisation Research Councils UK (RCUK) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 11/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description EPSRC DTA-Antimicrobial coatings for the prevention of catheter associated infections
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R513271/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2019 
End 03/2023
 
Description EPSRC IAA Award - Antimicrobial Contact Lens Cases
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2019 
End 07/2019
 
Description EPSRC Risk CDT studentship
Amount £80,000 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/R51231X/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 10/2022
 
Description Encapsulation of natural antimicrobial into hydrogel microspheres
Amount £15,000 (GBP)
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2017 
End 07/2018
 
Description Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE): - Bug Wars
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation NIHR/HEFCE Higher Education Fund for England 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 10/2018 
End 07/2019
 
Description Improving resilience and sustainability of Greek yoghurt production via bone regenerative medicine applications
Amount £10,000 (GBP)
Organisation N8 Research Partnership 
Sector Learned Society
Country United Kingdom
Start 02/2018 
End 07/2018
 
Description Medical Research Foundation's National AMR Training Programme
Amount £1,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Bristol 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 08/2018 
End 08/2018
 
Description Partnership Recover and Resiliency Fund
Amount £35,000 (GBP)
Organisation Higher Education Funding Council for England 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2020 
End 07/2021
 
Description UKSB Lab2Lab grant-Dr. Jenny Hanson PI (grant between Liverpool and Lancaster)
Amount £500 (GBP)
Organisation United Kingdom Society for Biomaterials 
Sector Charity/Non Profit
Start 08/2017 
End 03/2018
 
Description Bug Wars 
Organisation Liverpool John Moores University
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We have engaged with an artist in residence to design outreach activities for school children of different ages to educate the on underlying themes associated with antimicrobial resistance. We have taken this activity into 2 year groups so far: Year 6s (10-11)1 and Year 3s (7-8).
Collaborator Contribution Mark Roughley is the programme leader for the MA Art in Science programme at Liverpool School of Art and Design, Liverpool John Moores University, and a member of the Face Lab research group that explores faces and art-science applications. Mark is experienced in developing and devising public-facing art-science events, including Liverpool LASER (Leonardo Art Science Evening Rendevouz) talks and 'The Perception Machine' at Tate Liverpool. Mark has also successfully led four Liverpool Light Night activities demonstrating Face Lab's art-science applications to a public audience. For this project, Mark will support the artist in residence and the development of any public engagement events Mark leads the MA Art in Science programme that facilitates discussions and interactions between subjects that have traditionally been studied in isolation. The programme provides an opportunity for collaborations across the visual arts and the world of scientific enquiry, and encourages transdisciplinary creativity. Students study themes that include the importance of public engagement in disseminating research outcomes and provoking engagement. The 2018-19 cohort of MA Art in Science students may be able to assist in the design and delivery of a future Liverpool Light Night activity supporting this project. The MA Art in Science programme is supported by Liverpool School of Art and Design's Research Centre ART LABS (Artistic Research and Technologies Labs). ART LABS is a world-leading centre for artistic, technological and transdisciplinary research and hosts inquisitive and creative researchers from around the world: all teaching, all learning, all working together for a better future. ART LABS is a collective network of artistic research and technologies laboratories and the artist in residence may be allowed access to this creative network and their resources. Mark has recently supervised a Masters research project titled 'To donate or not to donate? That is the question!' that developed a Graphic Medicine style comic that explores the theme of body donation with the aim to help educate the public and dispel some of the common myths and misconceptions surrounding the different types donation. As a qualified Medical Artist and knowledge of Graphic Medicine research, Mark will be able to offer technical and supervisory support to the artist in residence.
Impact We have linked up with Liverpool John Moores to engage an artist in residence who will interact with research staff and postgraduate students (Engineering + 3 faculties), absorbing current topics of antimicrobial research to generate a Graphic Medicine style comic. We have designed outreach activities based on the educating students on antimicrobial resistance and have interacted with a local large Primary School (Dovedale Primary-Year 6 (90 students); Year 3 (120 students).
Start Year 2018
 
Description Innovenn, Ltd 
Organisation Innovenn Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The team at Innovenn, Ltd have a background in wound care and have a particular interest in wounding/healing models. We will be testing the antimicrobial technologies we develop in our laboratories with their Labskin product. This should allow them to further benchmark and advance their product for more applications.
Collaborator Contribution Innovenn, Ltd is a formal project partner on this grant. They are a UK based SME that are at the forefront of reconstructed in vitro skin technologies that are innovating skincare research and development. Their product Labskin is currently involved in multiple innovative research programmes with leading researchers in the UK and the US. Their participation in the project will include working with the PRDA and student involved on this project to testing the prototype bandages at our facilities. They will be donating Labskin products during the initial phases of the project and then significantly discounted Labskin products for the duration of the study. They will also be heavily involved in designing the necessary experiments with the prototype bandages.
Impact Risk CDT studentship.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Johns Hopkins Medicine 
Organisation Johns Hopkins Medicine
Department Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center
Country United States 
Sector Hospitals 
PI Contribution We have presented results periodically with Dr. Kolegraff and she has helped direct us in the future planning of our experiments.
Collaborator Contribution Dr. Keli Kolegraff is a plastic surgeon and contributes to the development of this project in several ways. She has extensive research experience related to the physiological aspects of wound healing. She has expertise in in vitro and in vivo wound healing assays and animal models and will help with the design of the experimental models and interpretation of data. Furthermore, as she has clinical/surgical expertise related to the management of complex wounds, she will also contribute to the design of the technology such that it remains clinically applicable and feasible for use by physicians and other healthcare providers. Dr. D'Sa and I plan to have regular collaborator meetings (every 1-2 months) over video conferencing to discuss project data and plan future directions.
Impact None yet
Start Year 2017
 
Description Lucid Innovation 
Organisation Lucid Group Limited
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution As part of a successful IAA award we had collaborated with Lucid Innovations, an accredited to ISO 13485 for medical device development and manufacturing. The aim of this collaboration was to investigate the potential of accelerating the impact of the the research we have developed through this HIP grant. We hosted an Idea-Generation session with Lucid and Ultravision CLPL (a world leaing contact lens manufacturer), other academics and an opthalmologists.
Collaborator Contribution Lucid is an integrated, imaginative team of professional product designers, engineers, researchers, manufacturing and compliance specialists with about 20 years of regulatory expertise. Lucid was able to guide the development of the technology within a feasible regulatory framework and working with a major contact lens manufacturer and clinician. The major contact lens manufacturer guided us on more appropriate pathways of the investigating the use of the technologies for the developing world.
Impact Lucid has provided us with a Pathfinder report which we will use to use to leverage further funding in collaboration with Ultravision CLPL. Lucid has also agreed to partners with us on subsequent applications submitted to the EPSRC. They have also made introductions to potential key stakeholders that may be interested in the uptake of our research. This has been a multidisciplinary collaboration as we work in a Biomedical Engineering specialty, Lucid works in product design and compliance and Ultravision work in manufacturing.
Start Year 2019
 
Description National Biofilms Innovations Centre 
Organisation National Biofilms Innovation Centre
Sector Private 
PI Contribution Our research group hosted the National Biofilm Innovation Centre (NBIC) team in Liverpool, where we presented our platform antimicrobial technologies to them.
Collaborator Contribution NBIC team consisted of Mark Richardson (CEO) and Katerina Steventon (Innovation Consultant). They have formed links with companies that are interested in our technologies such as Kimal Plc, Fourth State Medicine and Smith and Nephew. We are currently in an open dialogue with all of these companies.
Impact Kimal Plc have agreed to partner with us on a an upcoming grant submission.
Start Year 2019
 
Description The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India - National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI) 
Organisation Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR)
Department National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI)
Country India 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Currently, tackling the biofouling of submerged marine structures in India costs $9 million USD annually. This figure does not include costs that are incurred as a consequence to the closure of power plants and other industries. Coatings that resist biofouling will benefit equipment manufacturers for submerged marine structures for renewable energy applications. We were successful in developing antimicrobial coatings that can be translated for industrial applications. As such, we had applied for a GCRF networking grant with CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) in Nagpur India. This project fits under the Global Challenges Research Fund remit under the Equitable Access to Sustainable Development umbrella and have tested some of the materials developed by their NEERI and will be providing them with surfaces we have developed to test for submerged marine structures.
Collaborator Contribution CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) in Nagpur India is a governmental laboratory with a key missions is to facilitate local and national industries to tackle key environmental challenges through science and technology collaborations. The current partnership is one of the strategic Research and Development initiatives, namely Environmental Materials. CSIR-NEERI has the aim of delivering environmental solutions through development of cost-effective and resource recovery based technologies suitable to socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country. The institute are experienced in technology transfer to industry. Through the funded GCRF networking project we brainstormed developing coatings for submerged marine structures and are carrying out some proof of concept research in order to put in a larger application.
Impact None yet.
Start Year 2017
 
Description nanoComposix, Inc 
Organisation NanoComposix Inc
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution nanoComposix is a project partner on this grant. They are a world leading US based company that specialises in the fabrication, characterisation and integration of nanomaterials into products and systems. They provide precisely engineered, highly characterised, GMP/ISO13485 compliant nanomaterials for medical devices, topical therapeutics and combination products (drug/device) for Phase I and Phase II clinical trials and have successfully completed hundreds of custom manufacturing and collaborative R&D projects for government, academic and industrial companies. They are also a "plug-in" R&D and manufacturing component for start-up companies that needs to take a concept rapidly through prototype and production.
Collaborator Contribution nanoComposix, Inc have agreed to provide knowledge, technical guidance and support regarding the nanomaterials that will be embedded in the wound healing dressings, including the optimal sizes and shapes. They will provide in-kind support in terms of the development and characterisation of these bespoke materials to the specifications determined through our collaborative approach. nanoComposix, Inc are also willing to facilitate collaborations between the UoL and their existing collaborators to extend the utility of their nanoparticles. They are currently linked with an orthopaedic surgeon who uses their Ag nanomaterials in compression socks and are currently opening a dialogue with him regarding covalently tethering particles to textiles using our technology should it be successful.
Impact There are currently no outputs from this collaboration.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Antimicrobial Avengers-Liverpool Light Night Public Engagement 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact As part of joint EPSRC and HEFCE funding, two artists in residence was commissioned to create graphic art comic book stories and sculptures about biosinspired approaches to developing novel antimicrobial. For the comic books approach, 3 story lines were created: The Adventures of Shark Girl, Komodo Dragons Save the World and The Drugs Don't Work. For the sculpture 3 antimicrobial animals were created. Several activities were organised at around these two artworks. During the biggest arts festival in Liverpool, the Antimicrobial Avengers Public Event was carried out on May 17th, 2019. The estimated foot traffic for the event was between 500-800 people of all age ranges. Surveys tracking weather new knowledge was passed on and whether discussion was sparked. Dame Sally Davies, the UK AMR Special Envoy on her trip to Liverpool commented that the activity was excellent for disseminating knowledge to the General Public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.artinliverpool.com/events/lightnight-2019-ljmu-john-lennon-building-antimicrobial-avenge...
 
Description Antimicrobial Avengers-NIHR Be Part of Research Day 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact Our group met with Speke Drama Group (Attitude), which works with kids from underprivileged neighbourhoods. The age group of the kids was 4-16. They were developing a play about antimicrobial resistance and we worked with them to create some artwork have have a discussion around some of the concepts. The play was debuted at Alder Hey Children's Hospital to Patients, Carers, Charities and Medical Practitioners. In addition to the play, our group had taken out Antimicrobial Avengers activity to this audience. We sparked interest within Patients and Carers and sparked interest with the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy to potentially take out activity on a road show with them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Conference Presentations: Nitric oxide releasing titanium surfaces for antimicrobial applications and Interactions of metallic nanoparticles with 2D and 3D human skin models. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact UKSB is one of 2 of the premier national conference for Biomaterial research. The conference sparked questions as this was the only nitric oxide talk presented here. Interest was generated for further collaborations.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.uksb.org.uk/uksb2018
 
Description Dissemination information on Twitter 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I tweet about outputs within the group and the latest news/research in the field of Antimicrobial Resistance. I have received several engagements from students, other researchers and the general public through this mechanism. I currently have 345 followers.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2016,2017,2018,2019
URL https://twitter.com/raechelledsa
 
Description Dissemination information on Twitter: Antimicrobial peptide loaded microparticles for wound healing applications. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The 4th annual #RSC poster conference is the first activity of its kind which as allowed people from all over the world and at all stages of their careers to present their work and network with other chemists without having to travel. This year, people from all across the globe participated in the Twitter poster conference, achieving 1,912 contributors, 6,715 Tweets, an audience of 2,019,127 and 10,267,097 total impressions. The poster presented got 2384 impressions, 145 total engagements, 92 media engagements, 13 link clicks, 16 likes, 2 detailed expands, 6 retweets, 9 profile clicks and 4 responses.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://twitter.com/raechelledsa/status/1102996015760793600
 
Description Engineering Nitric Oxide Delivery Platforms for Wound Healing Applications - Oral presentation at ESB 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Annual European Society of Biomaterials (ESB) Conference is the largest event for the biomaterials community in Europe. This conference engages scientist and clinicians from around the work in major disciplines of biomaterials science, and enabling participants to network with colleagues, establish new collaborations, exchange knowledge, and discuss recent advances in emerging biomaterials-related topics. The purpose of this talk was to communicate research outcomes that have come about from this grant. The presentation was an oral rapid fire presentation to an audience of between 50-100 people. The presentation generated interest in the subject and gave us key focus areas for future planned activities.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.esb2017.org/
 
Description Healthcare Technologies Hive Event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact This was a two-day invitation-only event which brought together for the first time the leading UK researchers funded by EPSRC's Healthcare Technologies theme, together with key stakeholder groups for talks, workshops and networking. The invited award holders currently account for a combined RCUK grant portfolio in excess of £420m and as such as a great forum for exploring key topics with a group of like-minded and successful individuals.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Idea Generation Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We hosted an Idea Generation workshop with Lucid Innovations (a medical device regulatory company), Ultravision CLPL (a world leading contact lens manufacturer), a clinician and other academics. We generated potential pathways to take our platform technology forward and were advice on appropriate market opportunities and regulatory hurdles that need to be overcome.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Launch of the Superbugs Exhibit at the Science Museum 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact The Councils sponsored the Science Museum's Superbugs exhibition which runs from November 13th, 2017 for one year. The museum held an event t on Wednesday 8th November, 2017 at a press launch. This press launch had media, government and researchers involved in the exhibition. I was invited to participate in this event as a major AMR grant holder.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/about-us/press-office/superbugs-science-museum
 
Description Liverpool Scientific Podcast 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I was interviewed by Liverpool Scientific Podcast to talk about my research and career pathway. This sparked question about how how to navigate a scientific career and importance of developing antimicrobial materials that are not antibiotics. I have been asked to give a career talks since then.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://anchor.fm/livscientific/episodes/Antimicrobial-Materials-with-Raechelle-DSa-enihgj
 
Description Oral presentation-EUCHEM conference-Antimicrobial nitric oxide releasing hydrogel contact lenses 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Research was preesented to EuChemS annual conference hosted by the the European Chemical Society which is is an umbrella organisation representing national Chemical Societies and other chemistry-related organisations in Europe
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.euchems2018.org/
 
Description Patient Group Workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Patients, carers and/or patient groups
Results and Impact The research team attended a patient group at the Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen Hospital. The public and patients involved in eye research (PPIER) group consists of 12 members including a patient chair - the group includes patients with a number of different eye conditions and there is representation from nursing staff in the Clinical Eye Research Centre and the St Paul's Eye unit Eye Clinic Liaison officer. The group provided feedback on our Antimicrobial Contact Lens technology which we will be taking forward when looking to leverage further funding in the area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
 
Description Pint of Science 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Pint of Science is a science festival that takes place every May and brings research to the general public. Pint of Science takes place in 38 cities simultaneously across the UK. The aim of the event is to communicate scientific developments to the public in an interesting, engaging and approachable way by bringing scientists to the pub and other accessible places.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/event/invisible-science
 
Description Pint of Science-Can Shark skin save the world 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Pint of Science is a science festival that takes place every May and brings research to the general public. Pint of Science takes place in 38 cities simultaneously across the UK. The aim of the event is to communicate scientific developments to the public in an interesting, engaging and approachable way by bringing scientists to the pub and other accessible places.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://pintofscience.co.uk/event/fire-ice-and-everything-nice
 
Description Poster Presentation-Poster for RSC Young Members Symposium/ESB- Interactions of metallic nanoparticles with 2D and 3D human skin models 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This 2-day symposium allowed both industrial and academic researchers to present work and network. The symposium comprised of three parallel sessions, covering Organic and Biochemistry, Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Inorganic and Materials Chemistry, as well as a session focused on outreach and impact.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.rsc.org/events/detail/30662/ecs2018-5th-rsc-early-career-symposium
 
Description RSC Biomaterials Chemistry Conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact This is is an annual meeting held by RSC Biomaterials Special Interest Group. Our group hosted the conference in 2019 in order to disseminate findings of our research as well as bring together the community specifically in terms of antimicrobial technologies. This was the biggest audience that this conference had attracted 120 participants. The conference sparked discussion on how infection control was a growing and major part of biomaterials science in addition to regnerative medicine.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.rsc.org/events/detail/35364/rsc-biomaterials-chemistry-annual-conference-2019
 
Description School Visit-Dovedale Primary School 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact We went to Dovedale Primary School and carried out separate activities for the Year 6 (90 students) and Year 3 (120 students). We introduced them to the concepts of antimicrobial resistance through carefully designed age-appropriate presentations and targeted age-appropriate activities. We received feedback that both activities were well received and that the students were interested in Science as a career and the topic of bacteria and antibiotics..
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://twitter.com/raechelledsa/status/1102988319036723200
 
Description The Antimicrobial Efficacy of NO-Releasing Polymeric Surfaces- #RSC Twitter poster competition 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact The 3rd annual #RSC poster conference is the first activity of its kind which as allowed people from all over the world and at all stages of their careers to present their work and network with other chemists without having to travel. This year, people from all across the globe participated in the Twitter poster conference, achieving 1,912 contributors, 6,715 Tweets, an audience of 2,019,127 and 10,267,097 total impressions. The poster presented got 3271 impressions, 140 total engagements, 48 media engagements, 22 link clicks, 18 likes, 16 detailed expands, 13 retweets, 9 profile clicks and 1 response.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://twitter.com/raechelledsa
 
Description Tuning biomaterial interfaces to control cellular response-IOP invited talk 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact I awas invited to present a talk to the Merseyside branch of the Institute of Physics on my research. These monthly talks are open events to the IOP members, students, and the general public. I received interest in the talk from a surgeon at Aintree Hospital who is interested in developing antimicrobial therapeutics for head and neck surgeries. This spawned a collaboration and and application for a PhD studentship from the RISK CDT in collaboration.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Website for dissemination of information 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Activity within the group is constantly posted on the website. This includes funding obtained, publication achieved and research interests.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017,2018
URL http://dsalaboratory.com
 
Description Workshop with National Biofilms Innovation Centre (NBIC) 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact We hosted a workshop with NBIC during which we demonstrated some of our on going research. NBIC have in turn introduced us to companies that are interested in our technology. We have met all of these companies and are at various stages of dialogue with them.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019