Developing Resilient Nations - Towards a Public Heath Early Warning System via Urban Water Profiling (ReNEW)

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bath
Department Name: Chemistry

Abstract

We are proposing an innovative solution to current problems with rapidly identifying and responding to deteriorating public health and environmental conditions in fast developing urban environments in LMIC countries, aiming to manage risks to public and environmental health relating to urbanisation, population growth, lack of infrastructure and the overarching challenge of climate change. We will establish a cutting-edge, interdisciplinary research capability, based on engineering and digital technology approaches, for real-time community-wide diagnostics and tuneable multi-hazard public health early warning system (EWS) with the ultimate goal of strengthening communities' resilience. We will do this through a focus on water from urban dwellings, which reflects the health status of a population and surrounding environment as it pools the endo- & exogenous products of that population. Real-time measurement of these specific hazard biomarkers in urban water from different communities allows for rapid evaluation of public health status, prediction of future crises, and thus enables mitigation strategies to be developed for either rapid or slow onset hazards, even before they manifest themselves with characteristic endpoints (e.g. mortality in the event of pandemics). Thus morbidity and mortality can be reduced and resilience and sustainability within the surveyed urban system significantly increased. In this cutting-edge project we will develop innovative tools for public health diagnostics and undertake a scoping study in the city of Stellenbosch to understand the requirements for the development and implementation of a multi-hazard EWS in South Africa and beyond.

ReNEW tackles all four strategic objectives set by the Department for International Development (UK Aid, 2015) and it focuses on "strengthening resilience and response to crises: (...) science and technology spend on global public health risks such as antimicrobial resistance, and support for efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change". The UK is committed to "tackling the great global challenges - from the root causes of mass migration and disease, to the threat of terrorism and global climate change - all of which also directly threaten British interests". ReNEW will address this through engineering novel integrated sensors for on-site monitoring and use of big data for modelling markers within the urban water system as part of an EWS. We will focus on infectious disease. 21st century has already seen the epidemic of SARS (2003), H1N1 (2009), Ebola (2014) and recently Zika virus (2015). The recent O'Neill report (2016) commissioned by the UK government urges that "by 2050, 10 million lives a year and a cumulative 100 trillion USD of economic output are at risk due to the rise of drug resistant infections. Most of the direct impact will fall on LMIC countries". This highlights global vulnerability to infectious diseases and shared global responsibility for surveillance and disease control. Easy to operate and cost effective EWSs are urgently needed to provide timely response and to tackle key public health issues in communities that need it most, and to reduce disease spread globally. Urban water profiling can provide such a response in real-time and, if linked with a timely response system, it could reduce burden on public health in LMIC and ultimately worldwide.

Planned Impact

ReNEW will break new ground in supplementing the current body of knowledge with new approaches to identifying risks within urban communities of different socio-economic status and communicating these risks to the stakeholder groups. The main non-academic beneficiaries of this research are:
1. Policy makers, government agencies, public services and non-governmental development organisations
The close proximity of the various communities in the selected case study presents an opportunity to investigate the utility of an EWS in different contexts enabling a wide ranging beneficiaries in the public sector: from health professionals to environment agencies and regulators. This project will also provide a valuable insight into water quality and sanitation issues in different socio-economic areas and will be of direct benefit to water utilities (ERWAT is a Project Partner) and in the wider commercial environmental sector in SA.
2. Private sector organisations in the area of water engineering, digital technology, sensor development and instrument manufacturers (e.g. Thermo, a Project Partner).
3. Local communities, especially the vulnerable communities of Stellenbosch. The benefit is two-fold. In short term, communication of research outcomes will increase community-wide awareness of water and health related issues. In the longer term, the early warning system will deliver real-time response to multi-hazards within the communities saving lives and significantly increasing security and quality of life.
4. Society in general as it will contribute to the increase of security of water supply and better understanding of the drivers influencing communities' resilience to various man-made and natural hazards.

Impact activities
1. Strengthening interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral collaborations in research focusing on real world challenges
We established this project as an interdisciplinary collaborative initiative that lies at the interfaces of engineering, physical and social sciences, and connects research, policy and practice. It aims to develop partnerships between both academics of different disciplines and academics in UoB and LMICs, as well as beneficiaries and users of research. This will be achieved via inclusion of key stakeholders. Project partners: water utility (ERWAT), instrument manufacturer (Thermo) and NGO's (SRC and ERC) have already expressed great interest in and support for this project. This initial collaborations between different researchers and stakeholders will be extended and consolidated through visits between UoB and SU/other institutions, and stakeholders in SA. A workshop will be organised at SU to facilitate knowledge exchange, strengthen existing collaboration and facilitate new collaboration, in particular with the users of research. All
Project Partners will join the Project Advisory Board, which will oversee project progression, facilitate transfer of knowledge and will ensure that the research addresses end-user requirements
2. Communication of research outputs
Communication of research activities is considered to be of critical importance to the project for wide and diverse dissemination of research outcomes. This will be undertaken in both SA and the UK through the following channels: (1) collaboration with NGOs and focus groups with local communities (2) workshop and collaborative visits (knowledge exchange between academic partners and public/private sector) (3) popular media (4) newspapers (5) project webpages (6) presentations at conferences and to the general public (7) other outreach activities (promotion of research at schools). Most importantly, we will communicate research outputs to all stakeholder groups. We conduct research in the tradition of 'participatory design', in which researchers and end-users work together to achieve good solutions and can use a range of methods in order to do so.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description In ReNEW we are undertaking a scoping study in Stellenbosch to understand the requirements for the development and implementation of a multi-hazard early-warning system in South Africa. We will achieve this via the following objectives:
Objective 1: Biomarkers - Development of novel bioanalytical approaches towards public health diagnostics at the community-level via urban water profiling - focus on infectious disease.
Objective 2: Sensors - Development of novel low cost biosensors for real-time monitoring of public health indicators in urban water.
Objective 3: Monitoring - Spatial and temporal monitoring study of water-derived multiple hazard indicators in Stellenbosch.
Objective 4: Modelling multiple hazard indicators and predicting changes within the urban system.
Objective 5: Engagement with key stakeholder groups including policy makers, practitioners, non-profit organisations, the public and other stakeholders in the field of water management.

Key finding so far are:
WP1a Biomarkers - chemical markers
1. Identification several biomarker groups including: antibiotics and their metabolites, environmental pollutants (pesticides, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors and industrial chemicals), endogenous, human derived markers of public health (inflammation, oxidative stress, lifestyle) and resistance genes.
2. Development, validation and application of analytical methods utilising: (i) ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for targeted analysis, (ii) ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry for non-target screening and retrospective analysis and (ii) digital-PCR
WP1b Biomarkers - microbial markers and bioinformatics
3. We have developed a bioinformatics pipeline for determining species abundance profiles and for identifying key genes, including AMR genes and those conferring metal resistance, from metagenomics data.
4. A last resort antibiotic, colistin, that was previously used for agricultural purposes was banned in 2016 due to the emergence of resistance and the fear that if all other human antibiotics fail to treat an infection, the last resort antibiotic would also not work. Despite its decrease in use, surprisingly high numbers of bacteria that are resistant to this antibiotic were detected. In addition, high-risk sites in the environment have been identified as hot spots for potential spread of resistance bacteria that could cause community-wide infections. From the first batch of carbapenem resistant isolated bacteria, majority of these were identified as Pseudomonas species.
WP2 Sensors
5. Certain types of aptamer sequences were found not to be applicable as probe molecules for waste water monitoring due to the over complicated composition of the real waste water sample.
6. 1 DNA aptamer sequence has been tested as promising for CRP (c-reactive protein, an immuno-biomarker) detection on a PCB (printed circuit board) based EIS (Electrochemical impedance spectrometer) interface.
WP3 Monitoring
7. Sampling sites were selected for spatio-temporal monitoring of the River Eerste
8. Monitoring undertaken in the River Eerste and contamination hotspots for biomarkers selected in WP1
WP4 Modelling
9. A multi-parameter rainfall-runoff model set-up on a semi-arid region (Stellenbosch catchment) was developed. The model is developed so that rainfall and evaporation can be inputted into the model in order to generate flow values. The model uses a simple scaling term in order to account for runoff from urban areas. The model is designed and set-up such that during low periods of rainfall one parameter set is used, but during heavier rainfall events a second parameter set is used. The model can estimate flow values at any point within the catchment for any date when observed rainfall and evaporation data is present.
10. When observed ground gauged rainfall data is not present alternative data sets need to be used. Free to use satellite data is being utilised in order to calibrate and further validate the model. The result of this means that the model can not only be applied with in the Stellenbosch catchment but in future can be used in non-gauged catchments.
11. The data that is being generated by the monitoring campaign is rich, but incredibly challenging to work with. This is because the data has "high dimensionality" (lots of information per data point), but "sparse" (very few data points). For example, a single measurement provides information on pathogen loads, potential antibiotic resistance, concentrations for a wide variety of different chemicals, and even genomic analysis of the entire microbial community. But there may be as few as seven data points collected over two months. Due to these challenges, we've engaged with statisticians working specifically with sparse high-dimensionality data. Furthermore, we are investigating the application of a spatiotemporal geostatistical modelling approach.

WP5: Engagement
WP 5 has been engaged in a range of activities broadly related to stakeholder engagement. These activities have ranged from assessing ReNEW's scope and capacity for stakeholder engagement through to working with a wide range of stakeholders to ascertain how they might inform the project, collaborate with ReNEW and also how ReNEW's research outputs might be designed to best address stakeholder needs and challenges. Research activities have included interviews with ReNEW team members, interviews with over 20 stakeholders, and a stakeholder workshop, a community engagement training workshop, and conducting a literature review around stakeholder engagement in the South African context. We have also been engaged in online empirical research on representations of poverty online, investigating their potential to raise international public awareness around issues related to water and sanitation.

We have conducted an analysis of the potential for as well as challenges of stakeholder engagement on the ReNEW project, these challenges include considerations such as research design and timeline, as well as structural and political challenges that exist in the Stellenbosch context.

Analysis of existing water monitoring structures: We have conducted an analysis of the current structures in place for the monitoring and management of Stellenbosch's water resources that is in place at a Government level. Our understanding of these monitoring structures, and their channels of communication, has informed our understanding of how ReNEW's outputs might inform policy making around water and sanitation. Our analysis, and consultation with stakeholders, has also informed a list of key considerations around the design and communication of a EWS.

New or improved research methods or skills developed: A workshop entitled Participatory and Stakeholder Engagement in Scientific Research, was organised in collaboration with the Sustainable Livelihoods foundation for all ReNEW members. This workshop provided theoretical resources as well as practical skills and tools for engaging communities that are directly affected by scientific research. These skills ReNEW researchers acquired would not only facilitate public engagement activities on this project, but also impact how researchers design future research projects to include community consultation as part of the project design stage before submitting for funding.

Important collaborations: ReNEW is working closely with the Stellenbosch Water Collaborative (SRC). WP5 has collaborated with the Sustainable Livelihood Foundation, Western Cape Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning, Department of Water and Sanitation.
Exploitation Route tbc
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Environment,Healthcare

 
Description We organised two stakeholder workshops. Stakeholder groups involved public health, water and environmental sectors (including Stellenbosch Municipality, East Rand Water Care Company, Stellenbosch River Collaborative). We are now engaging with key stakeholder groups in order to provide informed direction for the project and its key goal: the development and successful implementation of an EWS in the city of Stellenbosch. Our workshops increased awareness of environmental and public health impacts, e.g. public health stakeholders are now interested in the levels of resistance seen in the river system and the implications thereof. There is some interest in new analytical tools for water quality measurement. Discussions are ongoing regarding possible implementation beyond Stellenbosch. Engagement with stakeholders resulted e.g. in a new direction of research: a need for the establishment of correlations between environmental and clinical pathogenic genomes (WP1). Regarding new technological innovation in sensing (WP2) stakeholder events provided useful knowledge: 1) Policy makers are willing to put a test requirement (i.e. test frequency, test result standard) in the guideline book if there's a low-cost rapid portable biosensing device available on the market; 2) Fresh water (may also include waste water) quality test often face a cost-reward unbalanced situation: water suppliers only want to know whether the water is "safe" to drink or not, but the expensive lab test reports take a long time to return and most of the time they would only show an overdetailed "nothing" result. Namely, a simplified on-site device/system which can provide a binary "yes (safe)/no (not safe)" answer in as short as a couple hours of time would be much appreciated. This can be realised by a low-cost portable multiplex biosensing platform with a) an eliminated list of critical biomarkers; and b); a corresponding clear cut-off concentration standard list. In addition to the direct impact to public health that ReNEW will achieve through the development of an EWS, ReNEW will also inform and impact upon policy governing water and sanitation in the Stellenbosch region. ReNEW's capacity to monitor an array of hazard biomarkers far exceeds that which is routinely monitored by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS) who is the custodian of South Africa's water resources. There is scope for government policy to be amended to include additional hazard biomarkers to the DWS's routine monitoring testing, if there is significant evidence and justification to do so. ReNEW's research activities will thus provide an evidence base and motivation for the inclusion of additional hazard biomarkers found to be linked to urban public health to the government's monitoring protocol. This would result in more comprehensive monitoring of Stellenbosch water resources at a governmental level.
First Year Of Impact 2019
 
Description Bath International Funding Scheme Application 2018/2019
Amount £20,000 (GBP)
Organisation University of Bath 
Sector Academic/University
Country United Kingdom
Start 07/2018 
End 08/2019
 
Description What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern B entitled: 'What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health', RSC Event, Bristol, 13th Feb 2018, University of the West of England
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description A public talk on chemical pollution of our natural environment and associated socio-economic challenges - Stellenbosch University Woordfees Science Cafe, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6 March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact The aim of the Stellenbosch Science Café is to bridge the gap between science and the general public by entering into a conversation in a non-academic environment. Participants of the annual Stellenbosch University Woordfees (Word Festival) were invited to an interactive conversation on environmental pollution caused by organic chemicals and the management of freshwater resources in South Africa. The conversation was shared with the co-founder of the Stellenbosch River Collaborative, an active stakeholder network participant of the ReNEW project. The event allowed for the exchange of scientific views to general public on water governance in South Africa, along with informative discussions on the impact of chemical pollutants on the natural environment and human health. The conversation was followed by a Q&A from the audience, thereby allowing informal conversations on topics related to water security and conservation between academia and the general public.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
URL https://www.sun.ac.za/english/faculty/science/training/science-cafe
 
Description An overview of a multi-disciplinary science project to address global health challenges in Africa - ARD German Radio, Johannesburg, South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A broadcast e.g. TV/radio/film/podcast (other than news/press)
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact An interview was done between myself (Dr. Edward Archer) and Dr. Monique Huysamen (University of Bath) on the analytical- and social aspects of the ReNEW project. The analytical framework of the project was discussed by describing some key outcomes of the project, as well as the associated socio-economic impact which drives the selection of specific sampling areas in the project. Various issues were discussed as observed by the researchers during the first year of involvement of the project. The interview was then concluded by stating the future significance of the project and how this can help drive new legislation to address global health challenges related to water security in Africa.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Public talk entitled: 'Healthy waters: Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern? Bath Festival of Nature, 2nd June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern. Title: Healthy waters: Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern? Bath Festival of Nature, 2nd June 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Research findings from a Urban Water Profiling project in Stellenbosch - ReNEW, Stellenbosch River Collaborative steering committee meeting, Stellenbosch University, South Africa, 28 November 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Research findings from the chemical analysis of the first year of the ReNEW project was discussed with stakeholders involved in the management and conservation of the river systems surrounding the town of Stellenbosch, South Africa. The audience included representatives from both regional and provincial government, along with NGOs which are involved in freshwater conservation and management. A presentation on the ReNEW project was made, which highlighted the concept of urban water profiling to address health challenges in the natural environment and surrounding communities, as well as novel findings of chemical contaminants in the river systems. The research findings were well received and the main outcomes of the ReNEW project were discussed on how this will align with other existing projects in the surrounding area.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Lessons learned from the SewProf Project and beyond', Global Consortium for Sustainability Outcomes, Workshop 2019, River Room, King's College London, Strand Campus, WC2R 2LS London, United Kingdom 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Lessons learned from the SewProf Project and beyond', Global Consortium for Sustainability Outcomes, Workshop 2019, River Room, King's College London, Strand Campus, WC2R 2LS London, United Kingdom (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting for environmental and public health assessmen', Kwaluzu-Natal University, Durban, 1st of February 2019, South Africa 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting for environmental and public health assessmen', Kwaluzu-Natal University, Durban, 1st of February 2019, South Africa (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, My career in water, 18th UK Young Water, Professionals Conference, University of Bath, 10 -12th April 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk by B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, My career in water, 18th UK Young Water, Professionals Conference, University of Bath, 10 -12th April 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk by E Holton, Analytical UPLC-MS/MS methods for broad- and narrow- spectrum antibiotics, Second year chemistry talks, UoBath, 27th Nov 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Postgraduate students
Results and Impact Talk by E Holton, Analytical UPLC-MS/MS methods for broad- and narrow- spectrum antibiotics, Second year chemistry talks, UoBath. Question and answer section held afterwards
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern 'Antimicrobials in water cycle: Research gaps', Israel-UK Synergy programme grant symposium and workshop, 25th and 26th April 2018:"One Health: antimicrobial resistance from mechanisms to interdisciplinary solutions" The Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Castrignano E, Edler, F, 'Antimicrobials in water cycle: Research gaps', Israel-UK Synergy programme grant symposium and workshop, 25th and 26th April 2018:"One Health: antimicrobial resistance from mechanisms to interdisciplinary solutions" The Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting to inform the state of the environment and public health', University College London Chemical & Physical Society Guest Lecturer 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact B. Kasprzyk-Hordern, 'Urban water fingerprinting to inform the state of the environment and public health', University College London Chemical & Physical Society Guest Lecturer 16th October 2018 (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health, RSC Event, Bristol, 13th Feb 2018, University of the West of England 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., What's Your water telling you? Urban water profiling inform the state of the environment and public health, RSC Event, Bristol, 13th Feb 2018, University of the West of England (invited talk)
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern?, Viewpoints Keynsham: Healthy Water, 23rd of March 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Public talk by Kasprzyk-Hordern, Pharmaceuticals in the environment - cause for concern?, Viewpoints Keynsham: Healthy Water, 23rd of March 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern, entitled: Water fingerprinting for public health assessment', Wetenschappelijke Advies Raad / Scientific Advisory Council KWR, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands, 1st of June 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern, entitled: Water fingerprinting for public health assessment' at Wetenschappelijke Advies Raad / Scientific Advisory Council KWR, Nieuwegein, the Netherlands, 1st of June 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
 
Description Urban Water Profiling and Wastewater-Based Epidemiology to assist with public/environmental health risk assessment - Berg River Improvement Project (BRIP) steering committee meeting, Paarl, South Africa, 21 February 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The ReNEW project was presented to members of the Western Cape Government, the local municipality and other NGOs involved in the management of the Berg River catchment in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The proposed partnership with members from the Stellenbosch River Collaborative (SRC) was discussed along with recommendation to extend an Urban Water Profiling (UWP) approach to other regions in the near future. The alignment with the research needs from the stakeholders were discussed, as well as key issues which need to be addressed for such an epidemiological approach. Local municipality representatives from both Stellenbosch and Paarl raised the issue of the rapid rise in rural development along the river systems which severely impacts the quality of freshwater resources.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description Using Urban Water Profiling to assess public and environmental health concerns - Cape Winelands District Municipality meeting, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 7 March 2019 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact The ReNEW project was introduced to environmental health practitioners of the CWDM. New avenues for environmental risk assessment was discussed such as the inclusion of chemical- and biological hazard identification and profiling in river systems apart from conventional water quality parameters as stipulated by the Department of Water and Sanitation. The alignment with monitoring strategies between the ReNEW project and routine work by the CWDM in the Stellenbosch area was discussed. The institution granted their support to supply the ReNEW team with historical microbial surveillance databases for the Stellenbosch area in order to assist with modelling approaches and biomarker selection in the current project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019
 
Description WBE for drug use and public health assessment' Amsterdam International Water Week Conference, 30 October - 3 November 2017, Amsterdam 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Industry/Business
Results and Impact Talk delivered by Kasprzyk-Hordern entitled: 'WBE for drug use and public health assessment' at Amsterdam International Water Week Conference
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017