Seismic Safety and Resilience of Schools in Nepal

Lead Research Organisation: University of Bristol
Department Name: Civil Engineering

Abstract

This project aims at developing a comprehensive scheme for enhancing the seismic safety and resilience of school buildings in Nepal. The circle of resilience initiates from a holistic seismic hazard assessment considering refined geological mapping, 3D site and topographic effects as well as seismicity sequence using statistical clustering models. This will be followed by the development of a smart diagnostics expert system app for reliable pre- and post-earthquake structural inspection. Its core logic will be based on US FEMA and ATC-20i standards extended to address functionality risks, inspection bias reduction based on inspection error patterns identified in the existing school buildings databases in Greece and Turkey. The above state-of-the-art hazard and vulnerability assessments will lead to the risk-based prioritization of schools that need strengthening. Particular emphasis in the diagnostics algorithm will be placed in identifying buildings with minor-to moderate damage, whose safety could be substantially improved with innovative yet simple measures.

Along these lines, means of repair and retrofit will be identified by experimental testing of large and/or full scale, one storey-one classroom, 3D masonry and/or adobe/rammed earth simple buildings, as well as of one bay R/C infill frame, to be conducted at the shaking table of the University of Bristol and the University of Southampton in collaboration with the University of Bullafo, SUNY. Experiments will be co-designed with the project local partners in Nepal, where preliminary material testing will take place. The aim is to design a realistic testing campaign tailored to the construction characteristics of school buildings in Nepal. A deep understanding of the structural damage patterns will be obtained in the Laboratory by studying experimentally and verifying numerically, the cumulative damage under realistic mainshock and aftershock sequences, an issue that has never been studied at this extent. Innovative repair and retrofit techniques will be tested in order to assess and optimize their efficiency through an additional experimental set. Refined and simple solutions will be tested, co-produced and documented in the form of guidelines along with the local partners. An innovative concept of seismic isolation using natural materials will be the second major strand of experimental research for safer "sliding" construction of school buildings and shelters. This is aimed to provide a new alternative for low cost - high safety reconstruction.

A comprehensive post-quake vulnerability assessment will then be developed accounting for regional materials and employing micro- and meso-fragility modelling for informed decision-making during the post-earthquake response, recovery and mitigation phases. This will build upon the existing emergency plans in Nepal with the specific aim to enrich the decision-making process by integrating post-quake shake maps in nearly real time. A tablet app will also be developed for reliable diagnostics of post-quake structural health based on the spectral-based FAST algorithm, a tested method in seismically active Mediterranean countries. An expert system will further link the identified damage states with the most appropriate repair/retrofit/rehabilitation techniques, as the latter have been identified, tested and certified previously in the Lab.

During the entire duration of the project a series of workshops and training sessions will be organised in Nepal in order to interact with the local administration as well as the engineering and educational community. This interaction is deemed vital for the co-development of new concepts, the transfer of know-how and the sustainable construction of schools in both rural and urban areas of Nepal.

Planned Impact

SAFER project is focusing on Nepal which is an ODA country.

The proposal directly addresses specific and crucial problems for the development, economic growth and welfare of Nepal primarily related to the aftermath of the 2015 earthquake but also to the lack of a long term sustainable strategy for improving the residence of school children to natural hazards. The particular problems are discussed in detail in Section 2.1 of the Case for Support. In particular, the proposed project is expected to lead to (a) a holistic framework for the pre- and post-assessment of school buildings under some standardised procedure (b) technically feasible, economically affordable, culturally acceptable retrofit solutions that can be implemented in a rural context using locally available materials, (c) validation of numerical predictions typically used for school design and assessment against laboratory tests, (d) simple rules and formulas, updated design codes, guidelines that result in appropriate retrofit techniques as a function of the damage state and the structural system (e) new, low-cost/high-performance, construction techniques for school buildings, TLCs and shelters, (f) seismic fragility functions and risk methods that utilize state-of-the-art uncertainty quantification, while being appropriately tailored to rural and urban districts of Nepal, as well as (g) a comprehensive expert system to integrate all the above knowledge and progress in a wider computational framework for immediate use by the local authorities and stakeholders.

SAFER, being a multi-disciplinary program for pursuing the resilience circle (disaster risk reduction, preparedness, quick recovery and sustainability), aims to substantially improve the residual capacity of the educational communities which is key for avoiding disproportional to the intensity of the hazard, devastating effects after a major disaster. This has an ad-hoc impact on the economy of the country and the wellbeing of its citizens. Furthermore, the technologies to be developed, the techniques to be co-produced, the tools, skills and synergies that will result from this project will substantially strengthen the ability and prospect of the Nepalese people and the local authorities. The above advanced know-how is also exportable as it is easily applicable in neighbouring countries with similar socioeconomic conditions, and hazard exposure in the Himalayas region. Overall, SAFER is a unique opportunity for an actual and long term impact in the quality of life and expertise of Nepal and a significant contribution to the welfare, education, health and safety of the Nepalese children.

Publications

10 25 50
 
Description A new mobile phone App for quick inspection of structural safety of schools in Nepal
A new webApp for the Headquarters of the Department of Education that permits management of structural vulnerability of the schools portfolio and mitigating the associated seismic risk
A new database of soils within the Kathmandu valley
A new map for probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard for Nepal
Exploitation Route There is a possibility that the new mobile phone App and the WebApp will be also used by a wider programme for safer schools at a national level
The new PSHA map feeds into the national committee for developing the PSHA map for Nepal
Sectors Communities and Social Services/Policy,Construction,Digital/Communication/Information Technologies (including Software),Education,Environment,Government, Democracy and Justice,Other

URL http://www.safernepal.net
 
Title Small-scale shaking table dynamic testing performed in the Dynamics Lab of University of Bristol 
Description Experimental setup of a rigid box designed to slide against a sand-rubber layer, which is enclosed in a Perspex box. The box is attached to a small-scale shaking table simulating an earthquake ground motion excitation. The sliding response of the rigid box is investigated for two ground motion excitation types: Harmonic ramp loading with increasing ground motion frequency. An earthquake ground motion excitation (Northridge earthquake 1994). 
Type Of Material Improvements to research infrastructure 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? No  
Impact This experimental investigation lays the foundation for the design of a sliding layer consisting of a deformable sand-rubber granular mixture as a seismic isolation strategy for developing countries. The design of a low-cost seismic isolation strategy consisting of these locally available materials is an issue of paramount importance for the seismic damage mitigation and the resilience of the communities in these countries. 
URL http://www.safernepal.net
 
Title Database containing details of schools inspected using the mobile app for schools inspection. 
Description Over 200 schools have been inspected to date using the Mobile App developed for SAFER schools in Nepal. Data are automatically transferred on the Web App database which presents processed information with geo-tagging and is accessible by the Department of Education of the Government of Nepal. From April 2019 further information about community resilience will also be collected in the app and willl populate the database. 
Type Of Material Database/Collection of data 
Year Produced 2018 
Provided To Others? Yes  
Impact Information collected in the database can be analysed in a variety of ways, including for example to highlight which schools should be prioritised for retrofit. 
 
Description Arup International Development (UK) 
Organisation Arup Group
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Private 
PI Contribution The research team work closely with Arup on all Work Packages to ensure knowledge exchange and sharing of expertise and research findings. There are numerous forums for this close engagement with Arup such as their inclusion in our regular project meetings as well as specific all day meetings designed to provide greater interaction and opportunity for discussion, as well as meetings at which other partners are also present.
Collaborator Contribution Arup International are a partner in the project and a representative from Arup attends our regular project meetings. Arup also contribute to the project by means of regular skype meetings including research team, NSET and Save the Children, face to face meetings with Co-investigators responsible for the various Work packages as well as attendance at all day progress meetings for Arup which we have hosted at the University of Bristol and provide more scope for detailed discussions. A representative from Arup attended the April 2017 field mission to Nepal and accompanied members of the team during parts of the mission.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description California Institute of Technology (USA) 
Organisation California Institute of Technology
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Members of the research team collaborate with a representative from Caltech.
Collaborator Contribution A representative from Caltech collaborates with members of the research team, in particular those involved with the geotechnical aspects of the project.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description Fuzhou University (China) 
Organisation Fuzhou University
PI Contribution Collaboration with representative from Fuzhou University about project.
Collaborator Contribution Fuzhou University representative collaborate with research team members on project.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description Kathmandu University 
Organisation Kathmandu University
Country Nepal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Members of the research team communicate regularly with Kathmandu University and visited the labs during the 2017 Nepal field mission.
Collaborator Contribution Lab tests using local materials.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description Link with The World Bank 
Organisation World Bank Group
Department World Bank Institute
Country United States 
Sector Learned Society 
PI Contribution The research team will utilise the data provided by the World Bank to further the project aims.
Collaborator Contribution The World Bank provide data which can be analysed and used to further the project aims.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2019
 
Description Link with the Department for International Development 
Organisation Government of the UK
Department Department for International Development (DfID)
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Public 
PI Contribution Even though DFID is not a project partner, we have established communication to explore means of possible collaboration.
Collaborator Contribution During our filed mission in Nepal last September, we met with Eleanore Brainbridge and the DFID, presented an overview of our project and explore means for further engangement.
Impact Ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description Tribhuvan University 
Organisation Tribhuvan University of Nepal
Country Nepal 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Members of the research team communicate regularly with Tribhuvan University and visited the labs during the 2017 Nepal field mission.
Collaborator Contribution Lab tests using local materials.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description University at Buffalo State University of New York (USA) 
Organisation University at Buffalo
Country United States 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution Regular catch up meetings with a representative from the University, sharing plans and gaining feedback on plans for lab tests, exchanging knowledge and updating on research findings etc.
Collaborator Contribution The representative from the University at Buffalo collaborates with the research team and attends regular project meetings, giving feedback, guidance and support.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Roma-Tre (Italy) 
Organisation University of Roma-Tre
PI Contribution Collaboration with representative from University of Roma-Tre (Italy) about project.
Collaborator Contribution University of Roma-Tre (Italy) representative collaborate with research team members with reference to the project.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Description University of Southampton 
Organisation University of Southampton
Country United Kingdom 
Sector Academic/University 
PI Contribution The University of Bristol based members of the research team collaborate closely with the University of Southampton based research team. This is especially the case in Work Package 3 in which several sets of lab tests are being carried out by both Universities.
Collaborator Contribution University of Southampton are a partner in the project and they attend our regular project meetings and represent the project along with the rest of the University of Bristol based research team when meeting with other partners such as NSET and Arup. Team members from the University of Southampton are devising innovative lab tests to take place in their new facility which will open in 2019.
Impact ongoing
Start Year 2017
 
Title Mobile app for schools inspection 
Description Mobile app which can be utilised to inspect schools pre and post earthquake. App asks a series of questions and allows for image uploads and lets local engineers identify at-risk schools and make them safer while facilitating informed decision making at a central level. 
Type Of Technology Webtool/Application 
Year Produced 2018 
Impact Our approach is based on the FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency procedures and a new RVS algorithm implemented into an Android App. The aim is to facilitate quick collection and transmission of structural data on a web-accessed database for the rapid prioritization of school buildings' strengthening based on an estimate of their relative probability of collapse. 
URL https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=uk.ac.bristol.rit.safer&hl=en
 
Description Community engagement in┬áBachhala Devi lower Sec. This was part of the extensive Field Mission to Nepal in April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact With Save the Children and Arup International Anastasios Sextos and Jitendra Agarwal met with teachers from the school and talked with the school children to understand their perception of safety and hazards. This provided valuable information for the further development of the SAFER community resilience questionaire which will be incorporated into the mobile app from April 2019.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Anastasios Sextos and Flavia De Luca delivered Webinar to numerous stakeholders and Nepalese engineers including training on the mobile app for schools inspection 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Webinar to demonstrate developments in the mobile schools inspection app was delivered to Nepalese engineers and other stakeholders with instructions for use for wider sharing. This webinar showed the most recent developments in the app and enabled wider communication and engagement with the engineers and other stakeholders. It was a very effective tool for sharing the latest developments in the app and providing a comprehensive how to use guide for all stakeholders, as well as allowing a forum for feedback and knowledge exchange. Engineers who attended the webinar will share the knowledge gained with others thereby ensuring the app can be widely utilised.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.safernepal.net
 
Description Anastasios Sextos and Jitendra Agarwal along with colleagues from Save the Children engagement with Setidevi Mahakali Sec. School as part of April Field mission 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Schools
Results and Impact Valuable discussion and engagement with School Management Committee, Parents Teachers Association and parents relating to the project. This engagement aided greater understanding on both sides, and in particular provided to the SAFER team valuable insights into community ideas and opinions about perceptions of structural safety in buildings.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Anastasios Sextos delivered face to face seminar about and training on using the mobile app for school building inspection for Save the Children Engineers as part of the Field Mission in Nepal April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact The seminar was delivered as part of the visits  to Save The Children construction sites of new school buildings and visit to the Save The Children HQ in Chautara during the April 2018 Field Mission to Nepal. Delivered face to face the training showed Save The Children engineers how to use the app for reliable, quick visual inspection of school buildings before and after an earthquake. This allowed opportunities for the app to be tested in real life situation by engineers who will be using it on a daily basis,and enabled them to easily provide feedback which could then be taken back by the team and contribute to further development of the app.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Anastasios Sextos invited to deliver ICE Regional Lecture about the SAFER project 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anastasios Sextos was invited to deliver a lecture at the ICE Regional event. The title of the lecture was Conventional versus novel means of improving the safety of school buildings in Nepal. This was followed by Q and A from the audience, allowing for knowledge exchange and discussion afterwards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ice.org.uk/eventarchive/earthquake-proof-schools-in-nepal
 
Description Community Resilience to Natural Hazards in Developing Countries 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Friday 15th September 2017
International Workshop
"Community Resilience to Natural Hazards in Developing Countries"
09:00-17:00
Venue: Pugsley Theatre,
Queen's School of Engineering, University of Bristol, BS8 1TR
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.safernepal.net/workshopbristol.html
 
Description Engagement with Pahar Trust 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Third sector organisations
Results and Impact Flavia De Luca organised a meeting for the SAFER team to engage with the Pahar Trust after contact made following her Engineers without Borders lecture. The Pahar Trust are a charitable organisation which builds schools for communities in Nepal. The meeting identified lots of opportunities for the team to work with Pahar Trust and following this meeting there will be further engagement between the SAFER team and the Pahar Trust in particular to enable them to use the mobile app for schools inspections. There is also a further meeting planned to compare survey questions Pahar Trust ask the community and the SAFER community questionnaire which assesses community resilience as well as a meeting planned to meet with local engineers from the Pahar Trust whilst in Nepal on the April Field Mission.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Exhibition stand at UK Alliance for Disaster Research Conference, March 27 & 28 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SAFER exhibition stand at the UKADR conference showing project activities over both days and engaging with delegates at the conference during all conference breaks, poster sessions etc. We had printed materials available for delegates to take away as well as slideshow on a loop over the course of the event and a team member at the stand to answer questions about the project.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ukadr.org/conference2018.html
 
Description Flavia De Luca - Invited lecture at Engineering without Borders International Development Spotlight Lecture Series 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Undergraduate students
Results and Impact Flavia De Luca was invited to lecture about SAFER project as part of the Engineering without Borders International Development Spotlight Lecture Series which was hosted at University of Bristol. This enabled students and other attendees to learn more about the project and ask questions about the work being undertaken. As a result of discussions with another of the lecturers (Joe Butcher) Flavia got in touch with his contact at the Pahar Trust, an organisation which builds schools in Nepal and further collaboration with them has followed as a result.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.safernepal.net/
 
Description Flavia De Luca - Invited lecture at UCL on post-disaster surveys in earthquake prone areas 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach National
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Delivery of a lecture at a One Day Masterclass on Safer, More Resilient Communities Through Safe and Resilient Schools being hosted by UCL. Flavia De Luca delivered a lecture on post-disaster surveys in earthquake prone areas and showed SAFER concept including details about the work packages. The free event was open to students, academics and the general public and it provided an opportunity to share knowledge with and gain feedback from others working in similar fields as well as provide information about the project to an interested audience.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://www.ucl.ac.uk/humanitarian/events/2018/oct/masterclass-safer-more-resilient-communities-thro...
 
Description Meetings with PREPARE team to allow collaboration and knowledge sharing between these two GCRF projects based at University of Bristol 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Meetings have taken place between SAFER team and the PREPARE team to share knowledge and explore opportunities for collaboration between these two GCRF projects based at University of Bristol. Several meetings have taken place and more will follow over the forthcoming months. These meetings have provided a forum for both teams to update on progress, discuss challenges, best practice and provide constructive feedback as well as identify areas for common working.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Members of SAFER team involvement in Natural Disasters - Engineering for International Development workshop 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact SAFER team members attended this University of Bristol internal workshop which presented several GCRF activities within the faculty, including SAFER. The workshop discussed how to address challenges such as promoting interdisciplinary collaboration, lack of data access and finding the right collaboration partners for research in developing country contexts. The main outcome of the workshop was to build new connections and ideas across the faculty.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Members of SAFER team leading and contributing to sessions at UKADR conference March 27 & 28 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Anastasios Sextos and Max Werner led the session on Building resilience to Earthquake Cascades and Landslides in ODA Countries at the UKADR conference. This session also included a presentation about SAFER by Anastasios Sextos and Flavia De Luca. The session included exchange of information with the audience and discussion followed. Max Werner and Maria Xanthou also contributed to discussion on a further session in the programme Historical Perspectives on Hazards.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.ukadr.org/conference2018.html
 
Description Official project website 
Form Of Engagement Activity Engagement focused website, blog or social media channel
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact The official project website with social media links to the SAFER facebook page was launched in September 2017.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.safernepal.net
 
Description Overview of SAFER project to DFID visitor 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Regional
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 20 minute presentation during the visit of a group from the Department for International Development
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
 
Description Project Demonstration during the Engineering Research Showcase 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Media (as a channel to the public)
Results and Impact Anastasios Sextos talk 'From force-based to performance and resilience-based design of civil infrastructure' for the Engineering showcase of the University of Bristol
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EwJaMvxwVuo
 
Description SAFER Project kick-off meeting 
Form Of Engagement Activity A formal working group, expert panel or dialogue
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Other audiences
Results and Impact Saturday 16th September 2017
SAFER Project kick-off meeting
09:00-16:30
Venue: Engineers' House
The Promenade, Clifton Down
Bristol, BS8 3NB
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL http://www.safernepal.net/workshopbristol.html
 
Description SAFER stand at Bristol Open Doors event 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an open day or visit at my research institution
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Public/other audiences
Results and Impact Showcasing SAFER research to interested members of the public at this "Bristol Open Doors" event which is an annual event in Bristol. SAFER banner and slideshow showing details of the SAFER project and team members from the project were present across the three day event who could answer questions about the research. The SAFER stand featured alongside other interactive demonstrations from University of Bristol colleagues using mini earthquake shaking tables and visitors were also able to attend a tour of the on-site Earthquake lab. The general public who attended were very engaged with the project and asked some interesting questions.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL https://bristolopendoors.org.uk/engineering-in-focus/
 
Description SAFER team attendance at and contribution to NSET Workshop which took place in Nepal , April 2018 
Form Of Engagement Activity Participation in an activity, workshop or similar
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact Workshop organised by NSET-Nepal (National Society for Earthquake Technology (www.nset.org.np) with the project partners and the Department of Education of the Government of Nepal. Included presentations delivered by members of the SAFER team (Anastasios Sextos, Paul Vardanega, Max Werner, Flavia De Luca and Jitendra Agarwal) and the workshop enabled co-ordination and prioritisation of joint activities for school inspection, laboratory testing and optimum low-cost strengthening of schools.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2018
URL http://www.safernepal.net
 
Description Talk during the IHRR/ DWD conference 2017 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach International
Primary Audience Policymakers/politicians
Results and Impact 30min talk during "The Impact of Hazard, Risk and Disasters on Societies" Conference in Durham University, UK between 19th - 22nd September 2017
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2017
URL https://www.dur.ac.uk/ihrr/10th-anniversary/ihrr10/dwd-conference2017/
 
Description Tasos Sextos invited to speak at lunchtime seminar on the topic of Environmental Resilience and Poverty an internal event organised by University of Bristol Cabot Institute and Bristol Poverty Institute 
Form Of Engagement Activity A talk or presentation
Part Of Official Scheme? No
Geographic Reach Local
Primary Audience Professional Practitioners
Results and Impact Tasos Sextos invited to speak at a collaborative interdisciplinary lunchtime seminar on the topic of Environmental Resilience and Poverty. This seminar explored the theme of poverty in the context of environmental resilience from a range of disciplinary perspectives - including social inequalities, environmental justice, human geography, history, politics and climate science - which was followed by an open discussion with all participants.
Year(s) Of Engagement Activity 2019