Next generation paper

Lead Research Organisation: University of Surrey
Department Name: Digital World Research Centre

Abstract

The technology of paper is so old and so ubiquitous that we have stopped thinking of it as a technology. Nevertheless, paper and ink has continued to evolve from the earliest experiments to record handwriting on parchment in China 2000 years ago, to the medieval printing press in Germany, and modern advances in the printing of true colour digital images. Until recently, these developments have treated paper as a passive reading surface for the presentation of visual information. However, the advent of printed electronics and augmented reality have brought a new interactive possibility to paper: that it could communicate with things around it. In particular, it can be made to trigger the presentation of overlaid or adjunct information in both visual and auditory form on nearby digital devices. This is a potentially revolutionary development of paper for the digital content economy, because it begins to tie together as never before, traditionally separate media forms of printed books and magazines with music, film and information on the world wide web. Paper can become both a carrier of information and an interface to further information beyond itself.

In this project, we aim to develop these properties into a generic mass media 'next generation' paper. We will harness developments in both image recognition and printed electronics to explore two technical trajectories for the support of interactive paper over the short and long term, within a common interaction framework. This framework will be tied into new and emerging MPEG standards for media linking, to allow media producers to author hybrid print-and-digital interactive documents in a common international format. The framework itself will be generated by a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers working in a promising domain of application, and embodied in an authoring toolkit for creating interactive e-books with printed components. Computer scientists and electronic engineers will collaborate with media and interaction designers, social scientists and business researchers to design, explore and test the paradigm of interactive printed books for travel and tourism.

The travel domain is both promising and challenging, because it still makes use of both printed and online information in professional content to guide tourist choices, and in the capture of tourist reviews and experiences in social and personal media. For this reason we will work with travel companies and the publishing industry to generate a series of professional travel books which have interactive properties for playing back additional content on a variety of devices. We will also work with tourists themselves to evaluate the usability and usefulness of these interactive travel books, and to create multimedia photobooks or travelogues of their own travel experiences, with content separated across paper, screen and speakers. These investigations will be informed by a prior ethnographic study of the use of paper and screen-based information across the tourist journey, to identify the problems and opportunities for combining them in new ways. They will also be underpinned by core technology development to realise a practical and robust way of triggering media playback from page turning and pointing actions over the surface of a printed book, sensed either by an overhead camera or by light sensitive patches wired to a wireless chip in the spine of the books. Finally, the commercial potential of the technology will be examined and defined in a dedicated business investigation in the second half of the project. This will involve consideration of the immediate and short term potential of image recognition for interactive paper, as well as the longer term potential of printed electronics where a camera is not required.

Planned Impact

A next generation paper (beyond '1GP') will open up countless opportunities, enabling new forms of graphic design for hybrid physical-digital documents in which content is shared between paper, speaker and screen. It will support new forms of multimedia literacy and expression that extend currently separate forms of expression in the creative industries stemming from film, music, radio, TV, books and the web. It will also make hidden digital content more tangible and accessible, allowing simple indexes to be printed in a variety of forms for circulation, display and storage in the physical world. Consequently, we envisage a very significant impact, in the following domains.
KNOWLEDGE: The project will impact all the academic communities represented by the project team (see also Academic beneficiaries). For example, in augmented paper and interaction design the project may realise new benefits of augmentation, and explore tangible paper interfaces to computing. In the computing area the project will extend previous architectures for cross-media representation and linking into the paper domain, and extend international ISO MPEG standards to include physical objects and interactions. In printed and embedded electronics, the project will advance the development of practical paper and flexible electronics, and showcase a new application to augmented books. In cross-media publishing, the project will enable transmedia storytelling with paper. In tourism and digital geographies, the project will extend augmented reality to paper and contribute new theory on the cultural concepts of 'convergence culture' and 'interface'. In new business innovation, it will contribute to new theories and approaches to agile innovation in the media industry, where platform, content and experience interact to produce new media experiences.
PEOPLE: The project may enable new career roles in the creative industries, for hybrid print-and-digital content creators and entrepreneurial thinking. It will also increase the complexity of publishing systems, and could lead to new forms of paper production, requiring new training in media publishing and paper manufacturing.
ECONOMIC: The findings of the project will be of immediate benefit to the tourist industry, which was worth £121 billion to the UK economy in 2014 (UK Tourism statistics 2016). However, the longer-term impact will be on the global print and e-book publishing industry, through a research and development contribution to its current debate about the future of paper in a digital age. Hence the project will accelerate the use of cross-media content, initially in the travel domain, by delivering: (a) technological solutions to bridge the content gap between the material and virtual worlds, (b) solutions to bring together user-generated content and industry generated content, (c) easy software solutions to create cross-media content involving interactive paper. We anticipate a two stage rollout of project technology in the digital economy, with 2GP paper based on paper-and-hand image recognition, and 3GP paper based on flexible printed electronics with wireless communications. At both stages the solution will leverage the simplicity, ubiquity and accessibility of paper with a user model that seamlessly activates adjunct content from simple reading gestures, and a cost point which is affordable to all.
SOCIETAL: Societal: The project will amplify societal trend towards transmedia reading across devices, and enable both professionals and prosumers to create connections across physical and virtual media, easily and cheaply. This will lead to a twofold impact on ordinary people as both consumers and producers of interactive paper, with benefits in the form of new reading and writing behaviours. The capability to augment and "virtually" update printed documents reduces the requirement for documents to be reprinted, thus reducing global paper consumption.
 
Title Augmented content for a-book 
Description Images, audio, video and videos of panning image slideshows with audio overlay were created and edited for inclusion in an augmented travel guide using visual recognition technology and touch sensitive sensors embedded in the paper. These were generated collaboratively by the travel writer and the designer of the guide. The travel writer recorded the material in-situ and the designer edited and prepared these for inclusion in the augmented guide. 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact A fully augmented travel guide book was created with the artwork generated, such as images, audio, video and videos of panning image slideshows with audio overlay, made accessible through a mobile app that uses visual recognition technology. This was released as a commercial product by Bradt Travel Guides on February 25th 2019 and is now freely available to the public. The travel book can be purchased for a fee and the app can be downloaded for free through the Google Play store. 
URL https://www.bradtguides.com/cornwall-the-isles-of-scilly-slow-travel.html
 
Title Augmented photobooks created by participants in a user study 
Description Conventional holiday photobooks augmented with digital links 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Feedback on the approach by users. One book will be shown in our final exhibition. 
 
Title New a-books from Covid-extension project NGP Markets 
Description Four new a-book were created as part of a Covid-extension project called NGP Markets Jan-Dec 2021: 1. Volcanoes leaflet - with Futurum Magazine (on careers for 6th formers) 2. Humpty Dumpty children's book - with Thingtale (augmented reading experience for 3-7 year olds) 3. Memoryscapes postcard set - showcasing soundscapes and narratives from the DWRC Sound in Dementia research project 4. Memoryscapes brochure - showcasing soundscapes from the DWRC Sound in Dementia research project 
Type Of Art Artwork 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact We elicited feedback from 6th form teachers for Futurum from the Volcanoes leaflet Unfortunately Thingtale went out of business during the 2021 extension project. So no feedback was obtained from the Humpty Dumpty a-book. 
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/digital-world-research-centre/funded-projects/next-generation-paper-markets
 
Title Online exhibit of augmented books (a-books) 
Description We created a series of augmented books on the project and showcased them as short video demonstrations at the website below. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact This supported a final project Webinar on Wednesday Nov 11th 2020 entitled 'Next generation paper: Future book technology'. 
URL https://vimeo.com/showcase/5956567
 
Title Project film 
Description A short (3min) and long (11min) version of a project film was created by a University of Surrey team in the Department of Music & Media. This was done as part of a Covid-extension project called NGP Markets: https://www.surrey.ac.uk/digital-world-research-centre/funded-projects/next-generation-paper-markets They are each available on Vimeo here: SHORT: https://vimeo.com/manage/videos/615931275 LONG: https://vimeo.com/user34669778 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact This film supported a high level presentation of project technology and findings at the British Science Festival, 7-11 September 2021. It has also been a useful method of dissemination in its own right 
URL https://vimeo.com/user34669778
 
Title Video demos of additional a-books created in the NGP Markets extension project 
Description Video demos were created of Humpty Dumpty, Volcanoes, Memoryscapes and other a-books created during 2021. This was part of the NGP Markets covid extension project. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact The demos have been a vehicle for our partners to communicate the a-book approach to their customers for feedback. 
URL https://vimeo.com/showcase/5956567?page=2
 
Title Video tutorials of NGP Author and Player apps 
Description These show how to use the Author and Player apps we developed on the project. 
Type Of Art Film/Video/Animation 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact None 
URL https://vimeo.com/showcase/5956567?page=2
 
Description Project findings are given after each objective below:

1. What is the relative role of paper and screen-based information in tourism?
Our ethnographic study showed active use of paper by all ages of travellers, in combination with online resources. Travellers require a central place to collate material as they continuously adjust their travel plans before and during a trip. We believe the augmented travel guide could function at this place and have adjusted its design to support personalisation and collection of digital assets.
2. What authoring platform is required to create interactive printed books that interwork with internet devices?
We have built an initial platform to demonstrate both 2G (optical) and 3G (embedded electronic) paper in an augmented guide to Cornwall. Our engagement with publishing partners was key to ensuring that it fits with the publishing workflow and uses industry-standard authoring such as Adobe InDesign to author augmented books (we are now calling 'a-books'). We have additionally created a simple Authoring app for creating a-books, paper-first. Users simply create a printed book and use an Android phone to take a picture of each page and annotate with Image, Audio, Video or Web links. A simplified Player app then reads in the file and plays all links on the phone.
3. What form of image recognition and printed electronics solutions are needed to support interactive printed books that respond seamlessly to human touch?
We utilise a visual search engine from a subcontractor Visual Atoms, and this is performing well on 'page content' that it was never designed for. We have also implemented 'light tags' in a full 3G demonstrator book which uses light sensitivity to identify which page is open. We had to invent a new method of wiring tags from every page to an embedded chip in the binding, and have filed invention disclosures for this and alternative methods of page identification. We have now proved the feasibility of wireless light tags and refined the embedded board into a small component that has generic value. We plan to release this open source.
4. What is the value and experience of printed compared to screen-displayed books, as an interface to additional digital content on a second screen?
Lab and field-based studies showed that there are personality preferences for either paper or screen reading, but enthusiasm for moving between these more easily with the project technology. In fact, preferences also changed with the context of reading. For example, some users wanted to use our a-book in planning a trip and then take the e-book for reference. Augmented photobook studies have shown several values of augmenting printed photo albums, for increasing attention to multi sensory experiences while travelling, creating private augmentations to a family album, and indexing larger digital photo of video collections with prints.
5. What new business opportunities are enabled by a new class of interactive printed books based on image recognition and light sensitive paper?
Travel and tourism has turned out to be a very promising domain of application, since our commercial partners have already asked to publish a full augmented guide to Cornwall with our experimental Android app. In addition we have been approached from other paper, publishing and advertising companies for access to our technology, and had strong interest in applications to augmenting textbooks for education. We are continuing to research business opportunities in a new Covid-19 extension project (Jan-Aug 2021).
Exploitation Route We have good engagement with the electronic publishing industry and have already presented our 'a-book' approach at conferences in that field. We also have an overview paper in the Journal of Electronic Publishing; invited by the Editor-in-Chief. This is a primary audience for uptake of the approach which could be quite quickly adopted using commercial versions of our 2G solutions. We continue to work with Bradt Travel Guides on a Covid-19 extension project to get feedback from Bradt customers using the Cornwall guide.

Requests are coming in from other groups to use our technology. So the need for a robust cross-platform app which is maintained by a company is key to commercial uptake and impact. This would also enable further research projects.
Sectors Creative Economy,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Electronics,Environment,Healthcare,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Government, Democracy and Justice,Culture, Heritage, Museums and Collections,Retail

URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/digital-world-research-centre/funded-projects/next-generation-paper-connecting-paper-web
 
Description A commercial guide to Cornwall was created between ourselves and brad Travel Guides, to be read in conjunction with our Android app. This was published in 2019. We have already demonstrated the project technology at public exhibitions in The Hague and Amsterdam, as well as at several academic/industry conferences (see engagements). The project has also attracted a good deal of media attention resulting in about 16 articles on first announcement of the grant, to further articles throughout the first 16 months. The latest publicity relates to the release of the commercial travel guide to Cornwall by Bradt Travel Guides with our experimental app. A new press release was issued by the University of Surrey advertising our showcase event planned at the British Library for the 25th March 2020. This was eventual done as a final project Webinar later in 2020 because of the pandemic. Engagement with the Travel and Tourism industry was impeded at the end of the original project by the Covid pandemic. We therefore applied for and were granted an additional Covid extension grant of £200,583 for a project called NGP Markets from Jan-Dec 2021. In that we engaged with Bradt Travel, Futurum magazine and Thingtale to create new a-books and/or collect additional market feedback on our approach to understand business models for the approach. Further publications were made and the Magic bookmark was further developed as an alternative 3G paper technology to Light Tags, with greater manufacturability and sustainability. This attracted additional media attention through press release and some interest from paper manufacturers such as SAPPI. We also showed the project approach and magic Bookmark at the British Science festival in Sept 2020 and later created a 'Climate Domesday Book' using this technology, for an exhibition at Curtin University March-May 2022.
First Year Of Impact 2017
Sector Creative Economy,Leisure Activities, including Sports, Recreation and Tourism,Other
Impact Types Cultural,Economic

 
Description COVID 19 Grant Extension Allocation University of Surrey
Amount £4,417,152 (GBP)
Funding ID EP/V520445/1 
Organisation Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) 
Sector Public
Country United Kingdom
Start 05/2020 
End 09/2021
 
Description The Climate Domesday Book - exhibit for Energai 2022 Exhibition at Curtin University, Perth
Amount £2,540 (GBP)
Organisation Curtin University 
Sector Academic/University
Country Australia
Start 11/2021 
End 03/2022
 
Description The role of augmented paper in promotion of healthy ageing
Amount £119,231 (GBP)
Organisation University of Surrey 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 01/2022 
End 07/2025
 
Description Augmented book manufacture 
Organisation Ifolor Oy
Country Finland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We designed a third generation (3G) paper solution, in collaboration with the partners, who helped us to implement it.
Collaborator Contribution The partners provided various expertise, equipment and time to help manufacture a working guide to Cornwall book with hotlinks triggered from embedded electronics in the pages and binding. Selected staff also helped us co-author publications on the work.
Impact Georgios Bairaktaris, Brice Le Borgne, Sirpa Nordman, Samuli Yrjänä, Vikram Turkani, Rudresh Gosh, Vahid Akhavan, Peter Bagge, Timo Turpela, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Using physical books as interfaces to displays. Proceedings of Display Week 2020. Brice H. Le Borgne, Georgios Bairaktaris, Timo Kurkela, Sirpa Nordman, Peter Bagge, Haiyue Yuan, Emily Corrigan-Kavanagh, Anu Seisto, George Revill, Miroslav Z. Bober, Alan Brown6 Caroline E. Scarles, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Next-generation paper: a versatile augmented book platform. InnoLAE 2020. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Bagge P, Yuan H, Corrigan-Kavanagh E, Seisto A, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM (2019) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Travel Guide Demonstrator. Proceedings of InnoLAE 2019. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Ritvonen T, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM. (2018) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Book Platform. SPIE Optics + Photonics 2018 Conference, September 2018, San Diego, California,United States.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Augmented book manufacture 
Organisation NovaCentrix
Country United States 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We designed a third generation (3G) paper solution, in collaboration with the partners, who helped us to implement it.
Collaborator Contribution The partners provided various expertise, equipment and time to help manufacture a working guide to Cornwall book with hotlinks triggered from embedded electronics in the pages and binding. Selected staff also helped us co-author publications on the work.
Impact Georgios Bairaktaris, Brice Le Borgne, Sirpa Nordman, Samuli Yrjänä, Vikram Turkani, Rudresh Gosh, Vahid Akhavan, Peter Bagge, Timo Turpela, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Using physical books as interfaces to displays. Proceedings of Display Week 2020. Brice H. Le Borgne, Georgios Bairaktaris, Timo Kurkela, Sirpa Nordman, Peter Bagge, Haiyue Yuan, Emily Corrigan-Kavanagh, Anu Seisto, George Revill, Miroslav Z. Bober, Alan Brown6 Caroline E. Scarles, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Next-generation paper: a versatile augmented book platform. InnoLAE 2020. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Bagge P, Yuan H, Corrigan-Kavanagh E, Seisto A, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM (2019) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Travel Guide Demonstrator. Proceedings of InnoLAE 2019. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Ritvonen T, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM. (2018) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Book Platform. SPIE Optics + Photonics 2018 Conference, September 2018, San Diego, California,United States.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Augmented book manufacture 
Organisation Otava Oy
Department Otava Publishing Company Ltd
Country Finland 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We designed a third generation (3G) paper solution, in collaboration with the partners, who helped us to implement it.
Collaborator Contribution The partners provided various expertise, equipment and time to help manufacture a working guide to Cornwall book with hotlinks triggered from embedded electronics in the pages and binding. Selected staff also helped us co-author publications on the work.
Impact Georgios Bairaktaris, Brice Le Borgne, Sirpa Nordman, Samuli Yrjänä, Vikram Turkani, Rudresh Gosh, Vahid Akhavan, Peter Bagge, Timo Turpela, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Using physical books as interfaces to displays. Proceedings of Display Week 2020. Brice H. Le Borgne, Georgios Bairaktaris, Timo Kurkela, Sirpa Nordman, Peter Bagge, Haiyue Yuan, Emily Corrigan-Kavanagh, Anu Seisto, George Revill, Miroslav Z. Bober, Alan Brown6 Caroline E. Scarles, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Next-generation paper: a versatile augmented book platform. InnoLAE 2020. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Bagge P, Yuan H, Corrigan-Kavanagh E, Seisto A, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM (2019) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Travel Guide Demonstrator. Proceedings of InnoLAE 2019. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Ritvonen T, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM. (2018) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Book Platform. SPIE Optics + Photonics 2018 Conference, September 2018, San Diego, California,United States.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Augmented book manufacture 
Organisation VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd
Country Finland 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution We designed a third generation (3G) paper solution, in collaboration with the partners, who helped us to implement it.
Collaborator Contribution The partners provided various expertise, equipment and time to help manufacture a working guide to Cornwall book with hotlinks triggered from embedded electronics in the pages and binding. Selected staff also helped us co-author publications on the work.
Impact Georgios Bairaktaris, Brice Le Borgne, Sirpa Nordman, Samuli Yrjänä, Vikram Turkani, Rudresh Gosh, Vahid Akhavan, Peter Bagge, Timo Turpela, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Using physical books as interfaces to displays. Proceedings of Display Week 2020. Brice H. Le Borgne, Georgios Bairaktaris, Timo Kurkela, Sirpa Nordman, Peter Bagge, Haiyue Yuan, Emily Corrigan-Kavanagh, Anu Seisto, George Revill, Miroslav Z. Bober, Alan Brown6 Caroline E. Scarles, David M. Frohlich, Radu A. Sporea (2020) Next-generation paper: a versatile augmented book platform. InnoLAE 2020. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Bagge P, Yuan H, Corrigan-Kavanagh E, Seisto A, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM (2019) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Travel Guide Demonstrator. Proceedings of InnoLAE 2019. Sporea RA, Le Borgne BH, Yrjana S, Nordman S, Ritvonen T, Revill G, Bober MZ, Brown A, Scarles CE, Frohlich DM. (2018) Next Generation Paper: An Augmented Book Platform. SPIE Optics + Photonics 2018 Conference, September 2018, San Diego, California,United States.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Augmented book publication 
Organisation Bradt Travel Guides
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We have added digital links to a travel guide to Cornwall and provided an app through which these can be played whilst reading the guide. This was released onto the market in March 2018: https://www.bradtguides.com/cornwall-the-a-book
Collaborator Contribution The partners have provided continuous advice to us on the publishing workflow for their travel books. This has influenced the design of our app but also our approach to make it more attractive to the publishing industry. In addition they have worked with us to annotate the Cornwall guide with icons indicating hotlinks to digital content and advertised the Surrey app by which these can be read by their customers.
Impact The Slow travel guide to Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, with accompanying 'Cornwall a-book' app.
Start Year 2017
 
Description Augmented book recognition 
Organisation Visual Atoms Ltd
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution We provided a new application for image recognition services provided by Visual Atoms
Collaborator Contribution Visual Atoms adapted their image recognition service to reliably recognise pages of any book, for the display of related hotlines on a nearby phone. They also provided and hosted the service on a dedicated university server for access.
Impact The image recognition service was used free as part of an augmented guide to Cornwall, published with the NGP Player App by Bradt Travel Guides and University of Surrey. Publication under review: Yuan H., Frohlich D.M., Corrigan-Kavanagh E., Scarles C., Sporea R.A., Bairaktaris G., Paschalakis S. & Bober M. (2021) Authoring and delivering next generation paper. Submission to EICS 2021 Conference.
Start Year 2017
 
Title Apple IOS version of Cornwall a-book 
Description A new version of the Cornwall a-book (app-and-book bundle) for Apple IOS. It is on the Apple App Store. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact This was used in conjunction with the original Android version in a trial of the augmented Cornwall a-book by Surrey and Bradt Travel to collect additional user feedback from travellers to Cornwall. 
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/digital-world-research-centre/funded-projects/next-generation-paper-markets
 
Title CVSSP 30th 
Description The CVSSP 30th APP has been created by the Next Generation Paper project (EPSRC) to help you explore the magic world of Thinking Machines. The APP uses latest image recognition technologies developed at CVSSP to seamlessly cross-link your CVSSP brochure with relevant digital content. The APP will also provide the latest updates on Twitter (you can cross-link it with your account), and let you bookmark content of interest for future reference. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact This mobile app is released at Google Play store. The app supports 8036 types of Android devices, and is made available to 144 countries world wide. It uses the latest advances in AI to robustly and instantly recognise and classify real-world objects and locations, even under changing viewing angles and obstructions. The launch of this app is an exciting next step in shaping the future of books, paper and technology in the travel industry. 
URL https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=cvssp.uos.hy0006.ngp_cvssp&gl=GB
 
Title Cornwall a-book 
Description A team of researchers at Surrey and the Open University have been working with Bradt Travel Guides on an innovative Android app, Cornwall a-book, as part of the Next Generation Paper (NGP) project - a marriage between classic paper and digital technology. Cornwall a-book is an augmented book app that is working with the world's first augmented travel guidebook "Cornwall & The Isles of Scilly" that utilizes visual object recognition, audio analysis and geo-location to provide exciting, personalised digital content to the traveller. This breaks the boundaries between paper and digital content to transform the travel experience 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2019 
Impact Cornwall a-book is released at Google Play store. The app supports 8036 types of Android devices, and is made available to 144 countries world wide. Cornwall a-book uses the latest advances in AI to robustly and instantly recognise and classify real-world objects and locations, even under changing viewing angles and obstructions. This technology will make the travel experience more comfortable and engaging. In addition, the launch of this app is an exciting next step in shaping the future of books, paper and technology in the travel industry. The augmented guidebook embeds multimedia content within traditional guidebooks enabling travellers access to interactive information without having to put their book down. Furthermore, the release of Cornwall a-book with Bradt Travel Guides is an important milestone for Next Generation Paper. It provides a great use case for how this marriage between physical and digital media could greatly improve people's experience and knowledge of the world around them. 
URL https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=cvssp.uos.hy0006.ngp_cornwall
 
Title Cross-platform NGP Player 
Description This is a new updated version of the original Android NGP Player App for both Android and Apple IOS. It has a streamlined user interface and works on both platforms to play the links from a library of a-books imported into the player. Both apps currently appear on the Google Play store and Apple App Store under the name: 'a-book Player'. They come with one demo a-book pre-imported. But this should be printed from a PDF on our website. User manuals are available from the PI. Video tutorial is available from a Vimeo site (see artistic outputs) The project itself has a library of a-books which are available from the PI. Video demos of each a-book are in a Vimeo library (see artistic outputs) 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact None so far @ 16.3.22. But we are in negotiation with several companies about using/licensing this software 
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/digital-world-research-centre/funded-projects/next-generation-paper-markets
 
Title NGP authoring tool 
Description This is an Android based mobile application. It is designed and developed to allow users to augment a physical book by linking images, videos, audio tracks, and web links to each page of a book using advanced visual recognition technology. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact The authoring tool is developed adapting EPUB3 format, which can minimise the learning and technology requirements to make an augmented book, can offer backward compatibility, and offer intuitive user interactions. 
 
Title NGP player 
Description This is an Android based mobile application, It is designed and developed to work with the NGP authoring tool. It can import an augmented book made using the NGP authoring tool. The embeded advanced visual recognition technology offers new ways to browse a physical book with enhanced reading experience. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2020 
Impact This mobile app uses the latest advances in AI to robustly and instantly recognise and classify real-world objects and locations, even under changing viewing angles and obstructions. The launch of this app is an exciting next step in shaping the future of books, paper and technology in the travel industry. 
 
Title Revised NGP Author App for Android 
Description A revised version of our NGP Author app for Android was developed. This has not been made publicly available on the Google Play Store, but rather kept back as proprietary software for project use only. If could be made available under license to future partners for research or development. User manual is available from the PI. A video tutorial is available on Vimeo (see artist outputs) 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact None so far @ 16.3.22 
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/digital-world-research-centre/funded-projects/next-generation-paper-markets
 
Title The Magic Bookmark 
Description We developed several versions of a 'Magic Bookmark' for detecting page identity + link type and signalling automatically to the NGP Player app. This is easy to manufactory and could function as a generic bookmark that can be clipped to any physical book with associated digital material. It avoids the need to instrument each page of the book with light sensors and instead reads an optical block-code down the inside right or left margin of the book (on regular paper). The work was carried out by George Bairaktaris as part of his PhD at the ATI, University of Surrey. We filed an invention disclosure for the device but Surrey declined to file a patent application for it. So we have published the design for others to copy. 
Type Of Technology New/Improved Technique/Technology 
Year Produced 2021 
Impact Multiple media articles resulted from a press release on the magic Bookmark and we are in discussion with one paper company about its value to their business. 
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/surrey-researchers-breathe-new-life-paper-books-magic-bookmark
 
Description 'From postcards to Instagram: Re-imagining tourist landscapes' paper presented at RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, Cardiff University, Cardiff, 29 August 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 'From postcards to Instagram: Re-imagining tourist landscapes' paper presented at academic audience, RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2019, Cardiff University, Cardiff
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://conference.rgs.org/AC2018/98
 
Description 'Introducing the a-book'. Keynote presentation to BIC New Trends in Publishing conference 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact David Frohlich gave an invited presentation on 4th September 2018 to the Book Industry Communications conference on New trends in publishing. The talk was entitled 'Introducing the a-book' and presented the work of the project so far in defining a new category of print publication to be read with digital links shown on a nearby smartphone or other device. There was considerable interest from delegates in how this might change publishing processes and reader behaviour. There was an interesting connection between our talk and others describing the decline of e-book sales and the rise of audio book sales, suggesting an opportunity for audio-enhanced printed books.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.bic.org.uk/198/New-Trends-2018/
 
Description 'Journeys Between Print & Screen and Beyond: A Travel Media Ethnography' paper presented at the Digital World Research Centre - The University of Surrey, Guildford, 19 November 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 'Journeys Between Print & Screen and Beyond: A Travel Media Ethnography' paper presented at the Digital World Research Centre - The University of Surrey, Guildford, 19 November 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description 'Touching upon Print & Screen: How media and technology reshape tourism' paper presented at The School of Hospitality and Tourism Management - The University of Surrey, Guildford, 4 December 2018. 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact 'Touching upon Print & Screen: How media and technology reshape tourism' paper presented at The School of Hospitality and Tourism Management - The University of Surrey, Guildford, 4 December 2018.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Blog article 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog article on "Accelerate your innovation to drive digital transformation".

Digital Leaders is a network of over 10,000 leaders/practitioners in digital transformation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://digileaders.com/foster-innovation-to-drive-digital-transformation/
 
Description Blog article 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog article on "How agile delivery can power digital transformation".

Digital Leaders is a network of over 10,000 leaders/practitioners in digital transformation.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://digileaders.com/how-agile-delivery-power-digital-transformation/
 
Description Blog article 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Blog article for Digital Leaders on "Three Keys Digital Transformation" looking at issues in digital transformation.

Digital Leaders is a network of over 10,000 leaders/practitioners in industry and government.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://digileaders.com/three-keys-ways-delivering-digital-transformation/
 
Description British Science Festival 2020, Chelmsford 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We gave a face-to-face seminar on NGP and the Magic Bookmark at the British Science festival on 10.9.20 in Chelmsford. This was attended by approximately 50 people but many more had access to the advertised material online.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://britishsciencefestival.org
 
Description Discussion with Assouline, Luxury book company and 42 Technology, product design consultancy 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Exploration of options for instrumenting books
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Discussion with OBA library in Amsterdam about creation of an augmented periodical 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The OBA library hosted the Paper Magic exhibition in 2019 containing our Cornwall a-book demonstration. They are interested in using the technology in a library of the future being planned called OBA Next.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Energai: Imagining new energy futures - exhibition at Curtin University Perth 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact We were commissioned to create an interactive book on climate change, using the Magic Bookmark interface and an adapted NGP Player app. This was done as a consultancy to Curtin as described in New Funding. It will be exhibited in the Energai exhibition 28th March-8th May 2022 at the John Curtin Gallery, Perth, Australia.

The book was called The Climate Domesday Book and is an edited collection with 190 pages, about 15 of which have associated audio and video clips which play on a large screen in the exhibition space. A duplicate copy is being sent to Surrey for assembly and exhibition in Guildford later in 2022. It contains responses to climate change and is intended to stimulate policy debate.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2022
URL https://jcg.curtin.edu.au/exhibitions/2022-energaia/
 
Description Invited presentation at SAP InnovationX 2020 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Invited presentations on the impact of digital disruption at a large-scale event in London in March 2020. The SAP InnovationX event was attended by over 1000 senior business leaders from a variety of business domains.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://events.sap.com/gb/uki-innovation-x/en/home
 
Description Invited seminar at the Computational Foundry, Swansea 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Live demonstrations at the I-Zone emerging technology show, part of the DisplayWeek conference 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact We showcased our Next Generation Paper prototype at he virtual DisplayWeek show, the largest international event in the field, with attendees from academia, industry and the media. Close to 500 participants entered our virtual booth. Several discussion on the merits of the approach refined our understanding on its perception and its evolution.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL http://displayweek.org/
 
Description Paper Magic Exhibition, COMM Museum, The Hague. 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The project was invited to show its first 2G and 3G augmented paper travel guides from Chapter 2 of the 2nd Edition of the Bradt Travel Guide to Cornwall. The exhibition ran from July-December inclusive at the COMM Museum in the Hague which showcases developments in communications technology. As the books were not ready until the autumn of 2018 we supplied a video describing the project which was shown from July. David Frohlich and Radu Sporea later visited the museum on the 20th October to hand over the interactive books and give a scheduled demonstration to members of the public and invited media. This resulted in an article in the Dutch Press and request by the museum curator to use the technology in a 2019 exhibition of letters for which he wanted to make an augmented catalogue. We had a similar request to use the technology from the exhibition curator, and are working towards provision of a free cross-platform app to make available to these people and others who have requested the technology. The exhibition has now moved to the Public Library Amsterdam (OBA) from February to May 2019, and may go into the permanent collection at the COMM museum eventually as part of the history of communication.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/showcasing-magic-paper
 
Description Presentation at 'Book in the Digital Age' Conference at Loughborough University, 24th October, 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A 20-minute presentation and follow-up demonstration of the progress on new paper technologies from the Next Generation Paper Project was carried out to a mix of mostly academics from different fields and international universities. The presentation and demo sought to generate interest in the project and collect feedback from attendees, which it seemed to be successful in doing so. Many attendees asked detailed questions about the approach and had multiple recommendations for its utilisations in other contexts beyond Travel and Tourism-the sector that the project is currently focusing on.In fact, three publications were invited directly from this activity for the Journal of Electronic Publishing, Publishing History and The Writing Platform.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.cphc.org.uk/events/2018/10/24/book-history-research-network-study-day-the-book-in-the-di...
 
Description Presentation at ONOVOLAB, São Carlos, Brazil 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk and discussion of the commercial potential of NGP technology
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Presentation at UGPN Annual Conference, University of Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A 20-minute presentation and follow-up demonstration of the progress on new paper technologies from the Next Generation Paper Project was carried out to a mix of mostly academics from different fields and international universities. The presentation and demo sought to generate interest in the project and collect feedback from attendees, which it seemed to be successful in doing so. Many attendees asked detailed questions about the approach and had multiple recommendations for its utilisations in other contexts beyond Travel and Tourism-the sector that the project is currently focusing on.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ugpn.org/news/stories/172580_dates_announced_for_ugpn_annual_conference_2018.htm
 
Description Presentation to the Mixed Reality Lab, Nottingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar event
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Project Webinar 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact 42 people attended a final project presentation of findings and implications for the publishing and travel industry, with online augmented book exhibits. This replaced a planned exhibition and seminar at the British Library which had to be cancelled in March 2020 due to the pandemic.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/webinar-next-generation-paper-future-book-technology-tickets-12296128...
 
Description Research Staff Celebration Week, Presentation, University of Surrey 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact A presentation of the design challenges overcome in the Next Generation Paper project with a follow-up demonstration of the technology to audience members. Audience members included visitors from other universities. They gave value feedback on potential next stages for the project and the development of the technology.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/events/20181119-research-staff-celebration-week-19-23-november-2018
 
Description Seminar to Maths and Computing Department, University of São Paulo, São Carlos campus 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Seminar presentation by invitation
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Technical exhibition of Next Generation Paper prototype at IDTechEx Show, Santa Clara, USA. 20-21 Nov 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact The prototype was exhibited and demonstrated at the Novacentrix (project partner) stand at IDTechEx Show.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.idtechex.com/usa2019/show/en/
 
Description University of Surrey press release on publication of Magic Bookmark work in Advanced Intelligent Systems 
Form Of Engagement Activity A press release, press conference or response to a media enquiry/interview
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The press release resulted in about 15 media articles on the Magic Bookmark

One article was picked up by the paper manufacturer SAPPI who later came to visit us from Brussels. We are currently negotiating a possible future research collaboration with them @ 16.3.22
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2021
URL https://www.surrey.ac.uk/news/surrey-researchers-breathe-new-life-paper-books-magic-bookmark
 
Description Webinar on Agile Leadership 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact An invited webinar presentation to a large audience via scrum.org, the largest aorganization worldwide delivering training an education to software practitioners on agile delivery methods.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2020
URL https://www.scrum.org/resources/agile-leadership-and-challenges-digital-transformations